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Na Ii Ppt Module 3
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  • 1.  
  • 2.
    • Module Title: Sterile Technique
  • 3. Sterile Technique
    • Micro-organisms -
    • Defined as: living organisms that cannot be seen with the eye. Present everywhere in the environment.
    • Normal Flora- microbes that are helpful to the function of the body that can cause illness if introduced into the wrong part of the body
    • E-coli is needed in the digestive tract but if enters the urinary tract, can cause a urinary infection
    • Staph Aureous everywhere on and in the body but if enters a place where it doesn’t belong, it can cause MRSA
    • Pathogens - microbes that cause disease.
    • Bacteria –prefers a warm, dark, moist climate to grow in
    • Viruses- cannot be eliminated by antibiotics but some can be prevented by vaccines
  • 4. Sterile Technique
    • Natural Body Defenses-
    • Number one way that the body protects itself is through Intact Skin
    • Prevent skin tears, rashes, abrasions, ulcers
    • Mucus membranes secrete mucous to rid those areas of unwanted foreign objects
    • Body Hair- prevents foreign objects from getting to the skin, trap objects and hold them until we brush them or scratch the area. The hair also stands up or lays down depending on the temperature of the air and the body
  • 5. Sterile Technique
    • Natural Body Defenses continued:
    • Body Secretions- tears, sweat, saliva, vaginal discharge, urinary discharge, phlegm or sputum are all used to flush those areas and rid them of foreign objects
    • Reflexes- blinking, sneezing, coughing are all used to rid of the body of trapped foreign objects
  • 6. Sterile Technique
    • Natural Body Defenses continued:
    • Temperature regulation- a fever indicates that the body if fighting a foreign object. It is not always necessary to stop a climbing fever.
    • Cell Repair/Replacement—Clotting blood stops bleeding, Phagocytes eat dead and dirty tissue, white blood cells fight infection, red blood cells deliver oxygen and other nutrients to an injured body part
  • 7. Sterile Technique
    • Factors that weaken body defenses:
    • Poor nutrition – if the nutrition level is low the white blood cells are affected and immunity levels drop allowing the body to be more susceptible to infections
    • Poor personal hygiene- an unclean body provides the perfect breeding ground for many bacteria, viruses and insects such as scabies, also allows germs to be spread from one area of the body to another; and because hygiene is not being kept up, many diseases can progress undetected
    • Broken skin/mucus membranes- any time there is broken skin, there is a opening for germs and insects to enter, exit, or just lay eggs
  • 8. Sterile Technique
    • Age - as we age, our white blood cells age also. Old worn out white blood cells are ineffective against the stronger strains of pathogens
    • Illness - when we are already dealing with one illness within our bodies, there will not be enough white blood cells or enough energy left within the rest of the body to fight off any new illnesses or pathogens and leaves the body susceptible to further attacks
    • Certain medical treatments- Chemotherapy can damage not only the cancerous cells but also the healthy cells of the body causing the body to be susceptible to any and all illnesses. HIV attacks the immune system causing it to be ineffective against pathogens and actual begin to attack itself
  • 9. Sterile Technique
    • Chain of Infection-
    • is the process used by microorganisms to spread from one area to another
    • 6 factors necessary for an infection to develop
    • Link 1- Causative Agent or the Germ
    • Keep vaccinations up to date,
    • wash hands,
    • early recognition will lead to early treatment of an illness
    • Link2- Reservoir/Source-suitable area for a germ to grow
    • Practice Standard Precautions, Disinfect and Sanitize
    • Link 3- Portal of Exit- any way the germ can leave the body such as excretions, secretions, or body fluids such as urine, tears, saliva, drainage and blood.
    • Use proper PPE, Dispose of trash, Practice Standard Precautions,
  • 10. Sterile Technique
    • Link 4 -Mode of transmission/transportation- method used to get from one area to another such as fomites, unwashed hands, uncovered bedpans, unclean environmental surfaces
    • Wash hands, Practice Standard Precautions, Proper Food Handling,
    • One-Glove method for environmental surfaces, Transmission-based
    • Precautions
    • Link 5 -Portal of Entrance- any opening in the body where a germ can get in such as, eyes, nose, mouth, urinary tract, vaginal tract, broken skin.
    • Provide good Catheter Care, Practice Standard Precautions,
    • Practice Good Wound Care
    • Link 6 - Susceptible Host- any person who has a lowered immune system and will not be able to fight off the invading germ
    • Early Recognition gets Early Treatment, Keep Vaccinations up to date
  • 11. Sterile Technique
    • Medical Asepsis-
    • Also known as infection control
    • Practices used to prevent the spread of infection
    • Handwashing and/or using alcohol-based hand sanitizers
    • Keep patients’ rooms clean and tidy
    • Clean equipment after each use
    • Keep clean and soiled items separate away from each other
    • Perform procedures in the way in which you were taught-no shortcuts
    • Never carry clean or dirty items against your uniform
    • Practice Standard Precautions with gloves, PPE, and handwashing
    • Disinfect and clean environmental surfaces
  • 12. Sterile Technique
    • Surgical Asepsis-
    • Also known as sterile technique
    • Microbe-free method used for performing procedures within body cavities and during certain dressing changes
    • If a sterile item touches an unsterile item the sterile item is contaminated
    • If a sterile package is cracked, torn, chipped, it is contaminated
    • If a sterile item becomes wet, it is contaminated
    • Never turn your back on a sterile field
    • Avoid crossing over or touching a sterile field.
    • Sterile gloves will be worn to perform a sterile technique
    • Avoid touching unsterile articles when wearing sterile gloves
    • Keep your hands above your waist at all times
    • Avoid talking, sneezing or coughing over a sterile field
  • 13. Sterile Technique
    • Situations requiring sterile technique:
    • Insertion of a catheter
    • Suctioning
    • Tracheostomy Care
    • Assisting with Central IV Dressing Change
    • Certain types of wound care and/or dressing changes
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