Islam in spain


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  • A kingdom which was started
  • by one person some 1450 years back.. is now spread
  • to hundreds and thousands of sq km with over about billions of world population following its principles. Yes gentlemen, I am talking about the
  • kingdom of islamic faith. This all we owe to the valour
  • and unshaking faith of our ancestors who despite all the hardships continue to announce and spread the message of ALLAH. Recent surveys show that islam is the fastest
  • growing in religion in europe and west
  • Question is how islam was introduced in europe and west. Today I shall discuss the very same topic
  • Hispania was the Latin name given to the whole Iberian Peninsula until the Islamic conquestIt is stated in historical sources that Spain was one of the former Roman provinces where the Latin language and culture had deep roots. On April 30 of 711, Islamic leader Tariq ibn-Ziyad landed at Gibraltar and by the end of the campaign most of the Iberian Peninsula were brought under Islamic rule.Thecampaign's turning point was the battle of Guadalete, where the king Roderick was defeated and killed on the battlefield.In 721 A mixed force of Aquitanians and Franks defeat a Muslim army under al-SamhibnMalik , at the Battle of Toulouse. The Franks quickly surround and critically wound al-SamhibnMalik and destroy most of his forceAfter thecampaign, at the Battle of Tours in 732 Muslim forces moved north-east across the Pyrenees Mountains toward France, but were defeated by the Frankish Catholic Charles Martel. which brought halt to their conquest
  • Muslim Spain had the following chronological phases:The Emirate directly dependent on the Caliph in Damascus (711–756)The Independent Emirate (756-929)The Caliphate of Córdoba (929-1031)The first Taifas (1031-c. 1091)The Almoravid rule (c.1091-c. 1145)
  • The second Taifas (c.1145-c. 1151)The Almohad rule (c.1151–1212)The Kingdom of Granada (1212–1492)1st of jan 1492 muslim rule ended forever
  • Umayyeddynesty is shown in the chartNAMES IN YELLOW ARE THE EMIRS OF AL ANDALUSWHEREAS THE RED ARE THE CALIPHS OF ANDALUSI will be discussing some of them
  • His ful name Abd al-Rahaman bin Mu’awaiyah bin Hisham bin Abd al-Malik bin marwanHis family was originally from the holy city of Mecca.His mother was a Christian berber slave from the Nafza tribeHe fleed from syria and reached north western AfricaIn 756 Abd ar-Rahman I defeats Yusuf al-Fihri outside Córdoba.
  • He made Cordoba the capital of the empire of umayyad.At that time Iberian peninsula was a mixture of different nations including Arabs, Syrians, Berbers, Numadians, Hispanic-Arabs and Goths. He united all of them There were over 25 such revolts and all were dealt and put downIn the process of subduing the adversaries he build a well disciplined army of 40,000 Berbers on whose loyalty he could defend his throne.. He did not assumed caliphate rather contented himself with the title of emir. 757 he discontinued the khutba of Juma delivered in the name of Abbasid caliphSpain Under his command was the first province to deny the authority of recognized caliph in Islam.
  • He beautified the cities of his domain, build aqueduct for pure waterConstructed a palace in the capital similar to that of palace build by Hisham in Syria and Erected Munyat,a garden it included the lonely palm tree imported form Syria He erected Cordova of mosque, completed and enlarged by his successors which was later tranformed into the cathederal by Ferdinand-III in 1236 ADHe boasted the bridge of Guadalquivir.Initiation of intellectual movement which made the Islamic Spain one of the centers of world culture from 9th century to the 11th century.He Died 788 AD
  • Hisham ibn Abd ar-Rahman (788-796)When he came to power Andalus is fully controlled by MuslimsAgain conquers portion of Francebut hecouldn’d invade itHe lost battle of Lutos with Asturians Created knowledge center of the worldstarted bringing Scholars in the territory and Increases salary of the ScholarsMaliki school made as the national standard
  • Al-Hakam becomes the ruler 796-822He lacked the leadership qualitiesSpent time in leisure activitiesHe faced many revolts in his reign in reaction he rendered stories of tyranny and atrocitiesPolitical disaster, lost Northern area where Aragon kingdom is established
  • 822-852Abd Al-Rahman II comes to powerContinues battle in northIncreases pay of the ScholarsStarted importing brain from all over the place, irrespective of the religion Creates architecture gardens, roadsHe removed poverty and First time ever no beggars in the society Builds 2 navy fleetLater the decline of the dynesty was started
  • He took the emirate in 912 AD in Extreme chaos, no one wants CaliphateHe not only took the Replaced corrupted leadersEstablished Shura of the Scholars gave them Protection andFreedom of SpeechDid not like CaliphPicked on him for any short comingsAccused him of the Caliphate wealth and castleDuringKhutba would publicly argue with himEstablishedShariah Recaptures UmaribnHafsoonDealt with 3 Major attacksLeons / North ChristianFatimaidsUmaribnHafsoon
  • Natural Light systemBerbers were close to nature, therefore their any architecture had nature and animal kingdom infused with itSound system was excellentImam would stand inside a room like are that would work as a megaphoneShell like roof structure carried voice to the back
  • AbdallahibnYasin (1040–1059) - founder & spiritual leaderYahyaibnUmar al-Lamtuni (c. 1050-1056)Abu BakribnUmar (1056–1087) - partitioned reign from 1072.
  • 722 - King Pelayo defeats a large force sent by Emir Munuza to annihilate him at the Battle of Covadonga in Alcama. He then leads an alliance of Asturian and Cantabrian mountaineers and Spaniards in the counter-offensive against the Muslims beginning what will be called La Reconquista. Pelayo will go on to become the founder of a dynasty of Iberian monarchs who will over the centuries recapture all of the Iberian lands from the Muslims.778 - The Franks led by Charlemagne attack Zaragoza, but are forced to withdraw. Basques ambush Charlemagne's army as it crosses the Pyrenees out of Iberia. The Basques maul the Frankish rearguard, killing many of the commanders including the Breton MarkgrafHruotland (also called Roland), and loot the baggage train.792 - Hisham I, Emir of Córdoba, calls for a Jihad against the infidels in Al-Andalus and France. Tens of thousands from as far away as Syria heed his call and cross the Pyrenees to subjugate France. Cities including Narbonne are destroyed, but the invasion is ultimately halted at Carcassonne.
  • 1084 - The Muslim army of Zaragoza under El Cid defeats the Aragonese. In autumn the Castilians start a loose siege of Toledo
  • After the disintegration of the Caliphate, Islamic control of Spain was gradually eroded by the Spanish re conquest.The reconquest was the process by which the Catholic Kingdoms of northern Spain; mainly including Argon and Castile; eventually managed to succeed in defeating and conquering the southern Muslim states of the Iberian Peninsula.The first major city to fall to Catholic powers was Toledo in 1085, what prompted the intervention of Almoravids.The only exception being the Emirate of Granada.
  • Inthe post war era the forced muslim conversion was started.1516 - Muslims in the kingdom of Navarre are forced to convert1525 - Muslims in the Crown of Aragon are forced to convert to Christianity.1568 -. Revolt of Morisco took After King Philip II introduces laws prohibiting Moorish culturein Granada suppressed 1609 - Expulsion of the Moriscos - King Philip III issues the Act of Expulsion for all Moriscos1614 - The process of expulsion ends.
  • The extravagant rulers and their disciples sold the great Muslim pride on the price of their lust and leisure.Gentlemen helping the enemy beast against the Muslim brothers resulted in the expulsion of the Muslims in SpainUnfortunately this is what the Muslims are doing today.Enemy is isolating each one of us an hunting us one by one.Gentlemen The Verdict of quran is clear Al roam:among those who have broken the unity of their faith and have become sects, each group delighting in but what they themselves hold [by way of tenets].And [as for the followers of earlier revelation,] they broke up their unity, out of mutual jealousy, only after they had come to know [the truth]. steadfastly uphold the [true] faith, and do not break up your unity thereinAnd whenever muslims diverted from the teaching of the divdine book the lost their worth same just happened in spain and the result is in front of us
  • Gentle menthts all from my side in the end you may ask questions
  • Islam in spain

    1. 1. 1 SCOPE • Conquest of Muslims • Rulers of Umayyads • Reconquest of Christian • Fall of Granada and expulsionISLAM IN SPAIN
    2. 2. 2
    3. 3. 3ISLAM IN SPAIN
    4. 4. 4ISLAM IN SPAIN
    5. 5. 5ISLAM IN SPAIN
    6. 6. 6ISLAM IN SPAIN
    7. 7. 7ISLAM IN SPAIN
    8. 8. 8ISLAM IN SPAIN
    10. 10. 10 SEQUENCE • Conquest • Chronological Phases • Rulers of Umayyad • Advancement in science and architecture • Reconquest • Granada war • Conclusion • QuestionsISLAM IN SPAIN
    11. 11. 11 CONQUEST • Iberian peninsula or Hispania • Roman provinces • Tariq Bin Ziyad landed Jibraltar • Battle of Guadalete • Battle of Toulouse • Battle of ToursISLAM IN SPAIN
    12. 12. 12 `ISLAM IN SPAIN
    13. 13. 13 CHRONOLOGICAL PHASES • The Umayyad Caliphate (711–756) • The Independent Emirate (756-929) • The Caliphate of Córdoba (929-1031) • The first Taifas (1031-1091) • The Almoravid rule (1091-1145)ISLAM IN SPAIN
    14. 14. 14 CHRONOLOGICAL PHASES • The second Taifas (1145-1151) • The Almohad rule (1151–1212) • The Kingdom of Granada (1212–1492)ISLAM IN SPAIN
    15. 15. 15ISLAM IN SPAIN
    16. 16. 16 ABD AL-RAHMAN I • Abd al-Rahaman bin Mu’awaiyah bin Hisham bin Abd al-Malik bin Marwan • Holy City of Mecca • Mother Christian Berber slave • Flight from Syria • Defeated Yusuf al-FihriISLAM IN SPAIN
    17. 17. 17 ABD AL-RAHMAN I • Cordova • United Andalus • 25 Abbasids revolts • Build Army of 40,000 • Emir instead of Caliph • Denied caliphISLAM IN SPAIN
    18. 18. 18 ABD AL-RAHMAN I • Aqueduct • Palace of Cordova • Munyat with a palm tree • The Great mosque of Cordova • Bridge of Guadalquivir • Intellectual movement • Died 788ISLAM IN SPAIN
    19. 19. 19 HISHAM-I • 788-786 • Andalus • Portion of France • Battle of Lutos • Knowledge centered • Scholars • Maliki schoolISLAM IN SPAIN
    20. 20. 20 AL HAKAM • 796-822 • Lack of Leadership • Leisure time activities • Revolts and tyranny • Political disasterISLAM IN SPAIN
    21. 21. 21 ABD UR RAHAMAN-II • 822-855 • Continued North • Scholars • Developments • Eradicated Poverty • Build NavyISLAM IN SPAIN
    22. 22. 23 Abd al-Rahman III • United Al-Andalus • Super Power • Scholars’ migration • "Obedient servant of the caliph” • Naval Force • Jiziya for protection • Declared himself CaliphISLAM IN SPAIN
    23. 23. 24 Al Hakam II • Library Toledo  600,000+ books • Public education system  Free school  University of Cordova  ScholarsISLAM IN SPAIN
    31. 31. 35 ABU AL-QASIM AL-ZAHRAWI • Born 936 in Zahra • Surgeon • Surgical instrumentsISLAM IN SPAIN
    32. 32. 36 GLIDING:IBN FIRNAS“Ibn Firnas was the first man in history to make a scientific attempt at flying” Philip K. HittiISLAM IN SPAIN
    33. 33. 46 RECONQUEST • Disintegration of Caliphate • Catholic Kingdoms of Spain • Fall of Toledo in 1085 • Emirate of GarnadaISLAM IN SPAIN
    34. 34. 47 GRANADA WAR • Military campaign 1482-1492 • Ferdinand and Isabel • Ended the Muslim Rule • Series of campaigns • Internal conflicts • Artillery • Jan 1, 1492 Final surrenderISLAM IN SPAIN
    35. 35. 48 POST EFFECTS OF GRANADA WAR • Forced Muslim conversion  1516 Kingdom of Navarre  1525 Kingdom of Argon  1568 Revolt of Morisco  1609 The Act of Expulsion  1614 Expulsion EndsISLAM IN SPAIN
    37. 37. 51BIOMETRICS