1987 montreal protocol on substances that deplete the

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1987 montreal protocol on substances that deplete the

  1. 1. N A T A L I E M I L E T I C 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
  2. 2. Creation of Earth’s Atmosphere
  3. 3. Creation of Earth’s Atmosphere
  4. 4. The Atmosphere Ahrens, D.C. (2003). Meteorology today: an introduction to weather, climate, and the environment. CA, United States of America: Thompson Learning, pp 3
  5. 5. The Ozone layer
  6. 6. Ozone Depleting Compounds A F A M I L Y O F M A N - M A D E C O M P O U N D S T H A T H A V E B E E N S H O W N T O D E P L E T E T H E S T R A T O S P H E R I C O Z O N E
  7. 7. Ozone Depleting Compounds  Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)  Halon  Carbon tetrachloride, Methyl chloroform  Hydrobromofluorocarbons (HBFCs)  Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs)  Methyl bromide  Bromochloromethane (BCM)
  8. 8. History of ODCs and the Environment  1928 Thomas Midgley invents CFCs UNEP 2000 ‘the Ozone Story’
  9. 9. 1970s- the turning point  1970- James Lovelock  1974- Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina and “the early warning’ UNEP 2000 ‘the Ozone Story’
  10. 10. History of the Atmosphere and Policies UNEP 2000 ‘the Ozone Story’
  11. 11. 1975-1977  June 1975 Oregon state legislature  World Meteorological Organization  1977 UNEP drafts the World plan of Action on the Ozone Layer
  12. 12. 1978-1984  1978: United States, Canada, Sweden and Norway enact total bans of non essential CFC use UNEP 2000 ‘the Ozone Story’
  13. 13. 1985- THE OZONE HOLE  Joe Farman, Brian Gardiner and Jonathan Shanklin of the British Antarctic Survey UNEP 2000 ‘the Ozone Story’
  14. 14. 1985- Vienna Conference UNEP 2000 ‘the Ozone Story’
  15. 15. 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
  16. 16. The Montreal Protocol- Provisions  Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform--are to be phased out by 2000 (2005 for methyl chloroform)  Freeze at 1986 levels in mid 1989 and 20% cut in 1993  Production and consumption of CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC- 113, CFC-114, CFC- 115 were to be reduced by 50% of the 1986 levels by 1998  Production of halon-1211, halon-1301 and halon-2402 were to be brought back to 1986 levels by 1992
  17. 17. Montreal Protocol- Developing Countries  “Article 5 Countries”  Given additional 10 years to comply  Allowed to increase consumption by 0.3kg per capita in the interim
  18. 18. Montreal Protocol-other information UNEP 2000 ‘the Ozone Story’
  19. 19. London Amendment 1990 UNEP 2000 ‘the Ozone Story’
  20. 20. Copenhagen Amendment 1992 UNEP 2000 ‘the Ozone Story’
  21. 21. Montreal Amendment 1997 UNEP 2000 ‘the Ozone Story’
  22. 22. Beijing Amendment 1999 UNEP 2000 ‘the Ozone Story’
  23. 23. Conclusion UNEP 2000 ‘the Ozone Story’
  24. 24. Sources Ahrens, D.C. Meteorology today: an introduction to weather, climate, and the environment. CA, United States of America: Thompson Learning, 2003. Environment Canada, Ozone Science 2007: a Canadian contribution to the twentieth anniversary of the Montreal Protocol. C.T. McElroy and D.R. Francis. 2007. Makhijani, A., Gurney, R.A. Mending the Ozone Hole: science, Technology, and Policy. Cambridge: the MIT Press, 1995. UNEP, "The Ozone Story." 2000.ozone.unep.org/Events/EDs_pres_ozoneday.ppt (accessed November 9, 2010). UNEP, “Ozone Secretariat: Evolution of the Montreal Protocol.” 2004. http://ozone.unep.org/Ratification_status/evolution_of_mp.shtml (accessed November 9, 2010). US EPA, “Glossary of Climate Change terms.” 2009. http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/glossary.html#O (accessed November 21, 2010). Volders, G.J.M., Anderson, S.O., Daniel, J.S. Fahey, D.W., McFarland, M. "The importance of the Montreal Protocol in protecting climate." PNAS 104, no. 12 (2007): 4814-4819.

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