1 biologicaldiversity-091213082402-phpapp01

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1 biologicaldiversity-091213082402-phpapp01

  1. 1. Objectives  Define biodiversity  List types of biodiversity  Propose why there is a need to protect biodiversity.
  2. 2. •The term Biodiversity was first coined by Walter G. Rosen in 1986. •At least 10 million kinds of organisms inhabit the Earth but less than one third of these have been studied and catalogued (put in record) by biologists. •We see that all organisms share many biological characteristics. Five principal groups of organisms are prokaryotes, protists, fungi, plants, and animals. INTRODUCTION;
  3. 3. Introduction  The term BIODIVERSITY was first coined by the entomologist E.O. Wilson in 1986.  Biodiversity is the heritage of million of years of evolution.  Diversity is a basic property of life.  The striking feature of Earth is the existence of Life and the striking feature of Life is its Diversity.
  4. 4. Bio = BioBiodiversitydiversity What does “Bio” mean?
  5. 5. BioBiodiversitydiversity Diversity = Variety What does “Diversity” mean?
  6. 6. What is biodiversity?  Biodiversity includes diversity within species, between species and among ecosystems.
  7. 7. DEFINATION:  “Diversity” means variety within a species and among species. Biodiversity is a measure of the variety of organisms present in different ecosystems. 
  8. 8. What is biodiversity? The spectrum of life on earth, in terms of variation in genes, populations, species, ecosystems, interactions among them.
  9. 9. Biological diversity organization
  10. 10. Biological Diversity Genetic diversity – the genetic variation among individuals in a species Species diversity – the number of different species in a given area Ecosystem (Habitat) diversity – the variety of interactions among organisms in a community (or the variety of ecosystems on Earth)
  11. 11. • Ecological diversity • Species diversity  Genetic diversity
  12. 12. Levels of genetic organization Gene Text sequence Chromosome Chapter Genome Gene pool
  13. 13. Why protect biodiversity ? MORAL  right to exist, heritage  unnecessary waste immoral ECONOMIC  valuable resources now and in the future ECOLOGICAL  maintain local to global ecosystem health LEGAL  have to by law
  14. 14. Origin of Biodiversity:  Biodiversity found on Earth today is the result of 4 billion years of evolution.  The origin of life is not well known to science, though limited evidence suggests that until 600 million years ago, all life consisted of bacteria and similar unicellular organisms.
  15. 15. Plants begin invading land Evolution and expansion of life First fossil record of animals Plants invade the land Age of reptiles Age of mammals Insects and amphibians invade the land Modern humans (Homo sapiens) appear about 2 seconds before midnight Recorded human history begins 1/4 second before midnight Origin of life (3.6–3.8 billion years ago) noon midnight
  16. 16. Biodiversity depends on;  Flora and fauna diversity depends on-  Climate  Altitude  Soils  Presence of other species
  17. 17. DISTRIBUTION OF BIODIVERSITY Biodiversity is not distributed evenly on Earth.  It is richest in the tropics. Temperate regions also have many species while there are fewer species in the polar regions. 
  18. 18.  Temperate zone: the climate is mild, generally ranging from warm to cool. The four annual seasons, Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter, occur in these areas.  Polar zone: the coldest parts of the earth, and is generally covered with ice and snow.  Tropical zone: is warm or hot and humid year round. The seasons there don't change very much. Summer and winter are almost the same. The Earth's tropical rain forests are found in this zone
  19. 19. Significance of biodiversity  Biodiversity provides food for humans.  A significant proportion of drugs are derived, directly or indirectly, from biological sources. A wide range of industrial materials e.g. building materials, fibres, dyes, resins, gums, adhesives, rubber and oil are derived directly from plants.  Biodiversity plays important role in making and maintaining ecosystems.  It plays a part in regulating the chemistry of our atmosphere and water supply. Biodiversity is directly involved in recycling nutrients and providing fertile soils.
  20. 20. Regulating Benefits obtained from regulation of ecosystem processes • climate regulation • disease regulation • flood regulation Provisioning Goods produced or provided by ecosystems • food • fresh water • fuel wood • genetic resources Cultural Non-material benefits from ecosystems • spiritual • recreational • aesthetic • inspirational • educational Supporting Services necessary for production of other ecosystem services • Soil formation • Nutrient cycling • Primary production
  21. 21. BENEFITS OF BIODIVERSITY Consumptive value: Food/Drink Fuel Medicine Batter crop varieties Industrial Material Non-Consumptive Value: Recreation Education and Research Traditional value
  22. 22. Ecological services: Balance of nature Biological productivity Regulation of climate Degradation of waste Cleaning of air and water Cycling of nutrients Control of potential pest and disease causing species Detoxification of soil and sediments Stabilization of land against erosion Carbon sequestration and global climate change Maintenance of Soil fertility
  23. 23. A B Which do you like better?
  24. 24. A B Which do you like better?
  25. 25. A B Which do you like better?
  26. 26. Biological Diversity
  27. 27. Biodiversity: # of species estimates  Most estimates of the total number of species on Earth lie between 5 million and 30 million.  Of this total, roughly 2 million species have been formally described; the remainder are unknown or unnamed.
  28. 28. Biodiversity is dynamic Biodiversity is not static, but constantly changing. Biodiversity is increased by genetic change and evolutionary processes and reduced by processes such as habitat degradation, population decline, and extinction.
  29. 29. Endangered and Extinct Species  Extinction, the elimination of a species from Earth, occurs when the last individual of a particular species dies.  Extinction is a natural process – 99.95% of all the species that have ever lived on Earth are extinct today.  However, human activities can speed the process - extinctions today are occurring at 100 to 1000 times faster than the natural rate.
  30. 30. Endangered and Extinct Species  Endangered species are in imminent danger of extinction throughout all or part of their range.  Threatened species have low population sizes and are likely to become endangered in the near future.
  31. 31. Characteristics of Endangered Species Endangered species have one or more of these characteristics that make them vulnerable to extinction:  limited natural range  low reproductive success  specialized feeding requirements  large territory requirement
  32. 32. Extinctions can be caused by:  ·natural processes (e.g. fires, hurricanes, droughts);  excessive harvesting of particular species of economic value;  impacts of alien invasive species including diseases;  the impacts of various environmental pollutants;  changes in climate;  knock-on effects from extinction of essential companion species (e.g. pollinators, fruit or seed dispersers,
  33. 33. IMPACT OF HUMAN BEINGS ON BIODIVERSITY
  34. 34. Human activities threatening biological diversity: Habitat destruction  Invasive species Overexploitation(hunting)
  35. 35. Habitat destruction  Acid deposition Global warming Toxic chemicals Plastics
  36. 36. Overexploitation(hunting) Over-hunting – unregulated hunting Poaching – illegal hunting Over-fishing – harvesting faster than the stocks can replace themselves Over-collecting – collecting live organisms for zoos, pet stores, research etc.
  37. 37. http://www.oceansatlas.org/ http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/ Molles 2007 Global changes  Climatic change Land use change - type - intensity Species invasions Loss of biodiversity  Pollution Over-harvest http://www.ourworldfoundation.org.uk/polar.jpg http://library.thinkquest.org /
  38. 38. Percentage of birds, mammals, fishes and plants/ Total number of species disappearing (after Pimms et al., 1995 in Chapin et al., 2000)
  39. 39. Biodiversity and Sustainability  The biodiversity of an ecosystem contributes to the sustainability of that ecosystem.  Higher/more biodiversity = more sustainable.  Lower/less biodiversity = less sustainable.  High biodiversity in an ecosystem means that there is a great variety of genes and species in that ecosystem.
  40. 40. Preserving Earth’s Biological Diversity
  41. 41. Ex-situ Conservation  Ex-situ conservation means “off-site” conservation.  The species of plants and animals to be protected are removed from the natural habitats and are placed in the safer areas under the control of man.  Botanical gardens, zoos and the arboreta are the traditional methods of ex-situ conservation.  Germ plasm banks or Seed banks (also Gene banks) are some other methods of ex-situ conservation.
  42. 42. In-situ Conservation  In-situ conservation means “on-site” conservation i.e. protection of species within the natural habitat of the species of animals and plants.  It includes protection in the wildlife sanctuaries, national parks and biosphere reserves etc. that have been formed to protect threatened and even rare species.
  43. 43. Biological Diversity
  44. 44. Biological Diversity
  45. 45. We remember we depend on each other,  live and let live.

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