Sports coaching

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Sports coaching

  1. 1. SPORTS COACHINGSPORTS COACHING
  2. 2. COACHING TYPESCOACHING TYPES Authoritarian coachAuthoritarian coach  StrictStrict  Punishes frequently – good team spirit when winning, falls apart when losingPunishes frequently – good team spirit when winning, falls apart when losing  Handles being ‘hated’ in order to have respectHandles being ‘hated’ in order to have respect Business-like coachBusiness-like coach  Not people orientedNot people oriented  Keen on seeing the job doneKeen on seeing the job done  Expects 100% effort at all timesExpects 100% effort at all times ‘‘Nice-guy’ coachNice-guy’ coach  Athletes sometimes take advantage of personable, cooperative natureAthletes sometimes take advantage of personable, cooperative nature  Gets on well with athletes of similar temperament who are already self disciplinedGets on well with athletes of similar temperament who are already self disciplined Intense coachIntense coach  Transmits anxiety through an uptight attitudeTransmits anxiety through an uptight attitude  Usually focused on the quality of performance and resultsUsually focused on the quality of performance and results ‘‘Easy going’ coachEasy going’ coach  Casual or submissiveCasual or submissive  Gives the impression of not being seriousGives the impression of not being serious
  3. 3. COACHING TYPESCOACHING TYPES There are advantages and disadvantages to all styles,There are advantages and disadvantages to all styles, but all can be successful.but all can be successful. Coaches have a natural approach which is generally aCoaches have a natural approach which is generally a combination of the above.combination of the above. Style must be adapted to suit the coachingStyle must be adapted to suit the coaching circumstances eg the authoritarian coach would not becircumstances eg the authoritarian coach would not be suitable for performers who need encouragement insuitable for performers who need encouragement in developmental stages and the ‘nice-guy’ coach woulddevelopmental stages and the ‘nice-guy’ coach would struggle with a senior team working towards astruggle with a senior team working towards a premiership.premiership. Coaches will appear false in a style that is not suited toCoaches will appear false in a style that is not suited to them.them. All of the above styles will need to be used at some timeAll of the above styles will need to be used at some time One feature must always be present – be positive andOne feature must always be present – be positive and encouraging at all times.encouraging at all times.
  4. 4. THE RESPECTED COACHTHE RESPECTED COACH The respected and effective coach will be:The respected and effective coach will be: Instill the highest ideals and character traits into their playersInstill the highest ideals and character traits into their players Be enthusiastic and show enjoyment of coachingBe enthusiastic and show enjoyment of coaching Be self-confident, assertive, consistent, friendly, fair and competentBe self-confident, assertive, consistent, friendly, fair and competent Have a sense of humourHave a sense of humour Have a thorough knowledge of the rules, techniques and tacticsHave a thorough knowledge of the rules, techniques and tactics Have a basic understanding of first aidHave a basic understanding of first aid Be dressed appropriatelyBe dressed appropriately Be a role modelBe a role model Maintain disciplineMaintain discipline Be organized (for sessions and the year)Be organized (for sessions and the year) Be able to justify, if necessary, why things are being done, or be ‘bigBe able to justify, if necessary, why things are being done, or be ‘big enough’ to ask for suggestions when not sure.enough’ to ask for suggestions when not sure.
  5. 5. THE COACH’S SKILLSTHE COACH’S SKILLS The coach must be able to:The coach must be able to: OrganisingOrganising  As well as efficient and effective practices, the whole competition season isAs well as efficient and effective practices, the whole competition season is essential. It should be based on knowledge and planning.essential. It should be based on knowledge and planning. ObservingObserving  The coach should be aware of what is happening at all times. This provides infoThe coach should be aware of what is happening at all times. This provides info for what athletes need and changes that need to be made. Observation can befor what athletes need and changes that need to be made. Observation can be improved and refined.improved and refined. AnalysingAnalysing  Coaches continually observe and evaluate performances. Act on a number ofCoaches continually observe and evaluate performances. Act on a number of errors, not simply one. Offer correct and effective advice or credibility will be lost.errors, not simply one. Offer correct and effective advice or credibility will be lost. If more than one error exists, eliminate the one resulting in greatest improvement.If more than one error exists, eliminate the one resulting in greatest improvement. Analysing will improve over time.Analysing will improve over time. CommunicatingCommunicating  Improving performance is largely reliant on communication, not only verbal, butImproving performance is largely reliant on communication, not only verbal, but listening and appropriate non-verbal communication (such as body language)listening and appropriate non-verbal communication (such as body language) Improving performanceImproving performance  The major role of coaches. Advice and guidance is essential. The coach willThe major role of coaches. Advice and guidance is essential. The coach will need to make adjustments to training programs, add new elements andneed to make adjustments to training programs, add new elements and continually evaluate performance.continually evaluate performance.
  6. 6. COACHING CHILDREN FOR FUN & SUCCESSCOACHING CHILDREN FOR FUN & SUCCESS Social growth and development characteristicsSocial growth and development characteristics should be taken into consideration whenshould be taken into consideration when planning:planning:  Allow children to contribute to their own learningAllow children to contribute to their own learning  Focus on individual needsFocus on individual needs  Develop basic skillsDevelop basic skills  Include a variety of activities and challengesInclude a variety of activities and challenges  Cater for children of different backgroundsCater for children of different backgrounds  Encourage everyone to perform to the best of theirEncourage everyone to perform to the best of their abilitiesabilities  Protect children from the likelihood of failureProtect children from the likelihood of failure  Contain a balance between activity and restContain a balance between activity and rest
  7. 7. KEEPING CHILDREN ON TASKKEEPING CHILDREN ON TASK Keep children on task by:Keep children on task by:  Limiting instructions and making them simpleLimiting instructions and making them simple and preciseand precise  Allow plenty of time for practiceAllow plenty of time for practice  Plan variety and achievable activitiesPlan variety and achievable activities  Give precise and immediate feedback withoutGive precise and immediate feedback without highlighting mistakeshighlighting mistakes  Include adequate rest breaks, children haveInclude adequate rest breaks, children have short attention spansshort attention spans  Be a role modelBe a role model
  8. 8. PLANNING A PRACTICE SESSIONPLANNING A PRACTICE SESSION It is essential that coaches thoroughly plan each practice session soIt is essential that coaches thoroughly plan each practice session so it is enjoyable, profitable and maximizes time available. This appliesit is enjoyable, profitable and maximizes time available. This applies to all levels of sport – under 8’s to elite.to all levels of sport – under 8’s to elite. Types of sessionsTypes of sessions the traditionalthe traditional Technique ApproachTechnique Approach  A new skill is explained, demonstrated and practiced. The focus is onA new skill is explained, demonstrated and practiced. The focus is on fundamental movement patterns, progressing from simple to complex.fundamental movement patterns, progressing from simple to complex. Athletes are observed and corrections suggested.Athletes are observed and corrections suggested. Game Sense Approach.Game Sense Approach.  Uses games as the focus of sessions. Players are encouraged toUses games as the focus of sessions. Players are encouraged to develop skills within a realistic and enjoyable context, rather thandevelop skills within a realistic and enjoyable context, rather than practiced isolation. Technique is important in an overall skill, Gamepracticed isolation. Technique is important in an overall skill, Game Sense argues that technique needs to be practiced with other factorsSense argues that technique needs to be practiced with other factors also involved. Athletes become tactically aware and better decisionalso involved. Athletes become tactically aware and better decision makers.makers. More on Game Sense in Chapter 3.More on Game Sense in Chapter 3. You will need to consider the merits of both.You will need to consider the merits of both. Before planning individual sessions, make an overall plan ofBefore planning individual sessions, make an overall plan of eventual outcomes, listing skills rating them from easy to hard.eventual outcomes, listing skills rating them from easy to hard.
  9. 9. STEPS IN PLANNING A SESSIONSTEPS IN PLANNING A SESSION  The aim of training is to prepare the athlete for competitiveThe aim of training is to prepare the athlete for competitive performance.performance.  Always evaluate physical and mental states of athletes forAlways evaluate physical and mental states of athletes for optimal learning time and training intensity.optimal learning time and training intensity.  Evaluate sessions immediately following it and consider theEvaluate sessions immediately following it and consider the aspects of the next session.aspects of the next session.  Be aware of and evaluate resources availableBe aware of and evaluate resources available  Plan explanations and demonstrations of skills, decide activitiesPlan explanations and demonstrations of skills, decide activities and teach progression. You should aim for 60 – 70 % successand teach progression. You should aim for 60 – 70 % success rate, below this means it is to hard, above it means it is notrate, below this means it is to hard, above it means it is not challenging enough.challenging enough.  Encourage athletes to be involved in planningEncourage athletes to be involved in planning  Be aware of varying standards in groups and accommodate forBe aware of varying standards in groups and accommodate for this, use small groups if neededthis, use small groups if needed  Be flexible and cope with unexpected factors. If it is not working,Be flexible and cope with unexpected factors. If it is not working, change it immediately.change it immediately.
  10. 10. Beginning coaches suggestions:Beginning coaches suggestions: Plan so activities flow smoothly, have equipmentPlan so activities flow smoothly, have equipment close and develop routinesclose and develop routines Read books and manualsRead books and manuals Drills and minor games can be easily adapted fromDrills and minor games can be easily adapted from other sportsother sports Over plan rather than under planOver plan rather than under plan High activity is best, use small groupsHigh activity is best, use small groups Avoid activities eliminating athletes, they usuallyAvoid activities eliminating athletes, they usually need itneed it Plan for 60 – 70 % success ratePlan for 60 – 70 % success rate Encourage independent work and self evaluationEncourage independent work and self evaluation
  11. 11. ELEMENTS OF A PRACTICE SESSIONELEMENTS OF A PRACTICE SESSION Pre-practice briefingPre-practice briefing  A short time where the coach explains the goals of the session and setsA short time where the coach explains the goals of the session and sets the appropriate tone. You may use a board or do it verbally (rememberthe appropriate tone. You may use a board or do it verbally (remember to keep it short) and may relay any messages.to keep it short) and may relay any messages. Warm-upWarm-up  Includes a physical warming-up of the body and a skills warm-up whereIncludes a physical warming-up of the body and a skills warm-up where the skills taught in a previous session are reinforced and practiced.the skills taught in a previous session are reinforced and practiced. More focus on an active warm up (young kids also get bored with static).More focus on an active warm up (young kids also get bored with static). Time of warm-up depends on age and condition of athletes.Time of warm-up depends on age and condition of athletes.  Stretching should be:Stretching should be:  On warm musclesOn warm muscles  Not bounced or stressfulNot bounced or stressful  Gentle to the point of discomfort not painGentle to the point of discomfort not pain  Held for 10 – 15 seconds, at least twiceHeld for 10 – 15 seconds, at least twice  On both sides of the bodyOn both sides of the body  Specific for the sportSpecific for the sport  Non-competitiveNon-competitive
  12. 12. ELEMENTS OF A PRACTICE SESSIONELEMENTS OF A PRACTICE SESSION cont…cont… Skill developmentSkill development  This part of the session occupies at least a third of the availableThis part of the session occupies at least a third of the available time. Using either Technique approach or Game Sense, astime. Using either Technique approach or Game Sense, as mentioned previously.mentioned previously. Skill development through gamesSkill development through games  Use this important time to apply the skill, or one from a previousUse this important time to apply the skill, or one from a previous session, into a game situation. The key is to ensure maximumsession, into a game situation. The key is to ensure maximum participation by all. Games increase motivation and transferparticipation by all. Games increase motivation and transfer skills better than non-related situationsskills better than non-related situations ConditioningConditioning  There may be a need to devote some time to conditioning. It isThere may be a need to devote some time to conditioning. It is best done after skills. It may be incorporated into skills and youbest done after skills. It may be incorporated into skills and you may revert to skills afterwards to cope with fatigued situations.may revert to skills afterwards to cope with fatigued situations. Concluding activitiesConcluding activities  Includes a warm down and review of the key teaching points fromIncludes a warm down and review of the key teaching points from the session. Cool down is low level and is performed to reducethe session. Cool down is low level and is performed to reduce metabolic wastes. Evaluation also occurs here.metabolic wastes. Evaluation also occurs here.
  13. 13. TEACHING SIMPLE SKILLSTEACHING SIMPLE SKILLS Select skillsSelect skills  Consider what the athlete wants to learn and what the athleteConsider what the athlete wants to learn and what the athlete needs to learn and in which orderneeds to learn and in which order  To develop confidence the first skills taught should be simple andTo develop confidence the first skills taught should be simple and guarantee a successful performanceguarantee a successful performance Select an appropriate teaching formationSelect an appropriate teaching formation  Athletes should be able to comfortably observe and hear theAthletes should be able to comfortably observe and hear the coachcoach  The coach should be able to observe all athletesThe coach should be able to observe all athletes  Avoid distracting elements eg sun, other groups etcAvoid distracting elements eg sun, other groups etc ExplanationExplanation  Simple skills require simple instructions, avoid overloadSimple skills require simple instructions, avoid overload  Key words emphasise important componentsKey words emphasise important components  Concentrate on one aspect at a time until achievedConcentrate on one aspect at a time until achieved  Ensure task is achievableEnsure task is achievable  Keep explanations and instructions briefKeep explanations and instructions brief
  14. 14. TEACHING SIMPLE SKILLS cont..TEACHING SIMPLE SKILLS cont.. PracticePractice  Following explanation athletes should be able to freely experiment ASAPFollowing explanation athletes should be able to freely experiment ASAP  Have plenty of equipmentHave plenty of equipment  Keep groups small – attempting skills every 30 seconds (kinesthetic feedback –Keep groups small – attempting skills every 30 seconds (kinesthetic feedback – the ‘feel’ will be lost)the ‘feel’ will be lost) ObservingObserving  Effective observation is the key to good coachingEffective observation is the key to good coaching  Can occur during practice or gamesCan occur during practice or games  Good caching translates observation into coaching tipsGood caching translates observation into coaching tips Measuring progressMeasuring progress  Skill acquisition is achieved if motivated and challenged; therefore it is essentialSkill acquisition is achieved if motivated and challenged; therefore it is essential to progressto progress  Compare individuals to themselves onlyCompare individuals to themselves only  Do not encourage worst or best while learningDo not encourage worst or best while learning EncouragementEncouragement  At times when athletes are not progressing in order to minimize the athlete’s fearAt times when athletes are not progressing in order to minimize the athlete’s fear of making mistakesof making mistakes  Know the athletes well enough to know when to encourage and when not toKnow the athletes well enough to know when to encourage and when not to  Praise should be consistent and sincerePraise should be consistent and sincere
  15. 15. TEACHING SIMPLE SKILLS cont..TEACHING SIMPLE SKILLS cont.. Effective feedbackEffective feedback  Provides information that helps learning and development of skills andProvides information that helps learning and development of skills and attitudes. Can positively affect maturation, learning, self image, andattitudes. Can positively affect maturation, learning, self image, and motivation.motivation.  Allow practice before feedback, correcting only one error at a time, andAllow practice before feedback, correcting only one error at a time, and being clear onbeing clear on howhow to correct the errorto correct the error  Positive reinforcement hastens development, shouting and criticism doesPositive reinforcement hastens development, shouting and criticism does notnot  Ensure athletes do not practice a skill incorrectlyEnsure athletes do not practice a skill incorrectly  Do not forget competent athletesDo not forget competent athletes  Feedback can be verbal, reports, cues, checklists, videos, peerFeedback can be verbal, reports, cues, checklists, videos, peer commentscomments  Allow athletes to critically analyse and evaluate their own performanceAllow athletes to critically analyse and evaluate their own performance  Effective feedback should beEffective feedback should be specific, constructive, immediate, clear andspecific, constructive, immediate, clear and positivepositive Extending basic skillsExtending basic skills  As athletes progress new challenges should be posed with the coachAs athletes progress new challenges should be posed with the coach gradually introducing game like conditions and situationsgradually introducing game like conditions and situations
  16. 16. HOW TO DEVELOP GAMESHOW TO DEVELOP GAMES Games have been used for years in practice; the challenge is toGames have been used for years in practice; the challenge is to make them purposeful. Adapt games to give them a tacticalmake them purposeful. Adapt games to give them a tactical emphasis and challenge players to solve problems.emphasis and challenge players to solve problems. Modification for exaggerationModification for exaggeration  Games should be modified and for a specific reason.Games should be modified and for a specific reason.  Modify games to exaggerate a certain aspect and guide towards aModify games to exaggerate a certain aspect and guide towards a specific outcome (tactical or skill).specific outcome (tactical or skill).  Modifications can be used to achieve a variety of outcomes:Modifications can be used to achieve a variety of outcomes: Dimensions of the playing areaDimensions of the playing area Positioning of goal posts (and number of)Positioning of goal posts (and number of) Equipment to be usedEquipment to be used Number of passes or shots allowedNumber of passes or shots allowed Number of players in attack or defenseNumber of players in attack or defense Scoring systems – including penalty or bonusScoring systems – including penalty or bonus Time allowedTime allowed Specific roles for player (goalkeepers)Specific roles for player (goalkeepers) Adding or deleting game rulesAdding or deleting game rules
  17. 17. GROUP MANAGEMENTGROUP MANAGEMENT Time is often limited in practice sessions, thereforeTime is often limited in practice sessions, therefore developing sound group management skills will ensuredeveloping sound group management skills will ensure athletes get the most from each session. The coachathletes get the most from each session. The coach must be able to organize athletes into groups, get themmust be able to organize athletes into groups, get them started on activities, move groups around practicestarted on activities, move groups around practice sessions combine or split groups and keep unnecessarysessions combine or split groups and keep unnecessary stoppage to a minimum.stoppage to a minimum. GETTING STARTEDGETTING STARTED Establish where athletes should arrive and at what time,Establish where athletes should arrive and at what time, also plan a way to communicate cancellations.also plan a way to communicate cancellations. Be prepared and organized with an aim for each sessionBe prepared and organized with an aim for each session that encourages involvement and challenges.that encourages involvement and challenges. Arrive early and check equipment is all ready.Arrive early and check equipment is all ready. Develop a routine for the start of each session, this alsoDevelop a routine for the start of each session, this also assists with latecomers.assists with latecomers.
  18. 18. GAINING ATTENTIONGAINING ATTENTION This may require a strategy and should be a consistentThis may require a strategy and should be a consistent pattern so that athletes are aware of what to do.pattern so that athletes are aware of what to do. You may use a:You may use a: WhistleWhistle  A whistle may be used to stop and start activities, to controlA whistle may be used to stop and start activities, to control games and as a safety device. The response should begames and as a safety device. The response should be consistent, such as stop or jog into the coach, and should beconsistent, such as stop or jog into the coach, and should be practiced until it becomes automatic.practiced until it becomes automatic. Voice:Voice:  Sometimes this is better suited to indoors, and may include aSometimes this is better suited to indoors, and may include a simple ‘Stop’ or ‘Freeze’. ‘Freeze’ can also be particularly usefulsimple ‘Stop’ or ‘Freeze’. ‘Freeze’ can also be particularly useful to identify errors in positioning or strategy.to identify errors in positioning or strategy.
  19. 19. FORMING GROUPSFORMING GROUPS Athletes will need to practice as individuals, pairs, small groups andAthletes will need to practice as individuals, pairs, small groups and whole squads. Coaches should quickly organize these groups. Thiswhole squads. Coaches should quickly organize these groups. This may be done by height, weight, star signs, names, speed, playingmay be done by height, weight, star signs, names, speed, playing positions, skill level etc.positions, skill level etc. Organizing small groupsOrganizing small groups  ‘‘Get with a partner of about the same size’Get with a partner of about the same size’  ‘‘Each pair joins up with a pair to form a four’Each pair joins up with a pair to form a four’  ‘‘Every third pair split to form groups of three’Every third pair split to form groups of three’  ‘‘Four groups of three in each corner of the court’Four groups of three in each corner of the court’  Start in a circle, splitting into two lines.Start in a circle, splitting into two lines. Larger groupsLarger groups  Have three leaders and players join in the line behind themHave three leaders and players join in the line behind them  Star signs, names etc.Star signs, names etc. Using practice stationsUsing practice stations  One way to organize drills is to set up stations and have players rotateOne way to organize drills is to set up stations and have players rotate aroundaround
  20. 20. TEACHING SMALL-SIDED GAMESTEACHING SMALL-SIDED GAMES Minor games are an excellent way to practice game like situations andMinor games are an excellent way to practice game like situations and should be used in every session, as they increase motivation levels andshould be used in every session, as they increase motivation levels and better prepare athletes.better prepare athletes. PlanningPlanning  Each activity should be thoroughly planned, including formation and equipment,Each activity should be thoroughly planned, including formation and equipment, size of the groups, how the group will be established and how it will start.size of the groups, how the group will be established and how it will start. Introducing gamesIntroducing games  Give each game a nameGive each game a name  Organize the group into appropriate teams and formationsOrganize the group into appropriate teams and formations  Briefly explain the main rules, method of progress, and method of scoring,Briefly explain the main rules, method of progress, and method of scoring, restarts and penaltiesrestarts and penalties  Start the game – let the group have a go, then add changes as neededStart the game – let the group have a go, then add changes as needed Identifying teamsIdentifying teams  Some games do not require identification eg volleyball, softball. However othersSome games do not require identification eg volleyball, softball. However others can be split by athletes’ shirts (blue versus white), skins versus shirts (male onlycan be split by athletes’ shirts (blue versus white), skins versus shirts (male only in warm weather), and shirts back the front or inside out, or by using colouredin warm weather), and shirts back the front or inside out, or by using coloured bibs.bibs. Practice formationsPractice formations  Practice formations are specific to the sport and tasks within a sportPractice formations are specific to the sport and tasks within a sport  Athletes must be able to pursue the task safely and free of interferenceAthletes must be able to pursue the task safely and free of interference  It should encourage movement patterns required in the contestIt should encourage movement patterns required in the contest  The coach should adopt a position so that all athletes can be monitored at allThe coach should adopt a position so that all athletes can be monitored at all timestimes  It should facilitate the flow of athletes, abrupt and unscheduled changes shouldIt should facilitate the flow of athletes, abrupt and unscheduled changes should be avoidedbe avoided  It should promote the development of physical capacitiesIt should promote the development of physical capacities
  21. 21. TRAINING GRIDSTRAINING GRIDS Coaches need to plan and organize so that athletes areCoaches need to plan and organize so that athletes are effectively involved. Grids can assist with this as iseffectively involved. Grids can assist with this as is maximizes use of space and time, and coaches canmaximizes use of space and time, and coaches can observe all athletes at all times.observe all athletes at all times. A grid is an area that is clearly marked into subdivisions.A grid is an area that is clearly marked into subdivisions. The size can be varied according to:The size can be varied according to:  Available spaceAvailable space  Age of the groupAge of the group  Skill level of the groupSkill level of the group  The activity involvedThe activity involved  10 metre squares are ideal with four athletes in each. The grid10 metre squares are ideal with four athletes in each. The grid system enables large groups to be organized efficiently.system enables large groups to be organized efficiently. Observing from the perimeter means that all athletes can beObserving from the perimeter means that all athletes can be monitored and a demonstration from one of the middle gridsmonitored and a demonstration from one of the middle grids means that athletes can stay in their area to observe and thenmeans that athletes can stay in their area to observe and then quickly resume their activity. The coach will need to walk throughquickly resume their activity. The coach will need to walk through activities until the squad is familiar with them.activities until the squad is familiar with them.
  22. 22. MANAGING ATHLETE’S BEHAVIOURMANAGING ATHLETE’S BEHAVIOUR Good discipline and dealing with inappropriate behaviours is crucial.Good discipline and dealing with inappropriate behaviours is crucial. Establish ExpectationsEstablish Expectations  Clearly establish expectations at the first sessions, addressingClearly establish expectations at the first sessions, addressing attendance, punctuality and behaviour. Involving athletes in this processattendance, punctuality and behaviour. Involving athletes in this process can be helpfulcan be helpful Be fair and consistentBe fair and consistent  This ensures athletes acceptance of discipline, and should be the sameThis ensures athletes acceptance of discipline, and should be the same for all athletes regardless of their ability.for all athletes regardless of their ability.  Do not put off bad behaviour it is unlikely to go away. DiscussDo not put off bad behaviour it is unlikely to go away. Discuss individually or for young athletes, talk to their parents.individually or for young athletes, talk to their parents. Use praiseUse praise  Praise and acknowledge appropriate behaviour and effort as soon asPraise and acknowledge appropriate behaviour and effort as soon as possible. Positive reinforcement is essential.possible. Positive reinforcement is essential.  Physical punishment links positive (conditioning) with negativesPhysical punishment links positive (conditioning) with negatives (punishment) and does little to indicate how the behaviour is(punishment) and does little to indicate how the behaviour is unacceptable or how to modify their actions.unacceptable or how to modify their actions.  Shouting and humiliating is of little benefit. Quietly speak to individualsShouting and humiliating is of little benefit. Quietly speak to individuals and praise if it improvesand praise if it improves
  23. 23. MANAGING ATHLETES BEHAVIOUR cont…MANAGING ATHLETES BEHAVIOUR cont… Plan for fun and involvementPlan for fun and involvement  Programs that are fun, active and develop skills improve motivation and alsoPrograms that are fun, active and develop skills improve motivation and also reduce disciplinary problems.reduce disciplinary problems.  Make sure there is enough equipment for everyone so athletes wait no longerMake sure there is enough equipment for everyone so athletes wait no longer than 30 seconds between goes.than 30 seconds between goes.  Include variety, challenges and modified rules eg using only one hand in a shortInclude variety, challenges and modified rules eg using only one hand in a short game of Basketball.game of Basketball. Self-evaluationSelf-evaluation  Sometimes problems in the program may be a fault of the coach. Evaluate theSometimes problems in the program may be a fault of the coach. Evaluate the followingfollowing The coach talking too muchThe coach talking too much Activities continuing on too longActivities continuing on too long Players’ waiting too long between goesPlayers’ waiting too long between goes Activities that are boring and not challenging enoughActivities that are boring and not challenging enough Dealing with inappropriate behavioursDealing with inappropriate behaviours  Athletes are aware that there are rules of behaviour that are acceptable.Athletes are aware that there are rules of behaviour that are acceptable.  Just the fact that an athlete has been noticed is usually enoughJust the fact that an athlete has been noticed is usually enough  If the behaviour is not corrected, ask the player if they are adhering to the teamIf the behaviour is not corrected, ask the player if they are adhering to the team rules and what should they be doing?rules and what should they be doing?  Withdraw the athlete for at time out until they agree to behave appropriatelyWithdraw the athlete for at time out until they agree to behave appropriately  Time out is away from other athletes but close enough to superviseTime out is away from other athletes but close enough to supervise  On returning try to find an opportunity to praise the athlete or involve them in aOn returning try to find an opportunity to praise the athlete or involve them in a leadership roleleadership role  Contact parents or administration if the problem continuesContact parents or administration if the problem continues
  24. 24. COMMUNICATIONCOMMUNICATION Communication is an essential key to goodCommunication is an essential key to good coaching. A coach may possess all the technicalcoaching. A coach may possess all the technical knowledge and skills, however, withoutknowledge and skills, however, without communication it is of little use.communication it is of little use. Benefits of good communication:Benefits of good communication:  Improves moraleImproves morale  Provides a sense of involvement (belonging)Provides a sense of involvement (belonging)  Promotes commitment and understandingPromotes commitment and understanding  Is more efficient (saves time and effort for caches andIs more efficient (saves time and effort for caches and athletes)athletes)  Promotes better teamworkPromotes better teamwork
  25. 25. TYPES OF COMMUNICATIONTYPES OF COMMUNICATION Verbal: ‘The spoken word’Verbal: ‘The spoken word’  Can be used to direct play, manage teams, organize drills,Can be used to direct play, manage teams, organize drills, provide instant feedback, and instruct athletes and question forprovide instant feedback, and instruct athletes and question for understandingunderstanding  Has 2 main levels: what the speaker thinks and what the listenerHas 2 main levels: what the speaker thinks and what the listener thinks is being said. The more similar the 2 messages the betterthinks is being said. The more similar the 2 messages the better the communication.the communication. Open questionsOpen questions  Questions that encourage a response and allow freedom forQuestions that encourage a response and allow freedom for more than just a ‘yes’ or ‘no’ answer. Encourages athletes tomore than just a ‘yes’ or ‘no’ answer. Encourages athletes to think and provide insightthink and provide insight FeedbackFeedback  ‘‘Good’ feedback promotes development, ‘bad’ discouragesGood’ feedback promotes development, ‘bad’ discourages athletes. Constructive feedback is not necessarily bad. Tryathletes. Constructive feedback is not necessarily bad. Try using the sandwich technique: ‘Your positioning is good,using the sandwich technique: ‘Your positioning is good, concentrate on keeping hands high and wide, keep up the effort!’concentrate on keeping hands high and wide, keep up the effort!’
  26. 26. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION cont…TYPES OF COMMUNICATION cont… Non-verbal: ‘The unspoken word’Non-verbal: ‘The unspoken word’  80% of communication comes from non-verbal cues. If non-verbals match80% of communication comes from non-verbal cues. If non-verbals match verbals, it is very effective, if not the message becomes confusingverbals, it is very effective, if not the message becomes confusing VisualVisual  This includes all aspects of body language; posture, gestures, facial expressionsThis includes all aspects of body language; posture, gestures, facial expressions and eye contactand eye contact TouchTouch  Touch can be very effective eg a pat on the back or physical manipulationTouch can be very effective eg a pat on the back or physical manipulation (guiding the athlete through the movement)(guiding the athlete through the movement)  Significant caution must be taken with physical contact. Some athletes are OKSignificant caution must be taken with physical contact. Some athletes are OK with it – others are not. There are sexual harassment issues also. A good rule ofwith it – others are not. There are sexual harassment issues also. A good rule of thumb is to ask if they are comfortable. Familiarise yourself with the ‘Guidelinesthumb is to ask if they are comfortable. Familiarise yourself with the ‘Guidelines for coaches’ booklet.for coaches’ booklet. Voice expressionVoice expression  Tone of voice, rate of speech and volume of voice can change what is being said.Tone of voice, rate of speech and volume of voice can change what is being said. How you say ‘no’ can express fear, doubt, amazement, sarcasm or anger. HowHow you say ‘no’ can express fear, doubt, amazement, sarcasm or anger. How you say something may gain attention, maintain interest and emphasise pointsyou say something may gain attention, maintain interest and emphasise points Role modelRole model  Arriving on time and dressed appropriately etc communicates that you areArriving on time and dressed appropriately etc communicates that you are interested in what you do.interested in what you do.
  27. 27. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION cont…TYPES OF COMMUNICATION cont… UseUse SOLVERSOLVER as a non-verbal positive checklist:as a non-verbal positive checklist:  SSquarely face the athletequarely face the athlete  OO pen posture. Crossed arms or legs creates barrierspen posture. Crossed arms or legs creates barriers  LL ean slightly forward. Demonstrates interest and listeningean slightly forward. Demonstrates interest and listening  VVerbal comments are relevanterbal comments are relevant  EEye contact – should be made and maintained without overdoing itye contact – should be made and maintained without overdoing it  RRelax – be comfortable and show itelax – be comfortable and show it Effective communicationEffective communication  All athletes respond differently to forms of communication – remember toAll athletes respond differently to forms of communication – remember to vary it to maintain interest and ‘trigger’ what works for an athlete.vary it to maintain interest and ‘trigger’ what works for an athlete.  Communication is more effective when it is open and encouragesCommunication is more effective when it is open and encourages athletes inputathletes input ‘‘If a coach is obviously interested and enthusiastic aboutIf a coach is obviously interested and enthusiastic about coaching, this can be contagious making the athletes want tocoaching, this can be contagious making the athletes want to learn’learn’
  28. 28. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION cont…TYPES OF COMMUNICATION cont… Active listeningActive listening  Is concentrating on what the athlete has to say (in actions and words),Is concentrating on what the athlete has to say (in actions and words), some coaches find it difficult as they feel they should direct and solve.some coaches find it difficult as they feel they should direct and solve.  Large advantages to listeningLarge advantages to listening Shows interest and fosters a positive environmentShows interest and fosters a positive environment Reduces chances of being misunderstoodReduces chances of being misunderstood Encourages further communicationEncourages further communication Athlete is more likely to listen if you listen to themAthlete is more likely to listen if you listen to them Coach can learn from other athletesCoach can learn from other athletes Four easy steps to Active listening:Four easy steps to Active listening:  STOPSTOP – stop, pay attention, and do not interrupt– stop, pay attention, and do not interrupt  LOOKLOOK – face, gain eye contact, show interest, and look for non-verbals– face, gain eye contact, show interest, and look for non-verbals  LISTENLISTEN – listen to words and emotions, show non-verbals, support with– listen to words and emotions, show non-verbals, support with encouraging wordsencouraging words  RESPONDRESPOND – paraphrase, check you understand, summarise, remain– paraphrase, check you understand, summarise, remain neutral and supportive, and use open questions for more information.neutral and supportive, and use open questions for more information.
  29. 29. COACHING AND THE LAWCOACHING AND THE LAW The law is a method by which our societyThe law is a method by which our society determines the rights of a citizen in a particulardetermines the rights of a citizen in a particular situation. It touches all aspects of life and sportsituation. It touches all aspects of life and sport is no exception. The Australian sporting ethic isis no exception. The Australian sporting ethic is strong and as sports become more professional,strong and as sports become more professional, people turn to the courts to protect their rights.people turn to the courts to protect their rights. The major area involved is negligence and dutyThe major area involved is negligence and duty of care. Negligence is ‘conduct that falls belowof care. Negligence is ‘conduct that falls below the standard regarded as normal or desirable inthe standard regarded as normal or desirable in a given community’. Any coach has aa given community’. Any coach has a responsibility to take care not to harm others.responsibility to take care not to harm others.
  30. 30. DUTY OF CAREDUTY OF CARE There are two prerequisites to duty of care:There are two prerequisites to duty of care:  The harm must be reasonably foreseeableThe harm must be reasonably foreseeable The court asks what a reasonable person would have done underThe court asks what a reasonable person would have done under the circumstances and compares that behaviour with the facts.the circumstances and compares that behaviour with the facts. Coaches are expected to take basic precautions to anticipateCoaches are expected to take basic precautions to anticipate danger. This is not easy but is a relatively low standard test to passdanger. This is not easy but is a relatively low standard test to pass  There must be some form of relationship (called ‘proximity’)There must be some form of relationship (called ‘proximity’) A person does not owe duty of care to the world; there must be aA person does not owe duty of care to the world; there must be a relationship between the two parties.relationship between the two parties. After these two factors are established there is duty ofAfter these two factors are established there is duty of care. A person will only be liable of negligence if thecare. A person will only be liable of negligence if the injured person can prove:injured person can prove:  The defendant owed the plaintiff duty of careThe defendant owed the plaintiff duty of care  The defendant was in breach of that duty of careThe defendant was in breach of that duty of care  The dependents breach of duty of care was the cause of theThe dependents breach of duty of care was the cause of the plaintiff’s lossplaintiff’s loss  The damage to the plaintiff was not too remoteThe damage to the plaintiff was not too remote
  31. 31. THE COACH AND DUTY OF CARETHE COACH AND DUTY OF CARE There are common factors considered relevant when deciding if someoneThere are common factors considered relevant when deciding if someone has breached the standard of care:has breached the standard of care: Magnitude of the risk – larger the risk = higher standard of careMagnitude of the risk – larger the risk = higher standard of care Probability of risk of injury – higher probability = higher standard of careProbability of risk of injury – higher probability = higher standard of care Gravity of harm – where activity is dangerous or person is susceptible =Gravity of harm – where activity is dangerous or person is susceptible = increase in standard of careincrease in standard of care Difficulty and expense of eliminating the risk – the easier to eliminate = lessDifficulty and expense of eliminating the risk – the easier to eliminate = less likely of failure to take steps.likely of failure to take steps. StandardsStandards The standard of the coach will be measured against their peers (Level 1The standard of the coach will be measured against their peers (Level 1 coach against Level 1 coach). If a coach is higher qualified they will be ratedcoach against Level 1 coach). If a coach is higher qualified they will be rated higher, that is they will be judged against someone of the same skill andhigher, that is they will be judged against someone of the same skill and qualifications. The reason for this is a doctor should have a higher standardqualifications. The reason for this is a doctor should have a higher standard of care than a first aid officer. If a coach is not accredited or has let themof care than a first aid officer. If a coach is not accredited or has let them lapse, they will still assume duty of care and be judged against similarlapse, they will still assume duty of care and be judged against similar standards, even if they are teaching ‘old’ methods that are outdated.standards, even if they are teaching ‘old’ methods that are outdated. Coaches should not become risk averse as athletes still need to beCoaches should not become risk averse as athletes still need to be challenged. It is a balancing act between necessary risk and ensuringchallenged. It is a balancing act between necessary risk and ensuring standards of care are met.standards of care are met.
  32. 32. OTHER TOPICSOTHER TOPICS Physical conditioningPhysical conditioning Coaching team sportsCoaching team sports Coaching female athletesCoaching female athletes Coaching veteran athletesCoaching veteran athletes Coaching athletes with a disabilityCoaching athletes with a disability Sports NutritionSports Nutrition Drugs in SportDrugs in Sport Sports PsychologySports Psychology
  33. 33. BIBLIOGRAPHYBIBLIOGRAPHY

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