Sports psychology

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Sports psychology

  1. 1. Sports PsychologySports Psychology
  2. 2. MENTAL PREPERATIONMENTAL PREPERATION Getting started and staying motivatedGetting started and staying motivated  Think about what you want out of your sportThink about what you want out of your sport  Focus on what you want to achieveFocus on what you want to achieve  Set realistic challengesSet realistic challenges  Set goals that measure how well you did, not who you beatSet goals that measure how well you did, not who you beat  Set positive goals that tell you what you do, not what not to doSet positive goals that tell you what you do, not what not to do  Set target dates to achieve goalsSet target dates to achieve goals  Identify a strategy to achieve your goalsIdentify a strategy to achieve your goals  Record your goals, make a commitment, tell someoneRecord your goals, make a commitment, tell someone  Evaluate your goalsEvaluate your goals  Have others help you achieve your goalsHave others help you achieve your goals  Keep your goals flexibleKeep your goals flexible
  3. 3. Competing at your bestCompeting at your best Arousal controlArousal control The mind and the body are two parts of a whole, with each affectingThe mind and the body are two parts of a whole, with each affecting the other. When athletes perform well they usually havethe other. When athletes perform well they usually have expectations about their ability to do so – they feel confident and areexpectations about their ability to do so – they feel confident and are excited and challenged by seeing how well they can play.excited and challenged by seeing how well they can play. When athletes feel challenged by competition, the brain releases aWhen athletes feel challenged by competition, the brain releases a chemical that gives them a feeling of being nervous, but know thatchemical that gives them a feeling of being nervous, but know that these nerves are good and help performance. Having too manythese nerves are good and help performance. Having too many worrying thoughts increases these chemicals; increasing heart rateworrying thoughts increases these chemicals; increasing heart rate & perspiration, affecting concentration and tightening muscles –& perspiration, affecting concentration and tightening muscles – resulting in poor performance. Often we are relaxed in training andresulting in poor performance. Often we are relaxed in training and tense in games so our approach is different. Try the followingtense in games so our approach is different. Try the following strategies:strategies:  use key words to remind you of the important aspectsuse key words to remind you of the important aspects  calm yourself by taking a couple of slow, deep breaths as this fills upcalm yourself by taking a couple of slow, deep breaths as this fills up your thought space so there is no room for worrying and stressyour thought space so there is no room for worrying and stress  focus on technique in lead up games rather than accuracyfocus on technique in lead up games rather than accuracy
  4. 4. Drifting thoughts occur all the time and affect theDrifting thoughts occur all the time and affect the on field information that they take in. Athleteson field information that they take in. Athletes should practice catching drifting thoughts in andshould practice catching drifting thoughts in and away from the playing environment, here areaway from the playing environment, here are some strategies:some strategies:  Every time you catch yourself speaking negatively,Every time you catch yourself speaking negatively, stop and refocus on another subject – this willstop and refocus on another subject – this will decrease your negative thoughtsdecrease your negative thoughts  As you increase your ability to catch drifting thoughts,As you increase your ability to catch drifting thoughts, try switching them to positive thoughtstry switching them to positive thoughts  Change your expectations to realistic ones – if youChange your expectations to realistic ones – if you are not worrying about achieving unrealistic goals youare not worrying about achieving unrealistic goals you will be more positive and feel challenged rather thanwill be more positive and feel challenged rather than afraid of failureafraid of failure
  5. 5. Having too little chemicals can also affect performance –Having too little chemicals can also affect performance – without the excited feelings, high heart rate andwithout the excited feelings, high heart rate and nervousness, athletes can feel lethargic (makingnervousness, athletes can feel lethargic (making reactions slow). A good example of this is when areactions slow). A good example of this is when a stronger team, expecting to win, have difficultystronger team, expecting to win, have difficulty concentrating and are being beaten by the weaker team,concentrating and are being beaten by the weaker team, who have come in expecting a tough game and arewho have come in expecting a tough game and are therefore more focused and better prepared.therefore more focused and better prepared.  To stop ‘social loafing’ all players need to take responsibility forTo stop ‘social loafing’ all players need to take responsibility for the effort they put into the game.the effort they put into the game.  Set personal goalsSet personal goals  When playing weaker games set winning marginsWhen playing weaker games set winning margins  When playing weaker games work on aspects of your game,When playing weaker games work on aspects of your game, which at other times would be too high risk.which at other times would be too high risk.  When playing stronger teams plan to get the most out of yourWhen playing stronger teams plan to get the most out of your own performance.own performance.
  6. 6. Preparing for competitionPreparing for competition Athletes, who are serious about sport andAthletes, who are serious about sport and motivated to perform well, often have ideas onmotivated to perform well, often have ideas on how they should prepare for competition. Manyhow they should prepare for competition. Many believe that this involves sit alone quietly andbelieve that this involves sit alone quietly and focusing on the event. This is only beneficial iffocusing on the event. This is only beneficial if the thoughts are constructive and confident,the thoughts are constructive and confident, some athletes need to be distracted with light,some athletes need to be distracted with light, chatty non-sporting conversation in order tochatty non-sporting conversation in order to keep away the negative thoughts. Knowingkeep away the negative thoughts. Knowing when to prepare mentally and when to switch offwhen to prepare mentally and when to switch off is essential.is essential.
  7. 7. When to switch off:When to switch off: Some athletes mentally exhaustSome athletes mentally exhaust themselves by stressing about goals andthemselves by stressing about goals and performance. It wastes energy beingperformance. It wastes energy being anxious and afraid of competition,anxious and afraid of competition, therefore it is important to take time awaytherefore it is important to take time away from your sport and have other interestsfrom your sport and have other interests that relax and refresh you. The focusthat relax and refresh you. The focus needs to be inward and appropriatelyneeds to be inward and appropriately timed.timed.
  8. 8. When to switch on:When to switch on: Some athletes are scattered in theirSome athletes are scattered in their thoughts and distract themselves to thethoughts and distract themselves to the point of failing to adequately prepare. Apoint of failing to adequately prepare. A good preparation is the differencegood preparation is the difference between going into an exam having donebetween going into an exam having done the extra study, rather than just what wasthe extra study, rather than just what was retained from the classes – most of theretained from the classes – most of the time the extra study produces bettertime the extra study produces better results. Successful sports people don’tresults. Successful sports people don’t compete without preparation or planning.compete without preparation or planning.
  9. 9. Preparing for problems and challengesPreparing for problems and challenges It is important to be prepared for problems and challenges that mayIt is important to be prepared for problems and challenges that may arise whilst in competition.arise whilst in competition. Athletes and coaches: •Discuss a training / competition situation that could cause you or your team a problem -in the training environment -when travelling with a team -when new members come into a team -when you are given little court time (‘benched’) -when there is a change of coach -when your team plays a ‘stronger’ team -when your team plays a ‘weaker’ team -in a foreign environment •What problems could arise •Discuss situations where the athlete has made a bad decision. How did the athlete feel? •Discuss situations where the athlete made a good response. How did the athlete feel? •What different way could athletes respond in either situation? •What are the better options or responses? Parents and teachers: •Discuss with your athletes the aspects of their life that are important to them outside their sport •Help them maintain a balance between their sporting interests and other important areas in their life. It is healthy to have other interests to reduce stress.
  10. 10. Being in the game 100% of the timeBeing in the game 100% of the time Athletes are most effective when they are focused. There are fourAthletes are most effective when they are focused. There are four types of focus used by successful athletes.types of focus used by successful athletes.  Smart thoughtSmart thought – planning, or playing strategically in a game, the way we– planning, or playing strategically in a game, the way we think, the game plan. It is important to be analytical and make rapidthink, the game plan. It is important to be analytical and make rapid decisions, take in information from several different sources at once anddecisions, take in information from several different sources at once and coordinate or set up lays.coordinate or set up lays.  Body awarenessBody awareness – what is happening in your body, how it feels and– what is happening in your body, how it feels and moves through space. Athletes need to use their body awareness tomoves through space. Athletes need to use their body awareness to monitor their energy, adjusting the intensity of their effort throughout themonitor their energy, adjusting the intensity of their effort throughout the event.event.  Single focusSingle focus – what is happening immediately in front of / around the– what is happening immediately in front of / around the athlete. The ability to ‘keep your eye on the ball, get into correctathlete. The ability to ‘keep your eye on the ball, get into correct position while being jostled and bumped by your opponent’.position while being jostled and bumped by your opponent’.  Seeing the bigger pictureSeeing the bigger picture – using broad, external focus to take in the big– using broad, external focus to take in the big picture. The ability to scan the playing arena, plan what you intend topicture. The ability to scan the playing arena, plan what you intend to do in relation to your opponents and team-mates and acting on thisdo in relation to your opponents and team-mates and acting on this broad focus.broad focus.
  11. 11.  Good concentration is not necessarily a lot of thinking; it is often a quietGood concentration is not necessarily a lot of thinking; it is often a quiet concentration and clear mind. It involves thinking in the now rather thanconcentration and clear mind. It involves thinking in the now rather than ahead about the effort required to finish and risk being overwhelmed by theahead about the effort required to finish and risk being overwhelmed by the thought. It is about feeling, experiencing and concentrating on what you arethought. It is about feeling, experiencing and concentrating on what you are doing right now.doing right now.  If you think too much, it can clutter the mind, turning the stress up too highIf you think too much, it can clutter the mind, turning the stress up too high and burning up energy on worrying.and burning up energy on worrying.  Good concentration is knowing what to concentrate on, when, where and forGood concentration is knowing what to concentrate on, when, where and for how long and keeping it simple, but not too simple that you become toohow long and keeping it simple, but not too simple that you become too narrow in the process.narrow in the process.  You can only take in so much information at once so it is important to focusYou can only take in so much information at once so it is important to focus on what is happening around you now, rather than the mistake you juston what is happening around you now, rather than the mistake you just made or what you will have for dinner.made or what you will have for dinner.  It is also important to shift your focus at the right times. Athletes need toIt is also important to shift your focus at the right times. Athletes need to know when to move from a single focus to the big picture and back again atknow when to move from a single focus to the big picture and back again at the exact right times.the exact right times.  Concentration need not be at top speed, elite players often watch andConcentration need not be at top speed, elite players often watch and observe. They do not have to think too much about the basics as theseobserve. They do not have to think too much about the basics as these have become automatic. These skills can be learnt.have become automatic. These skills can be learnt.  Sometimes great concentration happens – most of the time it requires work.Sometimes great concentration happens – most of the time it requires work. It comes at the end of hard, consistent preparation and experience. ItIt comes at the end of hard, consistent preparation and experience. It requires work – just like the physical aspects of the game.requires work – just like the physical aspects of the game.  The longer you stay mentally in the game – the better you play (catchThe longer you stay mentally in the game – the better you play (catch drifting thoughts, use key words and focus on something that you candrifting thoughts, use key words and focus on something that you can control).control).
  12. 12. Seeing is believing – Mental imagerySeeing is believing – Mental imagery All over the world athletes dream about success as they drift off toAll over the world athletes dream about success as they drift off to sleep – landing a triple axel, holing a 20 metre putt, shooting thesleep – landing a triple axel, holing a 20 metre putt, shooting the winning 3 pointer on the buzzer. Mental imagery is a techniquewinning 3 pointer on the buzzer. Mental imagery is a technique which the athlete employs as many senses as possible to recreate awhich the athlete employs as many senses as possible to recreate a sporting experience in their mind.sporting experience in their mind. How does it help to dream about performing well?How does it help to dream about performing well?  Athletes practice in their minds the best way to perform – like making aAthletes practice in their minds the best way to perform – like making a competition plan, which programs a strategy into your mind.competition plan, which programs a strategy into your mind.  The brain sends messages to the muscles in the body that would beThe brain sends messages to the muscles in the body that would be involved in the movement being imaged, even though the body does notinvolved in the movement being imaged, even though the body does not actually move. By sending these messages the brain reinforces theactually move. By sending these messages the brain reinforces the nerve pathways and can speed up the development of motor pathways,nerve pathways and can speed up the development of motor pathways, helping the athlete acquire the skill sooner.helping the athlete acquire the skill sooner.
  13. 13. Seeing yourself make errors can result inSeeing yourself make errors can result in negatives occurring:negatives occurring:  You send the wrong message to your muscles, whichYou send the wrong message to your muscles, which does not reinforce good techniquedoes not reinforce good technique  By seeing yourself perform poorly, you may worry,By seeing yourself perform poorly, you may worry, tighten up and feel lethargic by the time competitiontighten up and feel lethargic by the time competition starts.starts.  If you see yourself failing you reduce confidence.If you see yourself failing you reduce confidence. This may cause you to alter your strategy and moveThis may cause you to alter your strategy and move away from a strong performance because you areaway from a strong performance because you are afraid.afraid.
  14. 14. Creating successful mental imagery:Creating successful mental imagery:  Most athletes have the tools to mentally image and some mayMost athletes have the tools to mentally image and some may already be doing so without realisingalready be doing so without realising  It may be like you are watching a video of yourself or seeingIt may be like you are watching a video of yourself or seeing yourself perform from within your bodyyourself perform from within your body  Focus on what you want to happen or a positive experience youFocus on what you want to happen or a positive experience you have already hadhave already had  Use it to help strengthen existing skillUse it to help strengthen existing skill  When preparing for mental imagery find a quiet place where youWhen preparing for mental imagery find a quiet place where you can sit or lie down without being disrupted for 10 minutes – take acan sit or lie down without being disrupted for 10 minutes – take a couple of long slow breaths imaging that you are letting go of anycouple of long slow breaths imaging that you are letting go of any stress and muscle tensionstress and muscle tension  When using mental imagery it is important to start with a successfulWhen using mental imagery it is important to start with a successful situation (not something that is too challenging for you) andsituation (not something that is too challenging for you) and gradually making it more challenging and competitive.gradually making it more challenging and competitive.

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