RESPIRATORY CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS IN HIV-SERONEGATIVE CHILDREN IN UGANDA: POTENTIAL FOR RESPIRATORY TRANSMISSION Natalia Salaz...
<ul><li>Respiratory Cryptosporidiosis in  </li></ul><ul><li>HIV-Seronegative Children in Uganda: Potential for Respiratory...
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic disease that cause diarrheal illness. Its Caused by Cryptosporidium It is a ...
INTRODUCTION Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus The  HIV  that causes a condition in humans in which the i...
OBJECTIVE <ul><li>To confirm or refute the hypothesis that respiratory cryptosporidiosis is common among both HIV-seroposi...
MATERIALES Y METODOS
Pacientes <ul><li>Niños 9 -36 meses </li></ul><ul><li>Diarrea persistente  (>= 3 deposiciones al dia ). </li></ul><ul><li>...
Conteo de linfocitos  CD4 Muestra de saliva Muestra fecal con hisopo. Analisis de tincion  Para  Cryptosporidium Muestra d...
RESULTADOS
Resultados (-) Cryptosporidium Muestra saliva 1 No se le hizo  prueba de esputo 2 (+) Cryptosporidium Muestra saliva 103 M...
Resultados 810 (-) Cryptosporidium Muestra fecal 53 Niños sometidos a prueba de esputo 116 (+) Cryptosporidium Muestra fec...
<ul><li>Hallazgos : </li></ul><ul><li>En 13 muestras de  esputo:  Cryptosporidium hominis </li></ul><ul><li>En 4 muestras ...
DISCUSSION
“ This study has several limitations. Stool specimens were screened for  Cryptosporidium  using modified acid-fast stain s...
CONCLUSIONS
<ul><li>With this investigation we may conclude that the Cryptosporidiosis is not only for HIV-seronegative people, becaus...
 
MAPA CONCEPTUAL Respiratory Cryptosporidiosis in  HIV-Seronegative Children in Uganda: Potential for Respiratory Transmiss...
<ul><li>Muestra la disminucion de linfocitos CD4 del paciente.   </li></ul>Procedimientos clinicos - Conteo <ul><li>En SID...
<ul><li>Tarjetas FTA </li></ul><ul><li>Método  seguro  y confiale para la recogida, transporte, y almacenamiento seguro de...
<ul><li>PCR </li></ul><ul><li>Tecnica de amplificacion directa de un gen o fragmento de DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>PCR anidada...
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Respiratory cryptosporidiosis in hiv seronegative

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Respiratory cryptosporidiosis in hiv seronegative

  1. 1. RESPIRATORY CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS IN HIV-SERONEGATIVE CHILDREN IN UGANDA: POTENTIAL FOR RESPIRATORY TRANSMISSION Natalia Salazar V Medicine – Semester III UPB
  2. 2. <ul><li>Respiratory Cryptosporidiosis in </li></ul><ul><li>HIV-Seronegative Children in Uganda: Potential for Respiratory Transmission </li></ul>Jeffrey K. Griffiths
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic disease that cause diarrheal illness. Its Caused by Cryptosporidium It is a protozoan pathogen enteric parasite. It is spread through the fecal-oral route, through contaminated water. The transmission occurs after ingestion of oocysts
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus The HIV that causes a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail
  6. 6. OBJECTIVE <ul><li>To confirm or refute the hypothesis that respiratory cryptosporidiosis is common among both HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative hosts. </li></ul>
  7. 7. MATERIALES Y METODOS
  8. 8. Pacientes <ul><li>Niños 9 -36 meses </li></ul><ul><li>Diarrea persistente (>= 3 deposiciones al dia ). </li></ul><ul><li>* Presencia de Cryptosporidium en el esputo. </li></ul>Lugar: Hospital Mulago de Kampala Noviembre 2007 –Enero 2009 <ul><li>Niños con preexistencias medicas </li></ul><ul><li>Moribundos. </li></ul>Seleccion Inicial Rechazados
  9. 9. Conteo de linfocitos CD4 Muestra de saliva Muestra fecal con hisopo. Analisis de tincion Para Cryptosporidium Muestra de sangre. Procedimientos clinicos - Muestras Examen fisico detallado 1 Niño por cada 4 niños positivos Tarjetas FTA Muestra de esputo Incluyo conteo de celulas sanguineas Tecnica PCR anidado Tarjetas FTA Tecnica PCR anidado (+) (-)
  10. 10. RESULTADOS
  11. 11. Resultados (-) Cryptosporidium Muestra saliva 1 No se le hizo prueba de esputo 2 (+) Cryptosporidium Muestra saliva 103 Muestras PARA SALIVA 1Tos sin vomito Cryptosporidium en PCR anidado
  12. 12. Resultados 810 (-) Cryptosporidium Muestra fecal 53 Niños sometidos a prueba de esputo 116 (+) Cryptosporidium Muestra fecal 13 Niños sometidos a prueba de esputo 0 (+) 926 Niños 5 (+) Cryptosporidium En PCR primera muestra PARA ESPUTO 17 (+) Cryptosporidium En PCR anidado
  13. 13. <ul><li>Hallazgos : </li></ul><ul><li>En 13 muestras de esputo: Cryptosporidium hominis </li></ul><ul><li>En 4 muestras esputos: Cryptosporidium parvum </li></ul><ul><li>En las 2 salivas Cryptosporidium hominis </li></ul>C. hominis C. parvum C. meleagridis Saliva Patron Genotipico
  14. 14. DISCUSSION
  15. 15. “ This study has several limitations. Stool specimens were screened for Cryptosporidium using modified acid-fast stain stain rather than more-sensitive but laborious methods, such as PCR, to allow a rapid diagnosis.It is therefore likely that some children with stool samples that had negative microscopy findings in fact had the parasite. In our experience, and in several published studies” Morgan UM, Pallant L, Dwyer BW, Forbes DA, Rich G, Thompson Stroup SE, Roy S, McHele J, et al. “ Respiratory cryptosporidiosis is believed to occur rarely, if at all, in immunologically healthy humans. Only 2 case reports have documented respiratory infection in immunocompetent persons.” Harari MD, West B, Dwyer B Campayo Ibanez A, Lacruz Rodrigo J, Valls Ferrer JM, Bonora Tamarit “ However, coinfection with organisms such as cytomegalovirus and Pneumocystis jiroveci can obscure the specific contribution of cryptosporidiosis to respiratory disease in persons with AIDS” Ma P, Villanueva TG, Kaufman D, Gillooley JF. “ Historically, studies have relied on staining methods to identify parasites in respiratory tissues and secretions. The low sensitivity of these methods may partly account for the limited number of reports in healthy persons. PCR detection of Cryptosporidium is diagnostically superior for detecting parasites in stool samples” Balatbat AB, Jordan GW, Tang YJ, Silva J, Jr. NO YES Text Author
  16. 16. CONCLUSIONS
  17. 17. <ul><li>With this investigation we may conclude that the Cryptosporidiosis is not only for HIV-seronegative people, because in this study there are seventeen persons infected with the parasite and they are not inmunodeficient. </li></ul><ul><li>We may see the importance of the PCR, because it allowed to determinate the specificity of the microorganism, identifying it’s different strains. </li></ul><ul><li>The specific identification with PCR is very important for the future treatments to different diseases, because it be able attack the specific organism who is making injuries inside the people without collateral damages. </li></ul><ul><li>We can not be quiet with some enteric diseases or enteric parasites because we can see how they easily move from the gastric area to the lungs, and it could endanger the life. </li></ul>
  18. 19. MAPA CONCEPTUAL Respiratory Cryptosporidiosis in HIV-Seronegative Children in Uganda: Potential for Respiratory Transmission
  19. 20. <ul><li>Muestra la disminucion de linfocitos CD4 del paciente. </li></ul>Procedimientos clinicos - Conteo <ul><li>En SIDA: Conteo CD4, menor a 200 celulas /mlt sangre </li></ul><ul><li>Virus transforma material genetico y lo usa para replicarse asi mismo. </li></ul><ul><li>Linfocitos CD4: Coordinan la respuesta ante antigenos. </li></ul>x
  20. 21. <ul><li>Tarjetas FTA </li></ul><ul><li>Método seguro y confiale para la recogida, transporte, y almacenamiento seguro de ADN. </li></ul><ul><li>Las células se lisan y los ácidos nucleicos son inmovilizados. </li></ul><ul><li>El ADN genómico almacenadas en tarjetas FTA a temperatura ambiente durante más de 11 años y no presenta ninguna pérdida en la eficiencia de la PCR. </li></ul>Pruebas de Laboratorio x
  21. 22. <ul><li>PCR </li></ul><ul><li>Tecnica de amplificacion directa de un gen o fragmento de DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>PCR anidada </li></ul><ul><li>Aumenta la especificidad al hacer una segunda PCR a partir del producto de la primera PCR que es usado como molde. </li></ul><ul><li>Da productos mas cortos, pero mas especificos. </li></ul><ul><li>Uso </li></ul><ul><li>Deteccion de M.O infecciosos </li></ul><ul><li>Clonacion </li></ul><ul><li>Analisis de huellas geneticas en muestras forenses. </li></ul><ul><li>Otros </li></ul>Pruebas de Laboratorio x

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