Musculoskeletal system

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Musculoskeletal system

  1. 1. Functional AnatomyFunctional Anatomy and Physiologyand Physiology Bones and JointsBones and Joints Athlete ManagementAthlete Management Term 4Term 4
  2. 2. Terminology for the Location of BodyTerminology for the Location of Body StructuresStructures To allow people to describe the locationTo allow people to describe the location of the body structure, we use anof the body structure, we use an Anatomical Reference SystemAnatomical Reference System .. This reference system has three partsThis reference system has three parts  DirectionDirection  PlanePlane  CavityCavity To give location of the body part, it is assumedTo give location of the body part, it is assumed that the body is in thethat the body is in the Anatomical PositionAnatomical Position .. This is standing erect, facing forward, arms byThis is standing erect, facing forward, arms by sides and palms forward.sides and palms forward.
  3. 3. Body CavityBody Cavity A body structure may be located in aA body structure may be located in a particular cavity. Each cavity containsparticular cavity. Each cavity contains particular organs. For example theparticular organs. For example the Thoracic cavity contains the heart andThoracic cavity contains the heart and lungs and is separated from thelungs and is separated from the abdominal cavity by the diaphragm.abdominal cavity by the diaphragm. There are five major cavitiesThere are five major cavities  Pelvic CavityPelvic Cavity  Abdominal CavityAbdominal Cavity  Thoracic Cavity –Thoracic Cavity – pleural (lungs)pleural (lungs) Pericardial (heart)Pericardial (heart)  Spinal CavitySpinal Cavity  Cranial CavityCranial Cavity
  4. 4. Body structure and Movement of theBody structure and Movement of the Musculoskeletal System.Musculoskeletal System. The musculoskeletal system is aThe musculoskeletal system is a combination of the skeletal, muscularcombination of the skeletal, muscular and articular systems of the body andand articular systems of the body and is responsible for the movement andis responsible for the movement and locomotion of the body.locomotion of the body. Skeleton – frameworkSkeleton – framework Muscles – forceMuscles – force Joints – movementJoints – movement
  5. 5. The Skeletal SystemThe Skeletal System Some facts:Some facts:  The human skeleton is anThe human skeleton is an endoskeletonendoskeleton ie it lies within theie it lies within the soft tissue of the body. It differs from thesoft tissue of the body. It differs from the exoskeletonexoskeleton of anof an insect or crayfish.insect or crayfish.  It is the major supporting structure of the bodyIt is the major supporting structure of the body  It is aIt is a living structureliving structure, capable of growth, adaptation and, capable of growth, adaptation and repair.repair.  The human body contains a total ofThe human body contains a total of 206 bones.206 bones.  Bones are approximately 50% solid matter and 50% waterBones are approximately 50% solid matter and 50% water  By weight, bone is 65% mineral and 35 % cells, fibres and bloodBy weight, bone is 65% mineral and 35 % cells, fibres and blood vesselsvessels  Bones are living structures containing blood vessels and nervesBones are living structures containing blood vessels and nerves that grow, adapt and repairthat grow, adapt and repair  Bones continue to grow in length until girls are 13 – 15 years andBones continue to grow in length until girls are 13 – 15 years and boys are 16 – 18 years.boys are 16 – 18 years.  Is 20% of total body weight.Is 20% of total body weight.
  6. 6. Functions of the Skeletal SystemFunctions of the Skeletal System The skeletal system has four main functions:The skeletal system has four main functions:  Body MovementBody Movement – there are up to 206 bones in the skeleton, all of which– there are up to 206 bones in the skeleton, all of which provide sites for muscle attachment. When a muscle contracts, it moves theprovide sites for muscle attachment. When a muscle contracts, it moves the bones to which it is attached and thus creates movement. Any irregularity on abones to which it is attached and thus creates movement. Any irregularity on a bone surface provides a possible site for muscle attachment.bone surface provides a possible site for muscle attachment.  Support and ProtectionSupport and Protection – the skeleton provides support for the body and helps– the skeleton provides support for the body and helps battle forces of gravity. The strong protective skeletal layer protects vital organsbattle forces of gravity. The strong protective skeletal layer protects vital organs eg the rib cage protects heart, lungs, kidneys from all but the most traumaticeg the rib cage protects heart, lungs, kidneys from all but the most traumatic injuries.injuries.  There are two main types of bone tissue:There are two main types of bone tissue:  Compact boneCompact bone – found in the shaft (diaphysis of the long bone. It surrounds the– found in the shaft (diaphysis of the long bone. It surrounds the cavity of the long bone, giving body rigid framework. Collagen is the central ingredientcavity of the long bone, giving body rigid framework. Collagen is the central ingredient in providing compact bone rigidity and strength.in providing compact bone rigidity and strength.  Cancellous boneCancellous bone – or spongy bone, provides some of the shock absorption required– or spongy bone, provides some of the shock absorption required at end of long bones or at edges of more irregular bones.at end of long bones or at edges of more irregular bones.  Mineral storage sitesMineral storage sites – bone tissue stores a number of minerals important for– bone tissue stores a number of minerals important for health. Calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium all contribute tohealth. Calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium all contribute to maintenance of bone tissue as well as other roles in the body.maintenance of bone tissue as well as other roles in the body.  Production of blood cellsProduction of blood cells – essential production of new Red Blood Cells– essential production of new Red Blood Cells occurs within cavity of the long bones. Production levels are high during growthoccurs within cavity of the long bones. Production levels are high during growth years, reducing as age increases and need for high rates of RBC decreases.years, reducing as age increases and need for high rates of RBC decreases. Haemoglobin transports 02 inside RBC and much of adult’s bone activity are filledHaemoglobin transports 02 inside RBC and much of adult’s bone activity are filled with yellow bone marrow, a source of long-term energy.with yellow bone marrow, a source of long-term energy.
  7. 7. Bones of the BodyBones of the Body
  8. 8. BonesBones
  9. 9. BonesBones
  10. 10. BonesBones
  11. 11. BonesBones
  12. 12. BonesBones
  13. 13. BonesBones
  14. 14. BonesBones
  15. 15. Major bones of the SkeletonMajor bones of the Skeleton The skeleton is divided intoThe skeleton is divided into two main parts:two main parts:  Axial skeletonAxial skeleton , which, which provides a central supportprovides a central support axis and includes the skull,axis and includes the skull, vertebral column, sternumvertebral column, sternum and ribsand ribs  Appendicular skeletonAppendicular skeleton ,, which includes the bones ofwhich includes the bones of the limbs, together with thethe limbs, together with the shoulder girdle and pelvicshoulder girdle and pelvic girdle, which support andgirdle, which support and attach them to the axialattach them to the axial skeleton.skeleton.
  16. 16. Vertebral column:Vertebral column: The vertebral column has some special features.The vertebral column has some special features.  Each vertebra has a hollow centre through which the spinal cordEach vertebra has a hollow centre through which the spinal cord travels which controls most conscious movements within the body.travels which controls most conscious movements within the body.  Vertebras increase in size as they descend fromVertebras increase in size as they descend from  cervicalcervical  thoracicthoracic  lumbar region.lumbar region.  Helps to support the weight of the body.Helps to support the weight of the body.  Movement between the (2) vertebrae is limited, but movement of theMovement between the (2) vertebrae is limited, but movement of the vertebral column as a whole is great allowing bending and twisting.vertebral column as a whole is great allowing bending and twisting.  Provides a central structure for maintenance of good posture. This isProvides a central structure for maintenance of good posture. This is dependent on the person maintaining correct levels of strength anddependent on the person maintaining correct levels of strength and flexibility of muscles groups that connect with the vertebral column.flexibility of muscles groups that connect with the vertebral column.  The cervical vertebrae support the head and neck, the thoracicThe cervical vertebrae support the head and neck, the thoracic vertebra anchor the ribs and strong weight bearing regions towards thevertebra anchor the ribs and strong weight bearing regions towards the bottom of the vertebral column and provide a stable centre of gravitybottom of the vertebral column and provide a stable centre of gravity during movement.during movement.
  17. 17. The Articular SystemThe Articular System An articulation is the place ofAn articulation is the place of union between two or moreunion between two or more bones.bones. There are three different types ofThere are three different types of articulation (or joints),articulation (or joints), determined by the degree ofdetermined by the degree of movement they permitmovement they permit 1.1. Fibrous joint (immovableFibrous joint (immovable joint)joint) Bones are united by short bandsBones are united by short bands of fibrous tissue at their ends egof fibrous tissue at their ends eg skull bones, pelvic bones andskull bones, pelvic bones and sternum.sternum.
  18. 18. The Articular SystemThe Articular System 2.2. Cartilaginous jointCartilaginous joint (slightly immovable joint)(slightly immovable joint) Bones are united by a disc ofBones are united by a disc of tough fibrous cartilagetough fibrous cartilage separating the ends allowingseparating the ends allowing a small amount of movementa small amount of movement eg vertebral column, pubiceg vertebral column, pubic bones, diaphysis andbones, diaphysis and epiphysis, ribs joining theepiphysis, ribs joining the sternum.sternum.
  19. 19. The Articular SystemThe Articular System 3.3. Synovial joints (moveableSynovial joints (moveable joints)joints)  All synovial joints have aAll synovial joints have a capsule that encloses thecapsule that encloses the joint spacejoint space  Synovial membrane linesSynovial membrane lines the inner surface of thethe inner surface of the capsule and secretescapsule and secretes synovial fluid into the jointsynovial fluid into the joint cavity to keep it lubricated.cavity to keep it lubricated.  Shock absorbent articularShock absorbent articular cartilage is found on thecartilage is found on the ends of the bones toends of the bones to protect then from wear andprotect then from wear and tear.tear.  Eg knee, hip, elbow jointsEg knee, hip, elbow joints
  20. 20. Types of Synovial JointsTypes of Synovial Joints
  21. 21. Types of Synovial JointsTypes of Synovial Joints Hinge Joint Pivot Joint Ovoid (ellipsoid) joint Gliding (plane) joint Saddle Joint Ball and Socket joint JOINT TYPEJOINT TYPE DESCRIPTIONDESCRIPTION EXAMPLEEXAMPLE Allows back and forthAllows back and forth movement, such asmovement, such as bending andbending and straightening.straightening. Uniaxial.Uniaxial. Knee, knuckle, ankle andKnee, knuckle, ankle and elbowelbow Allows rotation only.Allows rotation only. Uniaxial.Uniaxial. Between atlas and axis,Between atlas and axis, between radius andbetween radius and humerus.humerus. Allows back and forthAllows back and forth and side to sideand side to side movement,movement, Biaxial.Biaxial. Between carpals andBetween carpals and radius; betweenradius; between metacarpal and phalange.metacarpal and phalange. Flat bones slide onFlat bones slide on each other. Side toeach other. Side to side and back andside and back and forth movement.forth movement. Biaxial.Biaxial. Between carpals, tarsals,Between carpals, tarsals, ribs and thoracic vertebrae.ribs and thoracic vertebrae. Allows back and forthAllows back and forth and side to sideand side to side movements.movements. Biaxial.Biaxial. Between carpal andBetween carpal and metacarpals of thumbmetacarpals of thumb Allows side to side,Allows side to side, back and forth andback and forth and Hip and shoulder joint;Hip and shoulder joint; head of femur/humerus fitshead of femur/humerus fits
  22. 22. Structures within the SynovialStructures within the Synovial JointsJoints
  23. 23. Movements of the SynovialMovements of the Synovial JointsJoints
  24. 24. Movements of the Synovial Joints and their definitionsMovements of the Synovial Joints and their definitions FlexionFlexion A decrease in the angle of a jointA decrease in the angle of a joint ExtensionExtension In increase in the angle of a jointIn increase in the angle of a joint Lateral FlexionLateral Flexion Flexion sidewaysFlexion sideways HyperextensionHyperextension Extension beyond that seen in the anatomical positionExtension beyond that seen in the anatomical position Horizontal flexionHorizontal flexion Flexion in the shoulder joint where the arm moves close toFlexion in the shoulder joint where the arm moves close to the body in a horizontal planethe body in a horizontal plane Horizontal extensionHorizontal extension Extension in the shoulder joint where the arm moves awayExtension in the shoulder joint where the arm moves away from the body in a horizontal planefrom the body in a horizontal plane AbductionAbduction Movement of a body part away from the midline of theMovement of a body part away from the midline of the bodybody AdductionAdduction Movement of a body part back toward the midline of theMovement of a body part back toward the midline of the bodybody RotationRotation Movement of a body part around its longitudinal axisMovement of a body part around its longitudinal axis PronationPronation Rotation of the palm of the hand downwards or inwardsRotation of the palm of the hand downwards or inwards SupinationSupination Rotation of the palm of the hand upwards or outwardsRotation of the palm of the hand upwards or outwards Plantar flexionPlantar flexion An increase in the angle between the foot and the tibia inAn increase in the angle between the foot and the tibia in the ankle joint (toes pointed)the ankle joint (toes pointed) Dorsi flexionDorsi flexion A decrease in the angle between the foot and the tibia inA decrease in the angle between the foot and the tibia in the ankle jointthe ankle joint ElevationElevation Upward movement of the scapulaUpward movement of the scapula DepressionDepression Downward movement of the scapulaDownward movement of the scapula InversionInversion Movement of the sole of the foot inwards at the ankleMovement of the sole of the foot inwards at the ankle EversionEversion Movement of the side of the foot outwards at the ankleMovement of the side of the foot outwards at the ankle CircumductionCircumduction Movement of the end of the bones in a circular motionMovement of the end of the bones in a circular motion

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