WHAT IS REASONING? Reasoning is the process of creating orgenerating conclusions from evidence orpremises. As humans we want to know whatinformation means and what we can do with it.
THREE TYPES OF REASONING Inductive Reasoning – how we create generalizations aboutpeople, events, and things in our environment. Deductive Reasoning – how we apply those generalizations Fallacies – errors in reasoning
INDUCTIVE REASONING There are five ways to do this: By example By cause By sign By comparison By authority
EXAMPLE REASONING Involves using specific instances as a basis for making a validconclusion. There must be sufficient number of examples to justifythe generalized conclusion. The examples must be typical of thewhole. Important counterexamples must be accounted for. Theexamples must be relevant to the time period of your argument. Ex: I have an iPhone, iPod, and a mac and they work well so Iwould be generalizing all apple products are good.
CAUSAL REASONING Based on the idea that for every action there is a reaction. The goal is to figure out how or why something happened. The cause must be capable of producing the effectsdescribed, and vice versa. Cumulative causal reasoning increasesthe soundness of the conclusion. Counter causal factors mustbe accounted for. Ex: A chef at a restaurant is good because they have aMaster’s Degree in the culinary field.
SIGN REASONING Involves inferring a connection between two related things, so thatthe presence or absence of one indicates the presence or absence ofthe other. Other substance/attribute relationship must be considered. Cumulative sign reasoning produces a more probable connection. Ex: Football on television is a sign Fall has arrived.
COMPARISON REASONING Also known as reasoning by analogy involves drawing comparisonsbetween two similar things, what is correct about one is correct aboutthe other. There are two types of comparisons: • Figurative comparison- attempts to link similarities between two cases with different classifications. • Literal comparison- attempts to establish a link between similar classifications. Ex: you can compare a Ford compact to a Toyota compact.
REASONING FROM AUTHORITY Is used when a person argues that a particular claim is justified becauseit’s held or advocated by a credible source. It can be used in two ways: firstyou can ask that an argument be accepted simply because someone youconsider an authority advocates it, second you can support the argumentwith the credibility of another person. Ex: a salesperson trying to sell yousomething that is good just because afamous person uses it.
DEDUCTIVE REASONING the process of reasoning from general statements to a certain and logical conclusion related to that conclusion. It has three parts: a major premises, a minor premises, and a conclusion. This is called syllogism. Ex: all telemarketers are obnoxious. Major premise is a general statement. Minor premise specific instance related to the major premise. Conclusion derived from minor premise related to major premise.
FALLACY An error in reasoning, it differs from factual error, which is simplybeing wrong about the facts. There are a few that are most commonlyused in everyday argumentations. • False dilemma- seeing something as “black and white”. Ex: if you love me you’ll have sex with me. • Appeal of emotion- when someone manipulates peoples emotions to get them to except a claim. • Appeal of ignorance- the argument lacks evidence for evidence to the contrary. Ex: no evidence that God doesn’t exist, therefore, God must exist.