List types of biodiversity
Propose why there is a need to protect
•The term Biodiversity was first coined by Walter G. Rosen in 1986.
•At least 10 million kinds of organisms inhabit the Earth but
less than one third of these have been studied and
catalogued (put in record) by biologists.
•We see that all organisms share many biological
characteristics. Five principal groups of organisms are
prokaryotes, protists, fungi, plants, and animals.
The term BIODIVERSITY was first coined by
the entomologist E.O. Wilson in 1986.
Biodiversity is the heritage of million of years
Diversity is a basic property of life.
The striking feature of Earth is the existence
of Life and the striking feature of Life is its
What does “Bio” mean?
Diversity = Variety
What does “Diversity” mean?
What is biodiversity?
Biodiversity includes diversity within species,
between species and among ecosystems.
“Diversity” means variety within a species
and among species. Biodiversity is a
measure of the variety of organisms present
in different ecosystems.
What is biodiversity?
The spectrum of life on earth,
in terms of variation in
interactions among them.
Genetic diversity – the genetic variation
among individuals in a species
Species diversity – the number of different
species in a given area
Ecosystem (Habitat) diversity – the variety
of interactions among organisms in a
community (or the variety of ecosystems on
• Ecological diversity
• Species diversity
Levels of genetic organization
Gene Text sequence
Why protect biodiversity ?
right to exist, heritage
unnecessary waste immoral
valuable resources now and in the future
maintain local to global ecosystem health
have to by law
Origin of Biodiversity:
Biodiversity found on Earth today is the
result of 4 billion years of evolution.
The origin of life is not well known to science,
though limited evidence suggests that until
600 million years ago, all life consisted of
bacteria and similar unicellular organisms.
Evolution and expansion of
Age of reptiles
Insects and amphibians
invade the land
Origin of life
Biodiversity depends on;
Flora and fauna diversity
Presence of other species
DISTRIBUTION OF BIODIVERSITY
Biodiversity is not
distributed evenly on
It is richest in the
regions also have many
while there are fewer
species in the polar
Temperate zone: the climate is mild, generally ranging
from warm to cool. The four annual seasons, Spring,
Summer, Autumn and Winter, occur in these areas.
Polar zone: the coldest parts of the earth,
and is generally covered with ice and snow.
Tropical zone: is warm or hot and humid year
round. The seasons there don't change very much.
Summer and winter are almost the same. The
Earth's tropical rain forests are found in this zone
Significance of biodiversity
Biodiversity provides food for humans.
A significant proportion of drugs are derived, directly or
indirectly, from biological sources. A wide range of industrial
materials e.g. building materials, fibres, dyes, resins, gums,
adhesives, rubber and oil are derived directly from plants.
Biodiversity plays important role in making and maintaining
It plays a part in regulating the chemistry of our atmosphere
and water supply. Biodiversity is directly involved in
recycling nutrients and providing fertile soils.
Benefits obtained from
• climate regulation
• disease regulation
• flood regulation
Goods produced or
• fresh water
• fuel wood
• genetic resources
Services necessary for production of other ecosystem services
• Soil formation
• Nutrient cycling
• Primary production
BENEFITS OF BIODIVERSITY
Batter crop varieties
Education and Research
Balance of nature
Regulation of climate
Degradation of waste
Cleaning of air and water
Cycling of nutrients
Control of potential pest and disease causing species
Detoxification of soil and sediments
Stabilization of land against erosion
Carbon sequestration and global climate change
Maintenance of Soil fertility
Biodiversity: # of species estimates
Most estimates of the
total number of species
on Earth lie between
5 million and 30 million.
Of this total, roughly 2
million species have
been formally described;
the remainder are
unknown or unnamed.
Biodiversity is dynamic
Biodiversity is not
static, but constantly
increased by genetic
and reduced by
processes such as
population decline, and
Endangered and Extinct Species
Extinction, the elimination of a species from
Earth, occurs when the last individual of a
particular species dies.
Extinction is a natural process – 99.95% of all
the species that have ever lived on Earth are
However, human activities can speed the
process - extinctions today are occurring at 100
to 1000 times faster than the natural rate.
Endangered and Extinct
Endangered species are in imminent danger
of extinction throughout all or part of their
Threatened species have low population sizes
and are likely to become endangered in the
Characteristics of Endangered
Endangered species have one or more
of these characteristics that make
them vulnerable to extinction:
limited natural range
low reproductive success
specialized feeding requirements
large territory requirement
Extinctions can be caused
·natural processes (e.g. fires, hurricanes,
excessive harvesting of particular species
of economic value;
impacts of alien invasive species including
the impacts of various environmental
changes in climate;
knock-on effects from extinction of
essential companion species (e.g.
pollinators, fruit or seed dispersers,
Over-hunting – unregulated hunting
Poaching – illegal hunting
Over-fishing – harvesting faster than
the stocks can replace themselves
Over-collecting – collecting live
organisms for zoos, pet stores, research etc.
Land use change
Loss of biodiversity
Percentage of birds, mammals, fishes and plants/ Total
number of species disappearing
(after Pimms et al., 1995 in Chapin et al., 2000)
Biodiversity and Sustainability
The biodiversity of an ecosystem contributes to the
sustainability of that ecosystem.
Higher/more biodiversity = more sustainable.
Lower/less biodiversity = less sustainable.
High biodiversity in an ecosystem means that there
is a great variety of genes and species in that
Ex-situ conservation means “off-site” conservation.
The species of plants and animals to be protected
are removed from the natural habitats and are
placed in the safer areas under the control of man.
Botanical gardens, zoos and the arboreta are the
traditional methods of ex-situ conservation.
Germ plasm banks or Seed banks (also Gene
banks) are some other methods of ex-situ
In-situ conservation means “on-site”
conservation i.e. protection of species within
the natural habitat of the species of animals
It includes protection in the wildlife
sanctuaries, national parks and biosphere
reserves etc. that have been formed to
protect threatened and even rare species.