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  • Physical Activity
    Defined as participation in some sort of bodily exercise, either on a recreational or occupational basis.
    Play
    “An enjoyable experience derived from behaviour which is self-initiated, tolerant of abilities, and develops rules spontaneously. It does not have a predetermined ending with a victor or reward.”
    (Singer, 1975)
    Sport
    Sport is a human activity that involves “specific organisational and historical background of rules which define the object and limit the pattern of human behaviour; it involves competition or challenge and a definite outcome primarily determined by physical skill.”
    (Singer, 1975)
    Healthvs. Physical Fitness
    Health is a state of complete physical, mental, social and emotional wellbeing.
    Health can be defined as TOTAL FITNESS. Social WellbeingPhysical Wellbeing
  • Transcript

    • 1. Health, EnergyHealth, Energy Systems, Training andSystems, Training and ImprovingImproving PerformancePerformance Semester 2Semester 2 Term 4Term 4
    • 2. Physical ActivityPhysical Activity Defined as participation in some sortDefined as participation in some sort of bodily exercise, either on aof bodily exercise, either on a recreational or occupational basis.recreational or occupational basis. PlayPlay ““An enjoyable experience derivedAn enjoyable experience derived from behaviour which is self-from behaviour which is self- initiated, tolerant of abilities, andinitiated, tolerant of abilities, and develops rules spontaneously. Itdevelops rules spontaneously. It does not have a predetermineddoes not have a predetermined ending with a victor or reward.”ending with a victor or reward.” (Singer, 1975)(Singer, 1975)
    • 3. Sport is a human activity that involvesSport is a human activity that involves “specific organisational and historical“specific organisational and historical background of rules which define thebackground of rules which define the object and limit the pattern of humanobject and limit the pattern of human behaviour; it involves competition orbehaviour; it involves competition or challenge and a definite outcomechallenge and a definite outcome primarily determined by physicalprimarily determined by physical skill.”skill.” (Singer, 1975)(Singer, 1975) HealthHealth vs.vs. Physical FitnessPhysical Fitness Health is a state of complete physical,Health is a state of complete physical, mental, social and emotionalmental, social and emotional wellbeing.wellbeing. Health can be defined asHealth can be defined as TOTALTOTAL FITNESSFITNESS..
    • 4. Health Social Wellbeing Emotional Wellbeing Mental Wellbeing Physical Wellbeing
    • 5. A strong relationship and interactionA strong relationship and interaction exists between the 4 aspects.exists between the 4 aspects. Examples.Examples. Self esteem (Emotional) & BodySelf esteem (Emotional) & Body image (Physical)image (Physical) Academic performance (Mental) &Academic performance (Mental) & Activity levels (Physical)Activity levels (Physical) Depression (Mental) & ExerciseDepression (Mental) & Exercise (Physical)(Physical)
    • 6. Physical Fitness can be describedPhysical Fitness can be described as the ability of the body toas the ability of the body to function efficiently andfunction efficiently and effectively allowing an individualeffectively allowing an individual to perform daily tasks with ease,to perform daily tasks with ease, leaving enough energy forleaving enough energy for unexpected emergencies andunexpected emergencies and active leisure time.active leisure time. World Health OrganisationWorld Health Organisation HEALTH relates to the totalHEALTH relates to the total person,person, while FITNESS relates to thewhile FITNESS relates to the physical attributes of a person.physical attributes of a person.
    • 7. INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Exercise Physiology is the descriptionExercise Physiology is the description and explanation of functionaland explanation of functional changes brought about by singlechanges brought about by single (acute) or repeated exercise(acute) or repeated exercise sessions (chronic exercise orsessions (chronic exercise or training), often the object oftraining), often the object of improving the exercise response.improving the exercise response. In this definition the description ofIn this definition the description of functional changes refers to whatfunctional changes refers to what happens to the body and thehappens to the body and the explanation refers to understandingexplanation refers to understanding how the changes occur.how the changes occur.
    • 8. For example,For example, we know that repeated lifting ofwe know that repeated lifting of heavy weights usually results in greaterheavy weights usually results in greater ability to lift even heavier weights.ability to lift even heavier weights. This functional change brought about byThis functional change brought about by repeated bouts of exercise can berepeated bouts of exercise can be explained partly by an increased growth ofexplained partly by an increased growth of muscle tissue and partly by an improvedmuscle tissue and partly by an improved ability of the nervous system to causeability of the nervous system to cause greater number of muscle fibres to contractgreater number of muscle fibres to contract simultaneously for the greatest possiblesimultaneously for the greatest possible force of contraction of the entire muscle.force of contraction of the entire muscle. This understanding of how weight lifting abilityThis understanding of how weight lifting ability develops has led to better trainingdevelops has led to better training programs to improve the liftingprograms to improve the lifting performance.performance.
    • 9. ENERGYENERGY Energy is the capacity to generate activity, to produceEnergy is the capacity to generate activity, to produce or do work.or do work. The Human body produces and uses energy in orderThe Human body produces and uses energy in order to perform a variety of tasks including:to perform a variety of tasks including:  The maintenance of vital autonomous functionsThe maintenance of vital autonomous functions such as electrical brain activity, breathing andsuch as electrical brain activity, breathing and circulation, body temperature regulation andcirculation, body temperature regulation and hormonal activity.hormonal activity.  The digestive process.The digestive process.  Physical activity.Physical activity. Energy comes originally from the food we eat.Energy comes originally from the food we eat. Through digestion, food is broken down and stored inThrough digestion, food is broken down and stored in our cells in the form of chemical energy reservesour cells in the form of chemical energy reserves waiting to be used.waiting to be used. Energy is measured in units, that is, kilojoules orEnergy is measured in units, that is, kilojoules or calories.calories.
    • 10. FUEL FOR EXCERCISEFUEL FOR EXCERCISE Our body’s energy needs come fromOur body’s energy needs come from the breakdown of the nutrientsthe breakdown of the nutrients carbohydrates, fats and proteins, incarbohydrates, fats and proteins, in the food we eat.the food we eat.  CarbohydratesCarbohydrates – preferred source– preferred source of fuelof fuel  ProteinProtein – normally not used as fuel– normally not used as fuel but for growth and repairbut for growth and repair  FatsFats - acts as a concentrated fuel- acts as a concentrated fuel source in muscles. It is the body’ssource in muscles. It is the body’s main source of fuel at rest andmain source of fuel at rest and during prolonged sub maximalduring prolonged sub maximal exercise.exercise.  Water, minerals and vitaminsWater, minerals and vitamins (although not used directly for fuel)(although not used directly for fuel)
    • 11. However, the energy released duringHowever, the energy released during the breakdown of carbohydrates, fatsthe breakdown of carbohydrates, fats and proteins is not immediatelyand proteins is not immediately used. Instead an important energyused. Instead an important energy rich chemical compound known asrich chemical compound known as ATP (adenosine triphosphate) isATP (adenosine triphosphate) is formed.formed. Energy is released when ATP isEnergy is released when ATP is broken down. The ATP stored in thebroken down. The ATP stored in the muscles is used up within seconds,muscles is used up within seconds, so it is vital to keep making ATP soso it is vital to keep making ATP so the muscles can keep contracting.the muscles can keep contracting.
    • 12. Energy for muscular activity comesEnergy for muscular activity comes from the chemical compoundfrom the chemical compound ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPATE (ATP).ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPATE (ATP). This compound contains anThis compound contains an adenosine molecule with three (tri)adenosine molecule with three (tri) phosphate groups attached.phosphate groups attached. ATP stored in the muscles is very smallATP stored in the muscles is very small and lasts only 1 – 2 seconds. Theand lasts only 1 – 2 seconds. The body is able to replenish as quick asbody is able to replenish as quick as it is broken down. This is achievedit is broken down. This is achieved by resynthesising (rebuilding) ATPby resynthesising (rebuilding) ATP through the break down of reservethrough the break down of reserve fuels.fuels.
    • 13. ATP DEPLETIONATP DEPLETION As the duration of exercise increasesAs the duration of exercise increases and as the reserves of ATP stored inand as the reserves of ATP stored in the muscles runs out, our bodythe muscles runs out, our body needs to find new ways ofneeds to find new ways of resynthesising ATP, otherwise weresynthesising ATP, otherwise we would collapse from exhaustion.would collapse from exhaustion. The body solves this problem by goingThe body solves this problem by going back to the stored nutrients toback to the stored nutrients to resynthesise more ATP.resynthesise more ATP. These stored nutrients are used in aThese stored nutrients are used in a particular order as illustrated below:particular order as illustrated below:
    • 14. THREE ENERGY SYSTEMSTHREE ENERGY SYSTEMS 1.1. The ATP-PC System also called the alactacidThe ATP-PC System also called the alactacid systemsystem 2.2. The Lactic Acid System also call anaerobicThe Lactic Acid System also call anaerobic glycolysisglycolysis 3.3. The Aerobic System also called the oxygen systemThe Aerobic System also called the oxygen system Which Energy System is Used and When?Which Energy System is Used and When? There are many factors which determine which energyThere are many factors which determine which energy system is used and when, depending on:system is used and when, depending on:  Whether the individual is resting or exercising (orWhether the individual is resting or exercising (or both)both)  The duration of the exerciseThe duration of the exercise  The intensity of the exerciseThe intensity of the exercise  The athlete’s level of fitness at the timeThe athlete’s level of fitness at the time The body needs a combination of the three energyThe body needs a combination of the three energy systems to supply energy for most activitiessystems to supply energy for most activities particularly team games.particularly team games.