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Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1
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Business w08 Producing Goods And Services @1

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  • 1. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta Week 8 Prod ucing and Se rvices Go ods Jakarta, Novem ber 2007 Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 2. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta What Does Production Mean Today? • The concept of production means services as well as goods. • The key difference between production and services operations is the customer's involvement in the latter. • Customers are involved in all kinds of production because electronic communications are key components in winning and keeping customers. Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 3. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta Services… Goods… • are performed • are made • are intangible • are tangible • are unstorable • are storable • 29.7% of GDP (US) • 50.3% of GDP (US) Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 4. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta The Growth of Global Operations • Global competition has made production a faster-paced, more complex activity. • New technologies make machines that run cleaner, faster and safer and that operate on a global scale. • With the Internet, producers of both services and goods can integrate their production with those of far-off suppliers and customers. Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 5. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta What is utility ? “A product’s ability to satisfy a human want.” Four kinds: – Time – Place – Possession/ Ownership – Form Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 6. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta What is Operations (or Production) Management Systematic direction and control of the processes that transform resources into finished products that create value for and provide benefits to customers Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 7. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta Resource Transformation Process Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 8. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta What are Operations (or Production) Managers? Managers responsible for ensuring that operations processes create value and provide benefits Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 9. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta Services… Goods… • are performed • are made • are intangible • are tangible • are unstorable • are storable • 29.7% of GDP (US) • 50.3% of GDP (US) Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 10. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta Operations Processes • Operations process is a set of methods and technologies used in the production of a good or a service – Goods classification is based on whether an operations process combines resources or breaks them into component parts – Services classification is based on the extent of customer contact required Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 11. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta Goods-Manufacturing Processes : Analytic vs. Synthetic Processes • Analytic process breaks down resources into components • Synthetic process combines raw materials to produce a finished product Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 12. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta Service Processes: Extent of Customer Contact • High-contact system is an operation in which the customer is part of the system during service delivery Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 13. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta • Low-contact system is an operation in which the customer need not be a part of the system to receive the service Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 14. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta Differences between Service and Manufacturing Operations • Focus on Performance • Focus on Process and Outcome • Focus on Service Characteristics – Intangibility – Customization – Unstorability • Focus on the Customer-Service Link – E-Commerce: The “Virtual Presence” of the Customer • Focus on Service Quality Considerations Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 15. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta Operations Planning • Managers from many departments contribute to decisions about operations. • The business plan and forecasts developed by top managers guide operations planning. – Forecast is a facet of a long-range production plan that predicts future demand Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 16. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta Operations Planning and Control Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 17. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta What is Capacity ? Amount of a product that a company can produce under normal working conditions Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 18. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta Capacity Planning • Capacity Planning for Producing Goods – Capacity planning for goods means ensuring that a firm’s capacity slightly exceeds normal demand for its product. • Capacity Planning for Producing Services – In low-contact processes, maintaining inventory lets managers set capacity at the level of average demand. – In high-contact processes, managers must plan capacity to meet peak demand. Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 19. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta Location Planning • Location Planning for Producing Goods – Location decisions are influenced by proximity to raw materials and markets, availability of labor, energy and transportation costs and other factors. • Location Planning for Producing Services – Low-contact services can be located near resource supplies, labor or transportation outlets. – High-contact services must locate near the customers who participate in the system. Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 20. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta Layout Planning for Producing Goods Layout must be planned for three types of space: 1. Productive facilities 2. Nonproductive facilities 3. Support facilities Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 21. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta Layout Planning for Producing Goods • Process layout groups equipment and people according to function • Cellular layout works well when a family of products follows a fixed flow path • Product layout is set up to make one type of product in a fixed sequence and is arranged according to its production requirements – Assembly line is a product layout in which a product moves step-by-step through a plant on conveyer belts or other equipment until it is completed Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 22. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta Layouts for Producing Goods Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 23. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta Other Developments in Layout Flexibility • U-shaped product line is a product layout in which machines and workers are placed in a narrow U shape rather than a straight line • Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) is a production system in which a single factory uses automation to produce a wide variety of products Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 24. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta Layout Planning for Producing Services • In a low-contact system, the facility should be arranged to enhance the performing of the service. • In a high-contact system, the facility should be arranged to meet customer needs. Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 25. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta Layout of a Typical Piccadilly Cafeteria Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 26. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta What is Quality ? The American Society for Quality defines quality as the combination of “characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs.” Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 27. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta Methods Planning • Methods Improvement in Goods – Process flowchart is a diagram included in a detailed description of methods • Methods Improvement in Services – Service flow analysis shows the flow of processes that make up a given service – Designing to Control Employee Discretion in Services – Design for Customer Contact in Services Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 28. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta Service Flow Analysis Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 29. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta Operations Scheduling • Scheduling Goods Operations – Master production schedule shows which products will be produced, when production will take place and what resources will be used • Scheduling Service Operations – In low-contact services, work scheduling may be based either on desired completion dates or on the time of order arrivals. – In high-contact services, the customer must be accommodated as part of the system and its processes. Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 30. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta Tools for Scheduling Service Operations • Gantt chart diagrams steps to be performed and specifies the time required to complete each step Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 31. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta Tools for Scheduling Service Operations • PERT chart breaks down large projects into steps and specifies the time required to perform each one Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 32. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta What is Operation Control ? Process of monitoring production performance by comparing results with plans Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 33. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta What is Follow-Up ? Production control activity for ensuring that production decisions are being implemented Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 34. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta Materials Management • Materials management allows managers not only to control but also to plan and organize materials flow – Standardization is the use of standard and uniform components in the production process Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 35. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta Major Areas in Material Management 1. Transportation includes the means of transporting resources to the manufacturer and finished goods to buyers 2. Warehousing is the storage of both incoming materials for production and finished goods for distribution to customers 3. Inventory control includes the receiving, storing, handling and counting of all raw materials, partly finished goods and finished goods 4. Purchasing is the acquisition of the raw materials and services that a firm needs to produce its products Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 36. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta Purchasing Processes • Holding costs are costs of keeping extra supplies or inventory on hand • Opportunity costs are additional earnings that the company must pass up because funds are tied up in inventory • Lead time is the gap between the customer’s order placement and the seller’s shipment • Supplier selection is the process of deciding which suppliers to buy from Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 37. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta Tools for Operations Process Control • Worker Training • Lean Production Systems: Just-in-Operations – Just-in-Time (JIT) Production • Material Requirements Planning – Bill of Materials – Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II) Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 38. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta What is Quality Control Management of the production process designed to manufacture goods or supply services that meet specific quality standards Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id
  • 39. Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN) Wisma BNI 46, 2nd Floor, Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav.1 Jakarta thank you Exclusively prepared & presented by: Anna Riana Putriya, SE, MSi e-mail: anna@unimedia.ac.id

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