Naturalists at Large: Marine vertebrates
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Naturalists at Large: Marine vertebrates

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Naturalists at Large Marine Vertebrates Slide Show

Naturalists at Large Marine Vertebrates Slide Show

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Naturalists at Large: Marine vertebrates Naturalists at Large: Marine vertebrates Presentation Transcript

  • EVERYTHING YOU ALWAYSWANTED TO KNOW ABOUT:
  • WHAT MAINCHARACTERISTIC IS SHARED BY ALL VERTEBRATES?
  • CHORDATE Characteristics:At some time in lifethey have:NOTOCHORD, ornerve cord - a rodlike structure thatsupports back.
  • IF YOU SAID BACKBONE, YOU ARECORRECT!VERTEBRATES AREMEMBERS OF THEPHYLUM CHORDATO -(from the namenotochord)also calledChordates
  • YourNOTOCHORD is your spinal cord - It’s the connection between the brain and the nerves
  • SOME VERTEBRATES havebackbone made of CARTILAGE(connective tissue - softer than bonebut still strong!
  • •Backbones rundown center ofback.•Made up ofVERTEBRAElined up in a row.•Joints betweenvertebrae give youflexibility
  • EACH VERTEBRAE HAS A HOLE INIT THAT THE SPINAL CORD GOESTHRU - like fingers fit into rings
  • COW BACKBONE FISH
  • The backbone is part of theENDOSKELETON (internalskeleton). It’s job:•SUPPORT•PROTECT•GIVES BODY SHAPE•A PLACE FOR MUSCLESTO ATTACH
  • Endoskeleton also includes theskull(protects brain as u see in mypicture), ribs(protects organs),arm and leg bones (help youmove)..but YOU already knewthat!
  • How can you tell the difference between types of vertebrates? BODY TEMPERATURE Fish, amphibians, reptiles are ECTOTHERMS - body temp. changes with environment.Birds and mammals are ENDOTHERMS- body controls temp by controllinginternal heat it produces.
  • One last fact about vertebrates: Chordates have slits in their throat called PHARYNGEAL Most other vertebrates have their PHARYNX pharyngeal slits disappear before birth.
  • PHARYNGEAL SLITSFish keep these slitsall their lives as partof their gills.
  • FISH
  • HOW DO FISH USE THEIR GILLS?WHAT ARE THE 3GROUPS OF FISH?
  • FISH:• vertebrates that live in water•fins for movement•ectothermic•gills to breathe•have scales - overlapping platesthat protect skin
  • OBTAINING O2 Fish swim along, open their mouth & take in H20 The H20 moves thru mouth to gillsGILLS: feather-like structures - redGILLSin color due to blood vessels in them.
  • H20 flows over gills O2 moves into blood C02 flows out into H20
  • Like all vertebrates, fish have a closedcirculatory system. The heart pumps blood in a loop:HEART GILLS BODY HEART
  • MOVEMENT FINS: thin membranestretched across bony supports
  • FEEDING FISH have highly developed nervous systems and sense organs to help incapturing food and avoiding predators Well, not like this…..more like….
  • Their eyesight is better than yours (remember there is less light under water) Sharks can smell and even taste a tiny amount of blood - as little as one drop- in 115 liters of water! That is 57.5 two liter sodas!
  • AND some fish have taste organs in the most unusual places. Catfishhave taste organs on their whiskers!
  • FEEDING Some fish like thebarracudahave sharp teeth for stabbing food
  • Others, like trout have short blunt teeth for gripping & crushing insects
  • Filter Feeders like the Basking Shark andManta Ray use comb-like structures ontheir gills to filter tiny plants and animalsfrom the water.
  • Fish Reproduction Most fish have external fertilization: as female releases eggs, malespreads a cloud of sperm over them. Some fish like guppies and sharks have internal fertilization: when the eggs are mature enough to live on their own, female gives birth.
  • Biologists classify fish into 3 groups: Jawless Fishes •Bony Fishes •Cartilaginous FishesThey are grouped according to their mouth structure and type of skeleton
  • JAWLESS FISH
  • Jawless Fish•No scales•skeletons made ofcartilage•one fin (no pairs offins)•jawless mouth Lampreys are eel shaped parasites-use sharp teethscrapes, stabs and and suction-cup mouth tosucks to get food feed
  • CARTILAGINOUS FISH
  • CARTILAGINOUS FISH Sharks, Rays, Skates•Skeletons made of cartilage•Have jaws and pairs of fins•Pointed, tooth-like scales cover bodies -rougher than sandpaper•Carnivores•Rays and Skates live on ocean floor - filterfeeders - east mollusks, crustaceans, smallfishes
  • CARTILAGINOUS FISH - Sharks•Streamlined bodies for quick movement•Mouth on bottom part of head•Jagged teeth arranged in rows - 1stcouple rows are for feeding - remainingrows are replacement teeth. If a tooth islost, one from next row moves up (NODENTURES EVER NEEDED!) Sharks
  • SHARK TEETH ROWS
  • CARTILAGINOUS FISH - Sharks•Swimming or currents move waterover gills•Spend most of time hunting for food -will attack anything that smells likefood.•Poor eyesight - that is why theyswallow strange objects at times.
  • BONY FISH
  • BONY FISH Most familiar fish are bony fish: trout, tuna, flounder, salmon, goldfish, etc.•Covered with scales•Pocket on each side of head thatholds gills - flap over gills opens torelease water
  • BONY FISH Swim Bladder and BuoyancyFish neither sink or float. They have anorgan called a SWIM BLADDER - sac thatstabilizes body at different depths. Itcontains O2, nitrogen & CO2...
  • Swim Bladder and Buoyancy...if the gas is less the fish sinks lower - if itis more the fish moves higher in the water. The change in the gas volume affects the Buoyancy Force - force that water exerts upward on any underwater object LESS THINK BALLOONS! MORE
  • Bony Fish Diversity•Make up 95% of all fish species • Live in salt and fresh water•Some live in deep water and some inshallow