E-Profiles of Philosophers, Scientists and Benevolent Despots…
Name: GalileoOrigin: ItalyLife Span: 78years
Inventions: Telescope, geometric compass, Microscope and thermometer._______________________________Discovery : He developed many important scientific theories and critical observations of the solar-system and proved the heliocentric system: that is, Sun is the centre of the universe, and not the Earth.
Name: Johannes KeplerOrigin: GermanyActive years: 59
Inventions: He made the keplerian telescope, which consists of two covex objective lens.-----------------------------------------Discovery: The shape of any planet's orbit (path) is an ellipse (oval), the speed at which a planet makes its orbit is based on its distance from the Sun, and the planets do not wander in sky at random they obey strict, natural and mathematical laws.
His discovery brought a realization in people. They began to wonder that how many other aspects of live were controlled by definite physical laws…
Name: Rene DescartesOrigin: FranceLife Span: 54 years
Contributions: His most well-known contributions to the field of mathematics was his work in analytical geometry. He also introduced the basic principles of Algebra. Descartes invented the system of using the first letters of the alphabet to represent known quantities, and the last letters to represent unknowns in a quadratic equation.
Ideas towards religion: He argued that God exists and he would not deceive his created beings, so the things we experience around us must also be real. He even believed that all material bodies, including the human body, are machines that operate by mechanical principles.
Name: Isaac NewtonOrigin: EnglandActive years: 85
Profession: Mathematician.__________________________________Discovery: Newton was the first one to discover about the force of gravity while he was sitting under an apple tree, and an apple fell on his head! _________________________________Inventions: Reflecting Telescope, White Light Composition, Differential and Integral Calculus etc.
Name: Jean Jacques Rousseau Origin: France Life span: 66 years
Philosopher Arguments : he argued that the will of majority is the most important political force and if somebody is against majority he is wrong. He said that people should pay taxes and obey the laws if the want a better and stabled society. His book the social contract begins with a sentence “man was born free but every where he is in chains”
Name : John Locke Origin : England Life span : 62 years
Philosopher Philosophies: people should be given the right and liberty to drive out the unjust and tyrannous and cruel rulers. He argued against the exercise of any governmental effort to promote or restrict any religious believes or practices.
Name : VoltaireOrigin : France life span : 84 years
Philosopher He was one of the most important person in the French revolution. He did not wanted injustice and the power of the monarch and the Catholic church. He wanted that everyone should be given the right to speech and also wanted his country to adopt the system similar to England where democracy had already occurred
Name : Fredrick the greatOrigin : PrussiaLife span: 1740-1786
The enlightened despots Developments:he made Prussia one of the leading states in the Europe. He developed his own strong army. He released his own slaves and made every one equal under the laws
Name : Maria Theresaorigin :Austrialife span : 1740-1780
Benevolent She reformed the taxation so that people from all classes could pay the taxes. The tax money was spent on the building of schools courts and education rather then religion.
Name : Catherine the greatOrigin : Russialife span :1762-1796
The Enlightened despots Catherine the great was a German princess. She also made reforms in the country. She made schools and universities and reduced the power of the church by taking much of the land. She also wanted to free her slaves but could not do so because the economy of the state depended on them. She also emphasized on education.