EVERYTHING YOU ALWAYSWANTED TO KNOW ABOUT:
WHAT MAINCHARACTERISTIC     IS SHARED       BY ALL VERTEBRATES?
CHORDATE Characteristics:At some time in lifethey have:NOTOCHORD, ornerve cord - a rodlike structure thatsupports back.
IF YOU SAID BACKBONE, YOU ARECORRECT!VERTEBRATES AREMEMBERS OF THEPHYLUM CHORDATO -(from the namenotochord)also calledChor...
YourNOTOCHORD is your spinal cord - It’s the   connection  between the brain and the     nerves
SOME VERTEBRATES havebackbone made of CARTILAGE(connective tissue - softer than bonebut still strong!
•Backbones rundown center ofback.•Made up ofVERTEBRAElined up in a row.•Joints betweenvertebrae give youflexibility
EACH VERTEBRAE HAS A HOLE INIT THAT THE SPINAL CORD GOESTHRU - like fingers fit into rings
COW      BACKBONE                 FISH
The backbone is part of theENDOSKELETON (internalskeleton). It’s job:•SUPPORT•PROTECT•GIVES BODY SHAPE•A PLACE FOR MUSCLES...
Endoskeleton also includes theskull(protects brain as u see in mypicture), ribs(protects organs),arm and leg bones (help y...
How can you tell the difference between        types of vertebrates?      BODY TEMPERATURE        Fish, amphibians, reptil...
One last fact about vertebrates: Chordates have slits in their throat     called PHARYNGEAL                               ...
PHARYNGEAL         SLITSFish keep these slitsall their lives as partof their gills.
FISH
HOW DO FISH USE THEIR GILLS?WHAT ARE THE 3GROUPS OF FISH?
FISH:• vertebrates that live in water•fins for movement•ectothermic•gills to breathe•have scales - overlapping platesthat ...
OBTAINING O2                   Fish swim along,                   open their mouth                     & take in H20      ...
H20 flows over gills O2 moves into blood           C02 flows out into H20
Like all vertebrates, fish have a closedcirculatory system. The heart pumps blood                  in a loop:HEART      GI...
MOVEMENT   FINS: thin   membranestretched across bony supports
FEEDING FISH have highly developed nervous systems and sense organs to help incapturing food and avoiding predators      W...
Their eyesight is better than yours (remember there is  less light under water)                      Sharks can smell     ...
AND some fish have taste organs in the most unusual places. Catfishhave taste organs on their whiskers!
FEEDING Some fish  like thebarracudahave sharp teeth for stabbing    food
Others, like trout have short blunt teeth for gripping &      crushing insects
Filter Feeders like the Basking Shark andManta Ray use comb-like structures ontheir gills to filter tiny plants and animal...
Fish Reproduction Most fish have external fertilization: as female   releases eggs, malespreads a cloud of sperm         o...
Biologists classify fish into 3           groups:          Jawless Fishes           •Bony Fishes     •Cartilaginous Fishes...
JAWLESS  FISH
Jawless Fish•No scales•skeletons made ofcartilage•one fin (no pairs offins)•jawless mouth          Lampreys are eel shaped...
CARTILAGINOUS     FISH
CARTILAGINOUS FISH                Sharks, Rays, Skates•Skeletons made of cartilage•Have jaws and pairs of fins•Pointed, to...
CARTILAGINOUS FISH -                  Sharks•Streamlined bodies for quick movement•Mouth on bottom part of head•Jagged tee...
SHARK TEETH ROWS
CARTILAGINOUS FISH -               Sharks•Swimming or currents move waterover gills•Spend most of time hunting for food -w...
BONY FISH
BONY FISH  Most familiar fish are bony fish:   trout, tuna, flounder, salmon,            goldfish, etc.•Covered with scale...
BONY FISH         Swim Bladder and BuoyancyFish neither sink or float. They have anorgan called a SWIM BLADDER - sac thats...
Swim Bladder and Buoyancy...if the gas is less the fish sinks lower - if itis more the fish moves higher in the water.  Th...
Bony Fish Diversity•Make up 95% of all fish species              • Live in salt and fresh water•Some live in deep water an...
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Naturalists at Large: Marine vertebrates

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Naturalists at Large: Marine vertebrates

  1. 1. EVERYTHING YOU ALWAYSWANTED TO KNOW ABOUT:
  2. 2. WHAT MAINCHARACTERISTIC IS SHARED BY ALL VERTEBRATES?
  3. 3. CHORDATE Characteristics:At some time in lifethey have:NOTOCHORD, ornerve cord - a rodlike structure thatsupports back.
  4. 4. IF YOU SAID BACKBONE, YOU ARECORRECT!VERTEBRATES AREMEMBERS OF THEPHYLUM CHORDATO -(from the namenotochord)also calledChordates
  5. 5. YourNOTOCHORD is your spinal cord - It’s the connection between the brain and the nerves
  6. 6. SOME VERTEBRATES havebackbone made of CARTILAGE(connective tissue - softer than bonebut still strong!
  7. 7. •Backbones rundown center ofback.•Made up ofVERTEBRAElined up in a row.•Joints betweenvertebrae give youflexibility
  8. 8. EACH VERTEBRAE HAS A HOLE INIT THAT THE SPINAL CORD GOESTHRU - like fingers fit into rings
  9. 9. COW BACKBONE FISH
  10. 10. The backbone is part of theENDOSKELETON (internalskeleton). It’s job:•SUPPORT•PROTECT•GIVES BODY SHAPE•A PLACE FOR MUSCLESTO ATTACH
  11. 11. Endoskeleton also includes theskull(protects brain as u see in mypicture), ribs(protects organs),arm and leg bones (help youmove)..but YOU already knewthat!
  12. 12. How can you tell the difference between types of vertebrates? BODY TEMPERATURE Fish, amphibians, reptiles are ECTOTHERMS - body temp. changes with environment.Birds and mammals are ENDOTHERMS- body controls temp by controllinginternal heat it produces.
  13. 13. One last fact about vertebrates: Chordates have slits in their throat called PHARYNGEAL Most other vertebrates have their PHARYNX pharyngeal slits disappear before birth.
  14. 14. PHARYNGEAL SLITSFish keep these slitsall their lives as partof their gills.
  15. 15. FISH
  16. 16. HOW DO FISH USE THEIR GILLS?WHAT ARE THE 3GROUPS OF FISH?
  17. 17. FISH:• vertebrates that live in water•fins for movement•ectothermic•gills to breathe•have scales - overlapping platesthat protect skin
  18. 18. OBTAINING O2 Fish swim along, open their mouth & take in H20 The H20 moves thru mouth to gillsGILLS: feather-like structures - redGILLSin color due to blood vessels in them.
  19. 19. H20 flows over gills O2 moves into blood C02 flows out into H20
  20. 20. Like all vertebrates, fish have a closedcirculatory system. The heart pumps blood in a loop:HEART GILLS BODY HEART
  21. 21. MOVEMENT FINS: thin membranestretched across bony supports
  22. 22. FEEDING FISH have highly developed nervous systems and sense organs to help incapturing food and avoiding predators Well, not like this…..more like….
  23. 23. Their eyesight is better than yours (remember there is less light under water) Sharks can smell and even taste a tiny amount of blood - as little as one drop- in 115 liters of water! That is 57.5 two liter sodas!
  24. 24. AND some fish have taste organs in the most unusual places. Catfishhave taste organs on their whiskers!
  25. 25. FEEDING Some fish like thebarracudahave sharp teeth for stabbing food
  26. 26. Others, like trout have short blunt teeth for gripping & crushing insects
  27. 27. Filter Feeders like the Basking Shark andManta Ray use comb-like structures ontheir gills to filter tiny plants and animalsfrom the water.
  28. 28. Fish Reproduction Most fish have external fertilization: as female releases eggs, malespreads a cloud of sperm over them. Some fish like guppies and sharks have internal fertilization: when the eggs are mature enough to live on their own, female gives birth.
  29. 29. Biologists classify fish into 3 groups: Jawless Fishes •Bony Fishes •Cartilaginous FishesThey are grouped according to their mouth structure and type of skeleton
  30. 30. JAWLESS FISH
  31. 31. Jawless Fish•No scales•skeletons made ofcartilage•one fin (no pairs offins)•jawless mouth Lampreys are eel shaped parasites-use sharp teethscrapes, stabs and and suction-cup mouth tosucks to get food feed
  32. 32. CARTILAGINOUS FISH
  33. 33. CARTILAGINOUS FISH Sharks, Rays, Skates•Skeletons made of cartilage•Have jaws and pairs of fins•Pointed, tooth-like scales cover bodies -rougher than sandpaper•Carnivores•Rays and Skates live on ocean floor - filterfeeders - east mollusks, crustaceans, smallfishes
  34. 34. CARTILAGINOUS FISH - Sharks•Streamlined bodies for quick movement•Mouth on bottom part of head•Jagged teeth arranged in rows - 1stcouple rows are for feeding - remainingrows are replacement teeth. If a tooth islost, one from next row moves up (NODENTURES EVER NEEDED!) Sharks
  35. 35. SHARK TEETH ROWS
  36. 36. CARTILAGINOUS FISH - Sharks•Swimming or currents move waterover gills•Spend most of time hunting for food -will attack anything that smells likefood.•Poor eyesight - that is why theyswallow strange objects at times.
  37. 37. BONY FISH
  38. 38. BONY FISH Most familiar fish are bony fish: trout, tuna, flounder, salmon, goldfish, etc.•Covered with scales•Pocket on each side of head thatholds gills - flap over gills opens torelease water
  39. 39. BONY FISH Swim Bladder and BuoyancyFish neither sink or float. They have anorgan called a SWIM BLADDER - sac thatstabilizes body at different depths. Itcontains O2, nitrogen & CO2...
  40. 40. Swim Bladder and Buoyancy...if the gas is less the fish sinks lower - if itis more the fish moves higher in the water. The change in the gas volume affects the Buoyancy Force - force that water exerts upward on any underwater object LESS THINK BALLOONS! MORE
  41. 41. Bony Fish Diversity•Make up 95% of all fish species • Live in salt and fresh water•Some live in deep water and some inshallow

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