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1987 montreal protocol on substances that deplete the

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1987 montreal protocol on substances that deplete the 1987 montreal protocol on substances that deplete the Presentation Transcript

  • 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
    Natalie Miletic
  • Creation of Earth’s Atmosphere
  • Creation of Earth’s Atmosphere
  • The Atmosphere
    Ahrens, D.C. (2003). Meteorology today: an introduction to weather, climate, and the environment. CA, United States of America: Thompson Learning, pp 3
  • The Ozone layer
  • Ozone Depleting Compounds
    A family of man-made compounds that have been shown to deplete the stratospheric ozone
  • Ozone Depleting Compounds
    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
    Halon
    Carbon tetrachloride, Methyl chloroform
    Hydrobromofluorocarbons (HBFCs)
    Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs)
    Methyl bromide
    Bromochloromethane (BCM)
  • History of ODCs and the Environment
    1928 Thomas Midgley invents CFCs
    UNEP 2000 ‘the Ozone Story’
  • 1970s- the turning point
    1970- James Lovelock
    1974- Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina and “the early warning’
    UNEP 2000 ‘the Ozone Story’
  • History of the Atmosphere and Policies
    UNEP 2000 ‘the Ozone Story’
  • 1975-1977
    June 1975 Oregon state legislature
    World Meteorological Organization
    1977 UNEP drafts the World plan of Action on the Ozone Layer
  • 1978-1984
    1978: United States, Canada, Sweden and Norway enact total bans of non essential CFC use
    UNEP 2000 ‘the Ozone Story’
  • 1985- THE OZONE HOLE
    Joe Farman, Brian Gardiner and Jonathan Shanklin of the British Antarctic Survey
    UNEP 2000 ‘the Ozone Story’
  • 1985- Vienna Conference
    UNEP 2000 ‘the Ozone Story’
  • 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
  • The Montreal Protocol- Provisions
    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform--are to be phased out by 2000 (2005 for methyl chloroform)
    Freeze at 1986 levels in mid 1989 and 20% cut in 1993
    Production and consumption of CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CFC-114, CFC- 115 were to be reduced by 50% of the 1986 levels by 1998
    Production of halon-1211, halon-1301 and halon-2402 were to be brought back to 1986 levels by 1992
  • Montreal Protocol- Developing Countries
    “Article 5 Countries”
    Given additional 10 years to comply
    Allowed to increase consumption by 0.3kg per capita in the interim
  • Montreal Protocol-other information
    UNEP 2000 ‘the Ozone Story’
  • London Amendment 1990
    UNEP 2000 ‘the Ozone Story’
  • Copenhagen Amendment 1992
    UNEP 2000 ‘the Ozone Story’
  • Montreal Amendment 1997
    UNEP 2000 ‘the Ozone Story’
  • Beijing Amendment 1999
    UNEP 2000 ‘the Ozone Story’
  • Conclusion
    UNEP 2000 ‘the Ozone Story’
  • Sources
    Ahrens, D.C. Meteorology today: an introduction to weather, climate, and the environment. CA, United States of America: Thompson Learning, 2003.
    Environment Canada, Ozone Science 2007: a Canadian contribution to the twentieth anniversary of the Montreal Protocol.C.T. McElroy and D.R. Francis. 2007.
    Makhijani, A., Gurney, R.A. Mending the Ozone Hole: science, Technology, and Policy. Cambridge: the MIT Press, 1995.
    UNEP, "The Ozone Story." 2000.ozone.unep.org/Events/EDs_pres_ozoneday.ppt (accessed November 9, 2010).
    UNEP, “Ozone Secretariat: Evolution of the Montreal Protocol.” 2004. http://ozone.unep.org/Ratification_status/evolution_of_mp.shtml (accessed November 9, 2010).
    US EPA, “Glossary of Climate Change terms.” 2009. http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/glossary.html#O (accessed November 21, 2010).
    Volders, G.J.M., Anderson, S.O., Daniel, J.S. Fahey, D.W., McFarland, M. "The importance of the Montreal Protocol in protecting climate." PNAS 104, no. 12 (2007): 4814-4819.