Workshop onTHE LINKAGES OF LEARNING OUTCOMES, LEARNING ACTIVITIES AND ASSESSMENTS IN HIGHER EDUCATIONAustralian and Thai P...
Sessions 3 & 4: Learning Objective By the end of these two sessions the  participants will be able to link learning  parti...
There isnothing to fearfrom changes inassessment practices What are the purposes of assessment?• to measure students’ prep...
What are the purposes of assessment?                    • to provide feedback                       to provide feedback   ...
Steps in Designing Learning OutcomesStep 5: Determining Assessment •Fair, equitable and transparent.• Must reflect the lea...
Steps in Designing Learning OutcomesExample Solving problems and developing plans (Identifying problems,  posing problems,...
Steps in Designing Learning OutcomesExample Designing, creating, performing  (Imagining, visualising,  designing, producin...
Core Principles of Effective Assessment Objectives for higher education assessment1. Assessment that guides and encourages...
Core Principles of Effective Assessment Core Principles of Effective Assessment                                            9
Core Principles of Effective Assessment   16 INDICATORS OF EFFECTIVE ASSESSMENT IN HIGHER                         EDUCATIO...
Core Principles of Effective Assessment 8. There is a steady progression in the complexity and demands of assessment     r...
Core Principles of Effective Assessment What students value in assessment  • Unambiguous expectations  • ‘Authentic’ tasks...
Feedback •Minimal Feedback/Reinforcement  Mi i l F db k/R i f          t •Evaluation •Feedback                            ...
FeedbackEvaluation•Qualitative judgement which ranks a learner’s  Q lit ti j d        t hi h     k l         ’ performance...
Barriers to Feedback…as it is part of other training cultures          Barriers to Feedback   Barriers •It is uncomfortabl...
Barriers to Feedback                      •I’m not sure of the goals or the                                            g  ...
Characteristics of Feedback •Well timed and expected •Based on first hand data •Phrased in descriptive   language, based o...
The NEW Feedback Sandwich                                                                  Ask                            ...
The New ‘Feedback Sandwich’  Tell   • Tell what you observed: diagnosis and     explanation     –React to the learner’s ob...
The ‘Feedback Sandwich’ Limit the Quantity!!!       Checklist: The Feedback DialogueAsk learner to assess own performance...
ACTIVITY   1. Return to your groups and yesterday’s scenarios   2. Look at your learner outcome.      Consider assessment ...
Scenario 3.Degree:              Master of Arts in Political ScienceSubject:             Globalisation and DiversityLearnin...
Scenario 5.Degree:              PhDSubject:             Research MethodologyLearning Outcome:    By the completion of this...
FeedbackWhat about feedback to teachers…?           Afterthoughts                                    48                   ...
EvaluationsTHANK YOU                49                     25
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Tqf day 2 - assessment and feedback

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Tqf day 2 - assessment and feedback

  1. 1. Workshop onTHE LINKAGES OF LEARNING OUTCOMES, LEARNING ACTIVITIES AND ASSESSMENTS IN HIGHER EDUCATIONAustralian and Thai PerspectivesTHAILAND  19  28 June 2012THAILAND 19 – 28 June 2012Thailand Qualification FrameworkLearning Outcomes, Assessment and Feedback Nattavud Pimpa Tim Moore 1
  2. 2. Sessions 3 & 4: Learning Objective By the end of these two sessions the  participants will be able to link learning  participants will be able to link learning outcomes with assessment, and strengthen teaching practice through effective feedback. TQFWhat are the purposes of assessment? 2
  3. 3. There isnothing to fearfrom changes inassessment practices What are the purposes of assessment?• to measure students’ preparedness for further study or  professional accreditation , ,• to rank students, relative to one another, for the  purposes of competitive scholarships or other  opportunities• to provide feedback on student learning for both  students and staff 3
  4. 4. What are the purposes of assessment? • to provide feedback  to provide feedback on teaching for staff • to define and protect  academic standards • to direct students’  learning What are your experiences  in assessment? 4
  5. 5. Steps in Designing Learning OutcomesStep 5: Determining Assessment •Fair, equitable and transparent.• Must reflect the learning outcomes•Incorporate a range of types or modes of  assessment appropriate to the nature of the  unit, method of delivery and the students  involved•Design appropriate assessment strategies  that ideally engage the learners in activities  they can relate to real‐life or workplace  situations TQF Steps in Designing Learning OutcomesExample Thinking critically and making judgments  (Developing arguments,  reflecting, evaluating, assessing, judging)  •Essay  •Report  •Journal  •Letter of advice to … (about policy, public health matters … )  •Present a case for an interest group  •Prepare a committee briefing paper for a specific meeting  •Book review (or article) for a particular journal  •Write a newspaper article for a foreign newspaper  TQF 5
  6. 6. Steps in Designing Learning OutcomesExample Solving problems and developing plans (Identifying problems,  posing problems, defining problems, analysing data, reviewing,  designing experiments, planning, applying information)  designing experiments planning applying information)•Problem scenario  •Group work  •Work‐based problem   p•Prepare a committee of enquiry report  •Draft a research bid to a realistic brief  •Analyse a case  TQFSteps in Designing Learning OutcomesExample Demonstrating knowledge and understanding  (Recalling,  describing, reporting, recounting, recognising, identifying,  relating and interrelating)   relating and interrelating)•Written examination  •Oral examination  •Essay   p•Report  •Devise an encyclopaedia entry  (Wiki)•Short‐answer questions: true/false/ multiple‐choice questions  (paper‐based or computer‐aided assessment TQF 6
  7. 7. Steps in Designing Learning OutcomesExample Designing, creating, performing  (Imagining, visualising,  designing, producing, creating, innovating,  performing)  •Portfolio  •Performance  •Presentation  •Presentation•‘Hypothetical’  •Projects  School/Department/AreaSteps in Designing Learning OutcomesCheck the AlignmentChecking to see that assessment and learning  outcomes align requires determining whether:   outcomes align requires determining whether:• the assessment includes knowledge, understanding  or skills not in the learning outcomes then review the  learning outcomes.  If after review you are still happy  with the learning outcomes then you will have to  change the assessment;  change the assessment;• the assessment misses knowledge, understanding or  skills in the learning outcomes then review the  assessment. TQF 14 7
  8. 8. Core Principles of Effective Assessment Objectives for higher education assessment1. Assessment that guides and encourages effective  approaches to learning2. Assessment that validly and reliably measures  expected learning outcomes, in particular the higher‐ order learning that characterises higher education3. Assessment and grading that define and protect  academic standards Adapted from the Centre for the Study of Higher Education, University of MelbourneCore Principles of Effective Assessment Well designed assessment should …1. set clear expectations2. establish a reasonable  workload (one that does not  push students into rote  reproductive approaches to  study)3. provide opportunities for 3 id t iti f students to self‐monitor,  rehearse, practise and  receive feedback. TQF 8
  9. 9. Core Principles of Effective Assessment Core Principles of Effective Assessment  9
  10. 10. Core Principles of Effective Assessment  16 INDICATORS OF EFFECTIVE ASSESSMENT IN HIGHER  EDUCATION A checklist for quality in student assessment A h kli f li i d 1. Assessment is treated by staff and students as an integral component  of the entire teaching and learning process. 2. The multiple roles of assessment are recognised. The powerful  motivating effect of assessment requirements on students is  understood and assessment tasks are designed to foster valued  understood and assessment tasks are designed to foster valued study habits. 3. There is a faculty/departmental policy that guides assessment  practices. Subject assessment is integrated into an overall plan for  course assessment.Core Principles of Effective Assessment  4. There is a clear alignment between expected learning outcomes, what is  taught and learnt, and the knowledge, skills (and attitudes) assessed. 5. Assessment tasks assess the capacity to analyse and synthesis new  information and concepts rather than simply recall information which  has been presented. h b d 6. A variety of assessment methods is employed so that the limitations of  particular methods are minimised. 7. Assessment tasks are designed to assess relevant generic skills as well  as subject‐specific knowledge and skills. 10
  11. 11. Core Principles of Effective Assessment 8. There is a steady progression in the complexity and demands of assessment  requirements in the later years of courses.9. There is provision for student choice in assessment tasks and weighting at  certain times. certain times10. Student and staff workloads are considered in the scheduling and design of  assessment tasks.11. Excessive assessment is avoided. Assessment tasks are designed to sample  student learning.12. Assessment tasks are weighted to balance the developmental (‘formative’)  and judgemental (‘summative’) roles of assessment. Early low‐stakes, low‐ and judgemental (‘summative’) roles of assessment Early low stakes low weight assessment is used to provide students with feedback.Core Principles of Effective Assessment  13. Grades are calculated and reported on the basis of clearly articulated  learning outcomes and criteria for levels of achievement. p y g g 14. Students receive explanatory and diagnostic feedback as well as grades. 15. Assessment tasks are checked to ensure there are no inherent biases  that may disadvantage particular student groups. 16. Plagiarism is minimised through careful task design, explicit education  and appropriate monitoring of academic honesty. 11
  12. 12. Core Principles of Effective Assessment What students value in assessment • Unambiguous expectations • ‘Authentic’ tasks  • Choice and flexibility   FeedbackWhy Feedback?•Without feedback, mistakes go uncorrected  and good  performance is not reinforced.•Without feedback, our learners may not know how  they are doing, if they are doing well, or if there are  elements of their performance that need to be  l t f th i f th t dt b improved so that they can be competent.   12
  13. 13. Feedback •Minimal Feedback/Reinforcement Mi i l F db k/R i f t •Evaluation •Feedback How do They Differ? Feedback Reinforcement/ Minimal Feedback•Statements expressing positive (or •Statements expressing positive (or negative) reaction to a behaviour which aims to increase (or  decrease) the likelihood of that  behaviour happening again  –“That was a great presentation” –“You need to work on your  presentation skills” i kill ”•Often mistaken for feedback –Timing is similar ‐ immediate 13
  14. 14. FeedbackEvaluation•Qualitative judgement which ranks a learner’s  Q lit ti j d t hi h k l ’ performance in comparison to other learners – 3.7 for professionalism competence•Often the only measure of performance visible to the  learner•Usually given after the performance is over  FeedbackFeedback•(Reinforcement or correction) + Explanation•(Reinforcement or correction) + Explanation•Keeps you on course to meet goals•Allows you to adjust your course to meet goals•Given immediately after the performance or at some  time soon after, when the learner still has time to  time soon after, when the learner still has time to demonstrate improvement 14
  15. 15. Barriers to Feedback…as it is part of other training cultures Barriers to Feedback Barriers •It is uncomfortable •It is uncomfortable –Avoid confrontation  –Learner will not be  receptive –No one ever gave me  feedback –Not quite sure how to do it –I hated getting feedback 15
  16. 16. Barriers to Feedback •I’m not sure of the goals or the  g expected behaviour •Not sure that the observed  behaviour is really a problem –Need to see it twice •It’s not my job •It’s not that important •There’s not enough time Essential Components of FeedbackWhat are they? •What was done well •What could be done better p •What could be done to improve next time 16
  17. 17. Characteristics of Feedback •Well timed and expected •Based on first hand data •Phrased in descriptive  language, based on specific  remediable behaviours •Should be undertaken with Should be undertaken with  teacher and learner working  as allies, with common goalsEnde J. Feedback in Clinical Medical Education. JAMA 1983;250:777-781. The Old Feedback Sandwich Praise Criticism Praise Is it more palatable? l bl ? 17
  18. 18. The NEW Feedback Sandwich Ask Tell AskAdaptation of “The New Feedback Sandwich,’ common in patient-physician communicationliterature; adapted by Lyuba Konopasek, MD, for use in feedback settings. The New ‘Feedback Sandwich’  Ask •Ask learner to assess own performance first –What went well and what could have gone better? –What were their goals? –Have they ever seen a problem like this before? •Begins a conversation g •Assesses learner’s level of insight  •Useful for second‐hand feedback 18
  19. 19. The New ‘Feedback Sandwich’  Tell • Tell what you observed: diagnosis and explanation –React to the learner’s observation –Include both positive and corrective elements –“I observed….” –Give reasons in the context of well-defined shared goals The New ‘Feedback Sandwich’ Ask (again)•Ask about recipients understanding  and strategies for improvement –What could you do differently? Give own suggestions –Give own suggestions –Perhaps even replay parts of the encounter: “show me” –Commit to monitoring improvement together 19
  20. 20. The ‘Feedback Sandwich’ Limit the Quantity!!! Checklist: The Feedback DialogueAsk learner to assess own performance first What went well and what could have gone better?Tell what you observed:diagnosis and explanation React to the learner’s observation Include both positive and constructive elements Give reasons in the context of well‐defined shared goals Regulate quantityAsk about recipients understanding and strategies for improvement What could you do differently? What could you do differently? Give own suggestions Perhaps even replay parts of the encounter ‐ show me Commit to monitoring improvement together Adaptation of “The New Feedback Sandwich,’ common in patient-physician communication literature; adapted by Lyuba Konopasek, MD, for use in medical resident feedback settings. 20
  21. 21. ACTIVITY 1. Return to your groups and yesterday’s scenarios 2. Look at your learner outcome. Consider assessment needs and opportunities,  then write down suitable assessment activities  3. What feedback will you provide to students of  3 Wh f db k ill id d f the subject? Adaptation of “The New Feedback Sandwich,’ common in patient-physician communication literature; adapted by Lyuba Konopasek, MD, for use in medical resident feedback settings.Scenario 2.Degree: Graduate Diploma of BusinessSubject: AEC and ThailandLearning Outcome:  By the completion of this subject students  will be able to analyse the political,  social and economic impacts of the AEC social and economic impacts of the AEC TQF 42 21
  22. 22. Scenario 3.Degree: Master of Arts in Political ScienceSubject: Globalisation and DiversityLearning Outcome:  By the completion of this subject students  will be able to effectively apply  understanding of globalisation concepts to  understanding of globalisation concepts to issues of cultural diversity, social justice  and ethical accountability TQF 43Scenario 4.Degree: Bachelor of Science in Multimedia StudiesSubject: Website DevelopmentLearning Outcome:  By the completion of this subject students  will be able to design user‐friendly and  interactive web sites interactive web sites TQF 44 22
  23. 23. Scenario 5.Degree: PhDSubject: Research MethodologyLearning Outcome:  By the completion of this subject students  will be able to critically evaluate a research  project and select appropriate research  project and select appropriate research methods to undertake the study TQF 45Scenario 6.Degree: Doctor of Medicine (MD)Subject: Treatment of Bacterial InfectionLearning Outcome:  By the completion of this subject students  will be able to correctly choose and deliver  effective treatment for bacterial infections effective treatment for bacterial infections TQF 46 23
  24. 24. FeedbackWhat about feedback to teachers…? Afterthoughts 48 24
  25. 25. EvaluationsTHANK YOU 49 25

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