1 cowie angio workshop

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  • 1. Robert H. Cowie Pacific Biosciences Research Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii Biology: taxonomy, identification, and life cycle of Angiostrongylus cantonensis photo: Juliano Romanzini, courtesy of Carlos Graeff Teixeira RAT LUNG WORM DISEASE SCIENTIFIC WORKSHOP HONOLULU, HAWAII AUGUST 16 - 18, 2011
  • 2. • Around 19 species are recognized worldwide in the genus Angiostrongylus • Two species infect humans widely: - Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera & Céspedes, 1971 causes abdominal angiostrongyliasis, especially a problem in South America - Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Chen, 1935) causes eosinophilic meningitis RAT LUNG WORM DISEASE SCIENTIFIC WORKSHOP HONOLULU, HAWAII AUGUST 16 - 18, 2011 CLASSIFICATION AND DIVERSITY PHYLUM: Nematoda CLASS: Rhabditea ORDER: Strongylida SUPERFAMILY: Metastrongyloidea FAMILY: Angiostrongylidae
  • 3. NOMENCLATURE RAT LUNG WORM DISEASE SCIENTIFIC WORKSHOP HONOLULU, HAWAII AUGUST 16 - 18, 2011 • First described by Chen (1935) as Pulmonema cantonensis • Also described as Haemostrongylus ratti by Yokogawa (1937) • Pulmonema subsequently synonymized with Angiostrongylus and ratti with cantonensis • Angiostrongylus cantonensis then widely accepted as the name of this species • Ubelaker (1986) split Angiostrongylus into five genera: Angiostrongylus (in carnivores), Parastrongylus (murids), Angiocaulus (mustelids), Gallegostrongylus (gerbils and one murid), Stefanskostrongylus (insectivores) • And placed cantonensis in the genus Parastrongylus • But this classification is not widely used and most people still refer to the species as Angiostrongylus cantonensis Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Chen, 1935)
  • 4. MORPHOLOGY, TAXOMOMY, IDENTIFICATION RAT LUNG WORM DISEASE SCIENTIFIC WORKSHOP HONOLULU, HAWAII AUGUST 16 - 18, 2011 Ubelaker, 1986 1. Angiostrongylus vasorum 2. Parastrongylus tateronae 3. Angiocaulus gubernaculatus 4. Rodentocaulus ondatrae 5. Gallegostrongylus ibicensis Maldonado et al. 2010 Angiostrongylus cantonensis – 3 locations in Brazil Adult males Caudal bursa
  • 5. RAT LUNG WORM DISEASE SCIENTIFIC WORKSHOP HONOLULU, HAWAII AUGUST 16 - 18, 2011 MORPHOLOGY, TAXONOMY, IDENTIFICATION ADULT SIZE • Female: 17-34 mm long, 0.28-0.56 mm wide • Male: 15-25 mm long, 0.25-0.42 mm wide Juliano Romanzini, courtesy of Carlos Graeff Teixeira Adult female with characteristic red (gut) and white (uterine tubules) spiral appearance IDENTIFICATION - 3RD STAGE WORMS • size • pointed tail with no transverse striations Ash, 1970 3rd STAGE SIZE (in snails/slugs) • 425-524 μm long, 23-34 μm wide 1. Angiostrongylus cantonensis 2. Aleurostronglus abstrusus 3. Angiostrongylus vasorum 4. Anafilaroides rostratus
  • 6. Thiengo et al. 2010. Acta Tropica 1a. Anterior end showing knob-like tips (KT), rod-like structure (RS), esophagus (E) and excretory pore (EP) 1b. Posterior end showing tail pointed tip (TPT) and anus (A) LIGHT MICROSCOPY OF 3RD STAGE ANGIOSTRONGYLUS CANTONENSIS RAT LUNG WORM DISEASE SCIENTIFIC WORKSHOP HONOLULU, HAWAII AUGUST 16 - 18, 2011
  • 7. • Definitive host – rats (various species) • Intermediate host – snails/slugs (various species) rat eats snail/slug ingests 3rd stage worm feces eaten by snails/slugs worm penetrates intestine enters bloodstream worm moves to CNS matures to 5th stage – young adult young adult worm moves to bloodstream matures in right ventricle and pulmonary artery females lay eggs eggs travel through bloodstream to alveoli worms penetrate alveoli move up trachaea eggs hatch into 1st stage worms worms swallowed expelled as feces worms mature to 3rd stage in snail/slug LIFE-CYCLE RAT LUNG WORM DISEASE SCIENTIFIC WORKSHOP HONOLULU, HAWAII AUGUST 16 - 18, 2011
  • 8. Angiostrongylus cantonensis in a rat brain Photo: Camila Krug, from Graeff-Teixeira et al 2009 RAT LUNG WORM DISEASE SCIENTIFIC WORKSHOP HONOLULU, HAWAII AUGUST 16 - 18, 2011
  • 9. • Definitive host – rats (various species) • Intermediate host – snails/slugs (various species) rat eats snail/slug ingests 3rd stage worm feces eaten by snails/slugs worm penetrates intestine enters bloodstream worm moves to CNS matures to 5th stage – young adult young adult worm moves to bloodstream matures in right ventricle and pulmonary artery females lay eggs eggs travel through bloodstream to alveoli worms penetrate alveoli move up trachaea eggs hatch into 1st stage worms worms swallowed expelled as feces worms mature to 3rd stage in snail/slug LIFE-CYCLE RAT LUNG WORM DISEASE SCIENTIFIC WORKSHOP HONOLULU, HAWAII AUGUST 16 - 18, 2011 45 days
  • 10. • Accidental host – humans (and other mammals) person eats snail/slug ingests 3rd stage juveniles rat feces eaten by snails/slugs juvenile penetrates intestine enters bloodstream juvenile moves to CNS matures to 5th stage and dies larva moves to bloodstream matures in right ventricle and pulmonary artery females lay eggs eggs travel through bloodstream to alveoli larvae penetrate alveoli move up trachaea eggs hatch into 1st stage larvae juvenile matures to 3rd stage in snail/slug eosinophilic meningitis angiostrongyliasis HUMAN INFECTION RAT LUNG WORM DISEASE SCIENTIFIC WORKSHOP HONOLULU, HAWAII AUGUST 16 - 18, 2011
  • 11. SOME KEY PUBLICATIONS RAT LUNG WORM DISEASE SCIENTIFIC WORKSHOP HONOLULU, HAWAII AUGUST 16 - 18, 2011 Chen, H.T. 1935. Un nouveau nématode pulmonaire, Pulmonema cantonensis n.g., n.sp., des rats de Canton. Annales de Parasitologie Humaine et Comparé 13: 312-370. Mackerras, M.J. & Sandars, D.F. 1955. The life-history of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Chen) (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae). Australian Journal of Zoology 3: 1-21, pls 1-6. Rosen, L. et al. 1962. Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis caused by a metastrongylid lungworm of rats. Journal of the American Medical Association 179: 620-624. Wallace, G.D. & Rosen, L.R. 1969. Studies on eosinophilic meningitis V. Molluscan hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis on Pacific Islands. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 18: 206-216. Ash, L.R. 1970. Diagnostic morphology of the third-stage larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, and Anafilaroides rostratus (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea). Journal of Parasitology 56: 249-253. Ubelaker, J.E. 1986. Systematics of species referred to the genus Angiostrongylus. Journal of Parasitology 72: 237-244. Kliks, M.M. & Palumbo, N.E. 1992. Eosinophilic meningitis beyond the Pacific basin: the global dispersal of a peridomestic zoonosis caused by A. cantonensis, the nematode lungworm of rats. Social Science and Medicine 34: 199-212. Prociv, P. et al. 2000. Neuro-angiostrongyliasis: Unresolved issues. International Journal for Parasitology 30: 1295-1303. Qvarnstrom, Y. et al. 2010. Improved Molecular Detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in mollusks and other environmental samples with a species-specific Internal Transcribed Spacer 1-based TaqMan assay. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 76: 5287-5289. Lindo, J.F. et al. 2002. Enzootic Angiostrongylus cantonensis in rats and Snails after an outbreak of human eosinophilic meningitis, Jamaica. Emerging Infectious Diseases 8: 324-326. Graeff-Teixeira, C. et al. 2009. Update on eosinophilic meningoencephalitis and its clinical relevance. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 22: 322-348. Lv, S. et al. 2011. The emergence of angiostrongyliasis in the People’s Republic of China: the interplay between invasive snails, climate change and transmission dynamics. Freshwater Biology 56: 717-734.
  • 12. THANKS RAT LUNG WORM DISEASE SCIENTIFIC WORKSHOP HONOLULU, HAWAII AUGUST 16 - 18, 2011 Questions?