Cells
•Smallest unit of life.
•Able to carry out all functions of life.
Cell Theory
• All living organisms are made of one...
2
The Cell Cycle
•series of changes a cell
undergoes from the time
it forms until the time it
divides
• stages
• interphas...
Stages of Interphase
3
• Cell grows, maintains routine functions
• Cell replicates genetic material and synthesizes new or...
Mitosis
4
2 identical daughter cells
Exact replicas of the parent cell
Growth, Repair, Replacement
5
Genes
• DNA- molecule that carries
genetic information
• Chromosome- DNA plus
associated proteins
• Gene – segment of DN...
DNA and the Cell Cycle
11
12
Genes
Gene – segment of DNA that codes for one protein
1 gene = 1 protein
Genome – complete set of genes
Genetic Code –...
Protein Synthesis
13
1) Transcription: DNA copied to mRNA in
nucleus
2) Translation: mRNA copied to protein at
ribosomes
•...
DNA vs RNA
DNA RNA
double stranded single stranded
Deoxyribose Ribose
A,C,T,G A,C,U,G
Must stay in nucleus Can leave nucle...
15
RNA Molecules
Messenger RNA (mRNA) -
• delivers genetic information from nucleus to the cytoplasm
• single polynucleoti...
16
Transcription
RNA polymerase copies DNA  mRNA
Active strand
Complementary strand
Transcription
Transcription
mRNA is a mirror image of the active strand, except T is now U
mRNA Leaves Nucleus
Translation
•On the ribosome
•mRNA codon matches to tRNA anticodon
•tRNA carries amino acid
Translation
mRNA  Protein
Protein Chain
•Where did the
original DNA go?
•Where did the
mRNA go?
•Where did the
tRNA go?
•Where did the
ribosome go?
...
Genetic Code
64 codons
20 amino acids
Redundancy
Dna and cell cycle
Dna and cell cycle
Dna and cell cycle
Dna and cell cycle
Dna and cell cycle
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Dna and cell cycle

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  • Interphase is the phase when the cell is not dividing. Mitosis is the act of dividing. Interphase is divided into 3 sections. During G1 phase it lasts for a few hours or a 100 years, it depends on the type of cell. Skin cells divides quickly nerve cells divide over many years… Once you cross the G1 phase line you are having babies, During the Sphase we are copying DNA so we have enough for both new cells, G2 phase we are further separating cells into two growing all that stuff in cells in preparation for division. Next is the phase of mitosis the final division of one cell into two.
  • S phase nothing changes but the amount of DNA in the nucleous. In the G2 phase everything else in the cytoplasm gets duplicated, then it goes through mitosis and splits into two cells
  • Parent cell goes through the whole process then creates daughter cells, the two daughter cells are identical to eachother and the parent. This happens in what is called sematic cell, which is anything that is not an egg or sperm. We do this for growth as well as repair, or to replace things. The lining of the digestion trac gets replaced quite often. Do a paper on Psoriasis in relation to cell mitosis..
  • Chromosomes are double stranded – molecules across the top and bottom, held together by covalent bonds. Hydrogen bonds are weak bonds in the center. If you add tension to it it will just unzip… The structure has a lot to do with how it functions. 4 letter ATGC make up the DNA C’s always pair with G’s and A’s always pair with T’s cause they fit together and it wobbles. When you wrpa it up with protein (the DNA) it makes a double helix.
  • In Sphase I want to make more DNA and enzyme come in and separates the DNA at the weak bonds and another DNA starts to form until we have two new strands.
  • This can keep going on and on Semi conservative means half old half new.
  • Compares the 2 new copies to eachother and corrects it These are going along like a billion letters a second, so we have an editing enzyme that checks the DNA letters comparing the copies. A change in the DNA is a mutation… Plasma is the water in the blood FYI
  • G1 phase has un unduplicated dna strand
  • TAC CAA ACC GAG GTC ATG GTT TGG CTC CAG On the quiz I will have to fill in the second line like I did it here this is the complementary line…Genetic Code is like the rosetta stone for making protein, its how you translate form DNA language that has 4 letters to protein that has 20 letters. We get the DNA building blocks from the food we eat…
  • Ribosomes are protein factories inside the cellCodon:Anti codon: DNA replication happens only in the Sphose, but protein syntheses happens during the whole process. This is a two step process transcription copies the DNA, proteins are made in ribosomes that are outside of the nucleus. Make a copy of DNA onto RNA and take it to the ribosome for protein synthesis. During Translation we take the RNA and make it into a new protein. Codon is trhee letters on an mRNA and Anticodon is a three letter on the tRNA
  • In dna there ACTG Rna +ACUGDna is two stranded but RNA is single stranded. DNA has sugar calleddeoxyribose and RNA has sugar called Ribose hense the names… D for DNA R for RNA There are 2 kinds of RNA
  • Photocopy of the geneproteins are made out of amino acidsRrna- is the rnaMRNA is the photocopy, rRNA is the structure, it can go in and out of the nucleus, and is made in the nucleolus., tRNA are like taxis that carry amino acids back and forth and amino acids are what proteins are made of.
  • Stage 1 of protein synthesis, This enzyme is a RNA sugar
  • mRNA comes in and splits the DNA copies it and takes a single strand out to the ribosomes for protein synthesis, so wherever there was a T we now have a U cause T’s don’t exist anymoreTAC CAA ACC GAG GTCAUG GUU UGC CUC CAG the complementary mRNA strand … DNA is the blueprint to make the protein…
  • 2nd step, mRNA comes into the ribosome pink block is thetRNA the taxi carried food proteins into the ribosome to connect to the mRNA to form the new protein strand. The mRNA just keeps going into another ribosome to create more protein…
  • All of the amino acides, blue blocks go into the protein strand. Protein then goes everywhere all over the body wherever needed, hair, organells, organs, muscles, etc…
  • Ribosomes- stay until you are ready to use againAmino acids- in the proteinPolypeptide- goes wherever it needs to*Everything gets used again except the amino acids which are synthesized with in the protein
  • Diversity equals stability, Redundancy is the same as diversity for resiliency… We have our mRNA and we then match it to our tRNADNA -TAC CAA ACG GAC GTCmRNA – AUG GUU UGC CUC CAGtRNA – UAC CAA ACG GAG GUCAas (amino acid) is read from the mRNA line so AUG equals met, GUU val, UGC cys, CUC leu
  • Dna and cell cycle

    1. 1. Cells •Smallest unit of life. •Able to carry out all functions of life. Cell Theory • All living organisms are made of one or more cells. • All cells come from other cells.
    2. 2. 2 The Cell Cycle •series of changes a cell undergoes from the time it forms until the time it divides • stages • interphase • mitosis • cytoplasmic division
    3. 3. Stages of Interphase 3 • Cell grows, maintains routine functions • Cell replicates genetic material and synthesizes new organelles to prepare for division • G1: 1st growth stage. Cell matures and carries out it’s assigned function. May last indefinitely. • S: Genes are copied • G2: 2nd growth stage. Membranes, cytosol, and organelle numbers increase.
    4. 4. Mitosis 4 2 identical daughter cells Exact replicas of the parent cell Growth, Repair, Replacement
    5. 5. 5 Genes • DNA- molecule that carries genetic information • Chromosome- DNA plus associated proteins • Gene – segment of DNA that codes for one protein • Genome – complete set of genes 1 gene = 1 protein
    6. 6. DNA and the Cell Cycle 11
    7. 7. 12 Genes Gene – segment of DNA that codes for one protein 1 gene = 1 protein Genome – complete set of genes Genetic Code – method used to translate a sequence of nucleotides of DNA into a sequence of amino acids What is the difference between a gene, DNA, and a chromosome?
    8. 8. Protein Synthesis 13 1) Transcription: DNA copied to mRNA in nucleus 2) Translation: mRNA copied to protein at ribosomes •Codon: mRNA triplet •Anticodon: tRNA triplet DNA  mRNA  protein
    9. 9. DNA vs RNA DNA RNA double stranded single stranded Deoxyribose Ribose A,C,T,G A,C,U,G Must stay in nucleus Can leave nucleus 1 type 3 types
    10. 10. 15 RNA Molecules Messenger RNA (mRNA) - • delivers genetic information from nucleus to the cytoplasm • single polynucleotide chain • formed beside a strand of DNA • RNA nucleotides are complementary to DNA nucleotides (exception – no thymine in RNA; replaced with uracil) • making of mRNA (copying of DNA) is transcription Transfer RNA (tRNA) - • carries amino acids to mRNA • carries anticodon to mRNA • translates a codon of mRNA into an amino acid Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) – • provides structure and enzyme activity for ribosomes
    11. 11. 16 Transcription RNA polymerase copies DNA  mRNA Active strand Complementary strand
    12. 12. Transcription
    13. 13. Transcription mRNA is a mirror image of the active strand, except T is now U
    14. 14. mRNA Leaves Nucleus
    15. 15. Translation •On the ribosome •mRNA codon matches to tRNA anticodon •tRNA carries amino acid
    16. 16. Translation mRNA  Protein
    17. 17. Protein Chain •Where did the original DNA go? •Where did the mRNA go? •Where did the tRNA go? •Where did the ribosome go? •Where did the amino acids go? •Where does the protein go?
    18. 18. Genetic Code 64 codons 20 amino acids Redundancy

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