Developments in clear high barrier packaging

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Developments in clear high barrier packaging

  1. 1. Developments in Clear High Barrier Packaging Dhuanne Dodrill Flexible Packaging Conference 2004 March 24 - 26, 2004 1Flexible Packaging Conference 2004
  2. 2. Package Clarity • Product Visibility – Consumer appeal – Product Identification – Product Inspection • Visual • Metal Detection • Package Inspection 2Flexible Packaging Conference 2004
  3. 3. The Standard • Aluminum Foil – 1 mil and above considered pinhole free – Virtually impervious to moisture and gas – Well understood with long history – Not clear – Limited formability 3Flexible Packaging Conference 2004
  4. 4. The Standard • Below 1 mil, pinholes impact barrier 0.20 WVTR (g/100 in2-day) 0.15 0.10 0.05 0 0.28 0.30 0.35 0.50 0.70 Foil Thickness (mil) 4 Reference: ASTM B 479Flexible Packaging Conference 2004
  5. 5. Package Requirements • Barrier – Oxygen – Water Vapor – Aroma – Chemical – UV – Microbial 5Flexible Packaging Conference 2004
  6. 6. Package Requirements • Product – Contain Water – Chemically Active – Sharp • Sterilization Method (if applicable) • Formability • Environmental/Disposal Requirements • Cost 6Flexible Packaging Conference 2004
  7. 7. Barrier Choices • Barrier Films – Barrier proportional to the thickness. • Barrier Coatings • Combination of Films/Coatings 7Flexible Packaging Conference 2004
  8. 8. Barrier Properties Common Films 100 O-Nylon Cast Nylon 10 WVTR (g-mil/100 in2-day) PVC LDPE 1 PET OPP HDPE 0.1 35 ga Foil 0.01 50 ga Foil 0.001 0.001 0.01 0.1 8 1 10 100 1000 O2TR (cc-mil/100 in2-day)Flexible Packaging Conference 2004
  9. 9. Barrier Films – EVOH • Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol (EVOH) – Discrete layer in a coextrusion LLDPE Tie EVOH Tie LLDPE 9Flexible Packaging Conference 2004
  10. 10. Barrier Films – EVOH • Excellent Oxygen Barrier – 0.006 - 0.12 cc-mil/100 in2-day – Barrier dependent upon: • Mole percent • Degree of crystallinity • Thickness • Humidity • Temperature 10Flexible Packaging Conference 2004
  11. 11. Barrier Films – EVOH • Effect of humidity on oxygen barrier O2TR (cc-mil/100 in2-day) 1 0.1 0.01 0 20 40 60 80 100 Relative Humidity (%) 11 Tested at 20°CFlexible Packaging Conference 2004
  12. 12. Barrier Films – EVOH • Excellent Oxygen Barrier • Excellent Odor/Aroma Barrier • Thermoformable • Widely used and well understood 12Flexible Packaging Conference 2004
  13. 13. Barrier Films – Barex® • Good Oxygen Barrier – 0.7 g-mil/100in2-day • Thermoformable • Can be used as a sealant 13Flexible Packaging Conference 2004
  14. 14. Barrier Films – COC • Cyclic Olefin Copolymers (COC) – Excellent moisture barrier • Discrete layer in a coextrusion or laminate. • Topas® 8007: 0.071 g-mil/100 in2-day • Topas® 6015: 0.11 g-mil/100 in2-day – Enhance stiffness – Excellent clarity – Thermoformable – Heat Resistant Grades Available 14Flexible Packaging Conference 2004
  15. 15. Barrier Films – LCP • Liquid Crystal Polymers (LCPs) – Typically used as a 0.08 - 0.2 mil layer in a coextrusion – Excellent barrier properties • Vectran V200P: O2TR: 0.04 cc-mil/100 in2-day WVTR: 0.015 g-mil/100 in2-day – Thermally stable – Inert – Chemical resistance – Thermoformable 15Flexible Packaging Conference 2004
  16. 16. Films – CTFE • Chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE) – Excellent Moisture Barrier • Aclar 22C: 0.026 g-mil/100 in2-day • Aclar UltRx, SupRx: 0.016 g-mil/100 in2-day – Inert – Excellent Clarity – Thermoformable 16Flexible Packaging Conference 2004
  17. 17. Films – Nanocomposites • Nanocomposites – Polymer structures containing fillers in the nanometer range. – The fillers separate into tiny platelets that disperse into a matrix of layers – Increased oxygen and gas barrier – Increased strength and puncture resistance 17Flexible Packaging Conference 2004
  18. 18. Barrier Properties Barrier Films 100 O-Nylon Cast Nylon 10 WVTR (g-mil/100 in2-day) Polyacrylonitrile PVC LDPE 1 PET OPP HDPE 0.1 Topas® 6015 Topas® 8007 35 ga Foil Aclar UltRx Aclar 22C 0.01 50 ga Foil 0.001 0.001 0.01 0.1 18 1 10 100 1000 O2TR (cc-mil/100 in2-day)Flexible Packaging Conference 2004
  19. 19. Coatings – PVdC • Polyvinylidine chloride (PVdC) – Good oxygen and moisture barrier O2TR WVTR Material (cc/100 in2-day) (g/100 in2-day) PVdC-coated PET 0.5 0.5 PVdC-coated OPP 1.3 0.3 PVdC-coated Nylon 6 0.7 0.65 19Flexible Packaging Conference 2004
  20. 20. Coatings – PVdC • Good Barrier – Barrier dependent upon coating thickness • Good aroma/flavor barrier • Widely used and well understood • Contains chlorine – Specialized equipment to apply – Incineration issues 20Flexible Packaging Conference 2004
  21. 21. Coatings – PVOH • Polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) – Excellent oxygen barrier • PVOH-coated PET: 0.2 cc/100 in2-day • PVOH-acrylic-coated OPP: 0.02 cc/100 in2-day – Barrier dependent upon coating thickness – Moisture sensitive 21Flexible Packaging Conference 2004
  22. 22. Coatings – SiOx • Silicon Oxide (SiOx) O2TR WVTR Material (cc/100 in2-day) (g/100 in2-day) ClearFoil®A 0.04 0.04 ClearFoil®F* <0.003 0.02 *Excellent flex-crack resistance 22Flexible Packaging Conference 2004
  23. 23. Coatings – SiOx • Flex/Pinhole Resistance Flat O2TR Flexed O2TR Material (cc/100 in2-day) (cc/100 in2-day) 48 ga oPET/35 ga Foil/ 2mil LLDPE 0.03 3.2 48 ga oPET/Met/ 2mil LLDPE 0.1 0.7 48 ga oPET/ClearFoil® A/ 2mil LLDPE 0.04 0.5 48 ga oPET/ClearFoil® F/ 2mil LLDPE <0.003 <0.003 23Flexible Packaging Conference 2004
  24. 24. Coatings – Al2O3 • Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3) O2TR WVTR Material (cc/100 in2-day) (g/100 in2-day) ClearFoil®P 0.2 0.2 ClearFoil®M 0.045 0.03 ClearFoil®M2 0.04 0.3 ClearFoil®X 0.005 0.002 24Flexible Packaging Conference 2004
  25. 25. Barrier Properties Barrier Coatings 100 O-Nylon Cast Nylon 10 WVTR (g-mil/100 in2-day) PVOH PET PVC 1 PET LDPE PVdC PET PVdC Nylon OPP PVOH OPP CF P PVdC OPP HDPE 0.1 35 ga Foil CF A CF M CF F 0.01 50 ga Foil CF X 0.001 0.001 0.01 0.1 25 1 10 100 1000 O2TR (cc-mil/100 in2-day)Flexible Packaging Conference 2004
  26. 26. Active Packaging • Oxygen Scavengers – Reduce oxygen level in the package 20 Percent Oxygen 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 Time (hours) 26Flexible Packaging Conference 2004
  27. 27. Active Packaging • Oxygen Scavengers – Use with a passive barrier – Separated from the product with a functional barrier Passive Barrier Oxygen Scavenger Sealant 27Flexible Packaging Conference 2004
  28. 28. Active Packaging • Oxygen Scavengers – Ferric compositions • Moisture activated (>40% RH) • Must store at low RH – OSP • Oxidizable polymer / transition metal catalyst / photoinitiator • UV to trigger oxidation mechanism • No degradation products 28Flexible Packaging Conference 2004
  29. 29. Active Packaging • Antimicrobial – Inhibit or retard growth of microorganisms – Many options • Organic acids & anhydrides • Inorganic gases • Silver salts • Fungicides • Bacteriocins • Enzymes • Chelating agents • Spices • Essential oils 29 • ParabensFlexible Packaging Conference 2004
  30. 30. Barrier Properties 100 O-Nylon Cast Nylon 10 WVTR (g-mil/100 in2-day) EVOH PVOH PET Polyacrylonitrile PVC 1 PET LDPE PVdC PET PVdC Nylon OPP PVOH OPP CF P PVdC OPP HDPE 0.1 Topas® 6015 CF A Topas® 8007 35 ga Foil CF M CF F LCP Aclar 22C 0.01 Aclar UltRx 50 ga Foil CF X 0.001 0.001 0.01 0.1 30 1 10 100 1000 O2TR (cc-mil/100 in2-day)Flexible Packaging Conference 2004
  31. 31. Barrier Properties Summary Thickness MVTR O2TR Autoclaveable/ Category Material Trade Name Thermoformable (mil) (g/100in2-day) (cc/100in2-day) Retortable Films oPET 1 1.5 4.5 No Yes Oriented Nylon 1 26.5 3 No Yes** Cast Nylon 1 19 3.5 Yes Yes OPP 1 0.33 150 No No LDPE 1 0.9 NA Yes No HDPE 1 0.37 NA Yes Marginal PVC 1 2.3 11 Yes No Barrier Films Polyacrylonitrile Barex 1 4.5 0.7 Yes No EVOH 1 1.4 - 8.0 0.0006 - 0.12 Yes Yes** COC Topas 8007 1 0.071 NA Yes No COC Topas 6015 1 0.11 NA Yes Yes LCP Vectran V200P 1 0.015 0.04 Yes Yes CTFE Aclar 22C 1 0.026 15 Yes Yes CTFE Aclar UltRx/SupRx 1 0.016 7 Yes Yes Barrier Coatings PVdC-coated PET * 0.5 0.5 No No PVdC-coated OPP * 0.3 1.3 No No PVdC-coated Nylon * 0.65 0.7 No No PVOH-coated PET * 4 0.2 No No PVOH-acrylic-coated PET * 0.37 0.02 No No SiOx-coated PET ClearFoil A * 0.04 0.04 No Yes SiOx-coated PET ClearFoil F * 0.02 <0.003 No No Al2O3-coated PET ClearFoil P * 0.2 0.2 No No Al2O3-coated PET ClearFoil M * 0.03 0.045 No No Al2O3-coated PET ClearFoil M2 * 0.3 0.04 No Yes Al2O3-coated PET ClearFoil X * 0.002 0.005 No No Metallized PET * 0.05 0.1 No No Opaque Barrier Aluminum Foil (flat) 0.35 0.02 0.03 No Yes Aluminum Foil (flat) 0.5 0.01 0.02 No Yes Aluminum Foil (flat) 1 <0.00 <0.000 Yes Yes .ssenkciht etartsbus nopu tnedneped ton si dna gnitaoc eht ot eud si slairetam eseht rof reirrab ehT * .noitcurtsnoc etisopmoc eht nopu tnednepeD** 31Flexible Packaging Conference 2004

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