Scientists Name: Galileo Country: Italy Time period: (1564-1642) Contributions: Proved that the sun and not the earth was the centre of universe, invented telescope so that heavens could be studied in more detail. His discoveries challenged the earth teachings which maintained that earth is the center of universe.
Scientists Name: Johannes Kepler Country: Germany Occupation: Astronomer Theory: Proved that planets obeyed natural mathematical laws in their movements and di not wander in sky at random.
Scientists Name: Rene Descartes Country: France Time period: (1596-1630) Contributions: Laid down the basic principles of algebera,although he believed in god he said that people and animals are complicated machines and every thing can be reduced due to mathematical laws.
Scientists Names: Isaac Newton Country: United Kingdom Time period: (1642-1627) Theory: Greatest mathematician of all time, showed that when things fall on the ground they obeyed laws of science e.g. force of gravity.
Philosophers Name: John Locke Country: United Kingdom Time period: (1632-1704) Argument: Argued that there is and unwritten law between the rulers and the people. If rulers were tyrannous and unjust people should have liverty o dispose them.
Philosophers Name: Jean Jacques Rousseau Country: France Time period:(1712-1778) Argument: He took john Locke argument further in his book “social contract” in which he argued that there should be the general will (will of majority) if any one disagrees with the majority they are wrong.
Philosophers Name: Voltaire Country: France Time period: (1694-1778) Argument: His cry was “destroy evil” and evil was absolute power of kings and the catholic church. He demanded every one should given a right of speech and adopt a government system like England.
The Enlighten ones Name: Frederick the great Country: Prussia Time period: (1740-1786) Contributions: He made Prussia one of the most leading states of Europe and developed a strong army. He released his own serfs.
The enlighten ones Name: Maria Theresa Country: Austria Time period: (1740-1780) Contributions: Reformed taxation so people of all classes paid taxes. The tax money and the wealth of the monasteries which she closed were used to biult schools.
The enlighten ones Name: Catherine the great Counrty:Russia Time period: (1762-1796) Contributions: German princess who killed her husband Tsar, and ruled country of her own. She set up schools, universities and reduced power of the church by taking away much of its land.