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Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
Sports Performance Fitness
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Sports Performance Fitness

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  • 1. Energy Systems andEnergy Systems and Human FitnessHuman Fitness Fitness and training principlesFitness and training principles
  • 2. FitnessFitness The World Health Organisation defines fitness as:The World Health Organisation defines fitness as: The ability to carry out daily tasks (work and play) withThe ability to carry out daily tasks (work and play) with vigour and alertness, without undue fatigue and withvigour and alertness, without undue fatigue and with ample reserve energy, to enjoy leisure time pursuits andample reserve energy, to enjoy leisure time pursuits and to meet unforseen emergencies. (Williams, P (et al),to meet unforseen emergencies. (Williams, P (et al), page 76, 1999)page 76, 1999) Health refers to the absence of disease or illnessHealth refers to the absence of disease or illness whereas physical fitness is an individual matter relatedwhereas physical fitness is an individual matter related to the specific needs of each individual and theto the specific needs of each individual and the requirements of their sport.requirements of their sport.
  • 3. Components of FitnessComponents of Fitness 1. Health related (physiological) components • Cardiorespiratory endurance/aerobic power • Muscular strength • Local muscular endurance • Anaerobic power • Flexibility • Body composition 2. Sport (motor skill) related components • Speed • Muscular power • Agility • Coordination • Balance • Reaction time
  • 4. Energy Anaerobic Aerobic ATP-PC System Lactic Acid System Oxygen System Anaerobic power and speed Local muscular endurance cardio- Muscular strength respiratory Muscular power endurance Agility Balance Reaction time
  • 5. Components of fitnessComponents of fitness Cardiorespiratory Endurance / Aerobic PowerCardiorespiratory Endurance / Aerobic Power  This is the ability of the heart, lungs and blood vesselsThis is the ability of the heart, lungs and blood vessels (circulatory and respiratory systems) to deliver oxygen and(circulatory and respiratory systems) to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the tissues of the body and to remove waste productsnutrients to the tissues of the body and to remove waste products such as carbon dioxide. It is also known as aerobic endurance,such as carbon dioxide. It is also known as aerobic endurance, cardiovascular fitness or aerobic capacity.cardiovascular fitness or aerobic capacity.  Allows an individual to perform tasks involving the whole body forAllows an individual to perform tasks involving the whole body for extended periods of time at a sub maximal intensityextended periods of time at a sub maximal intensity  Fitness Test – 20-metre shuttle-runFitness Test – 20-metre shuttle-run Muscular StrengthMuscular Strength  This is the ability of your muscles to exert a force in a singleThis is the ability of your muscles to exert a force in a single maximal contraction. It is important in sports where a positionmaximal contraction. It is important in sports where a position needs to be acquired and maintained against an opponent orneeds to be acquired and maintained against an opponent or where an object has to be forcefully moved.where an object has to be forcefully moved.  Combines with speed to produce Muscular PowerCombines with speed to produce Muscular Power  Fitness test – Grip strengthFitness test – Grip strength
  • 6. Components of fitnessComponents of fitness Local Muscular EnduranceLocal Muscular Endurance  This is the ability of a muscle or group of muscles to sustain an activity for a period of time at less than maximal effort. Local fatigue (rather than general exhaustion) is the limiting factor. It includes activities such as push-ups, sit-ups and chin-ups. A major limiting factor of local muscular endurance is an athlete’s ability to tolerate lactic acid.  Fitness test: Sit-ups, push-ups and pull-ups. Anaerobic PowerAnaerobic Power  This is the ability to produce energy quickly (without using oxygen). The efficiency of ATP-PC and lactic acid energy systems plays an important role within this fitness component. Covers two types of effort:  maximal efforts <10secs  near maximal effort for up to 2 mins
  • 7. Components of fitnessComponents of fitness FlexibilityFlexibility  This refers to the range of possible movement about a joint orThis refers to the range of possible movement about a joint or sequence of joints. Muscles, tendons, ligaments and jointsequence of joints. Muscles, tendons, ligaments and joint structure affect it. It is important for injury prevention. Flexibilitystructure affect it. It is important for injury prevention. Flexibility can be either static or dynamic. Dynamic or active flexibility iscan be either static or dynamic. Dynamic or active flexibility is concerned with how easily a limb can be moved through its rangeconcerned with how easily a limb can be moved through its range of motions when executing a skill such as the arm action inof motions when executing a skill such as the arm action in backstroke. Static flexibility is concerned with determining thebackstroke. Static flexibility is concerned with determining the ability to move a joint to its maximum range of motions such asability to move a joint to its maximum range of motions such as doing the splits.doing the splits.  The structure of a joint affects flexibility. The more stable a joint,The structure of a joint affects flexibility. The more stable a joint, the greater the strength but the less flexibility it allows. Forthe greater the strength but the less flexibility it allows. For example, the ball and socket joint of the hip is more stable thanexample, the ball and socket joint of the hip is more stable than the shoulder joint, but allows less movement.the shoulder joint, but allows less movement.  Fitness tests: sit and reach testFitness tests: sit and reach test Body compositionBody composition  The relative percentage of muscle, fat, bone and other tissue ofThe relative percentage of muscle, fat, bone and other tissue of which a body is composedwhich a body is composed  Fitness test – skin foldsFitness test – skin folds
  • 8. Components of fitnessComponents of fitness SpeedSpeed  Speed is the ability to move the whole body or a body partSpeed is the ability to move the whole body or a body part from one point to another in the shortest possible timefrom one point to another in the shortest possible time such as sprinting, speed skating and the run up in longsuch as sprinting, speed skating and the run up in long jump. Can be present as whole body speed or body partjump. Can be present as whole body speed or body part speed. Speed relates to other fitness components forspeed. Speed relates to other fitness components for example speed is dependant upon strength and muscularexample speed is dependant upon strength and muscular power is dependent upon strength and speed. Duringpower is dependent upon strength and speed. During speed events however, an athlete has the ability to reachspeed events however, an athlete has the ability to reach maximum energy capacity.maximum energy capacity.  Fitness test – Running 40 metre sprintsFitness test – Running 40 metre sprints Muscular PowerMuscular Power  This is the ability to use strength rapidly to produce anThis is the ability to use strength rapidly to produce an explosive maximal effort. It is dependent upon theexplosive maximal effort. It is dependent upon the interaction of strength and speed. Relies on anaerobicinteraction of strength and speed. Relies on anaerobic energy production and white twitch muscle fibres.energy production and white twitch muscle fibres. Examples include shot put, discus, hammer throw andExamples include shot put, discus, hammer throw and jumping events as well as the rebound in basketball.jumping events as well as the rebound in basketball.  Fitness test: standing long jump and vertical jumpFitness test: standing long jump and vertical jump
  • 9. Components of fitnessComponents of fitness AgilityAgility  The ability to rapidly and accurately change the directionThe ability to rapidly and accurately change the direction of the body in space. It is related to power, speed,of the body in space. It is related to power, speed, flexibility, balance and coordination. Activities thatflexibility, balance and coordination. Activities that exemplify agility include dodging; weaving and turning thatexemplify agility include dodging; weaving and turning that are commonly seen in football, netball, tennis, squash andare commonly seen in football, netball, tennis, squash and basketball.basketball.  Fitness test: Illinois agility testFitness test: Illinois agility test CoordinationCoordination  This can be described as the smooth and accurate flow ofThis can be described as the smooth and accurate flow of movement in the execution of a physical task. It involvesmovement in the execution of a physical task. It involves the nervous system and the musculoskeletal systemthe nervous system and the musculoskeletal system working together. Examples include hand-eye and foot-working together. Examples include hand-eye and foot- eye coordination in activities such as the lay up ineye coordination in activities such as the lay up in basketball, the spike in volleyball, the racquet swing inbasketball, the spike in volleyball, the racquet swing in tennis and ball control in soccer.tennis and ball control in soccer.  Fitness test: Half flip stick testFitness test: Half flip stick test
  • 10. Components of fitnessComponents of fitness BalanceBalance  This is the ability to maintain the equilibrium of the body.This is the ability to maintain the equilibrium of the body. For example static balance involves maintaining theFor example static balance involves maintaining the equilibrium in one fixed position such as a gymnastequilibrium in one fixed position such as a gymnast holding on the parallel bars. Dynamic balance involvesholding on the parallel bars. Dynamic balance involves maintaining the equilibrium while moving including amaintaining the equilibrium while moving including a gymnast swinging on the parallel bars.gymnast swinging on the parallel bars.  Fitness test: Standing static balanceFitness test: Standing static balance Reaction TimeReaction Time  This refers to the athlete’s ability to process informationThis refers to the athlete’s ability to process information via the nervous system and react. Time elapsed betweenvia the nervous system and react. Time elapsed between stimulus and initiation of a response to the stimulus (Itstimulus and initiation of a response to the stimulus (It involves the time it takes for the brain to receiveinvolves the time it takes for the brain to receive information from the senses, process the information,information from the senses, process the information, formulate a response and transmit this response toformulate a response and transmit this response to nerves and finally for the muscles to contract). Examplesnerves and finally for the muscles to contract). Examples include the delay between the starter’s gun and theinclude the delay between the starter’s gun and the athlete blasting out of the blocks.athlete blasting out of the blocks.  Fitness test: Latham Reaction Time testFitness test: Latham Reaction Time test
  • 11. Principles of trainingPrinciples of training When applied to a program, trainingWhen applied to a program, training principles can positively affect anprinciples can positively affect an athlete’s performance. Someathlete’s performance. Some training principles include:training principles include:  SpecificitySpecificity  Progressive overloadProgressive overload  FITT:FITT:  FrequencyFrequency  IntensityIntensity  TimeTime  TypeType  VarietyVariety  ReversibilityReversibility
  • 12. SpecificitySpecificity The athlete must train the specific:The athlete must train the specific:  Energy systems usedEnergy systems used  Fitness components usedFitness components used  Muscle groups usedMuscle groups used  Skills usedSkills used This training principle also allows the athlete toThis training principle also allows the athlete to choose the most suitable training methods forchoose the most suitable training methods for improving performance.improving performance. Example – an endurance athlete would include aExample – an endurance athlete would include a large amount of continuous running into theirlarge amount of continuous running into their training program to develop aerobic capacity andtraining program to develop aerobic capacity and increase cardiorespiratory efficiency. On the otherincrease cardiorespiratory efficiency. On the other hand, a weightlifter would incorporate a significanthand, a weightlifter would incorporate a significant amount of weights into their training program toamount of weights into their training program to develop muscular strength.develop muscular strength. Training should be specific to the physiologicalTraining should be specific to the physiological adaptations required at the time.adaptations required at the time.
  • 13. Progressive OverloadProgressive Overload Improvements in performance occur as a result ofImprovements in performance occur as a result of adaptation to stress. An increase in the trainingadaptation to stress. An increase in the training workload will bring about physiological changes thatworkload will bring about physiological changes that make the body more capable of coping withmake the body more capable of coping with stresses that may be placed upon it. To gainstresses that may be placed upon it. To gain maximum benefits from training, workloads must bemaximum benefits from training, workloads must be gradually adjusted upwards as adaptation to stressgradually adjusted upwards as adaptation to stress occurs which is also known as progressiveoccurs which is also known as progressive overload.overload. Increases in workload can lead to possibleIncreases in workload can lead to possible excessive stress, injury or illness. ‘No pain, no gain’excessive stress, injury or illness. ‘No pain, no gain’ is a popular misconception. There is no need foris a popular misconception. There is no need for pain during physiological adaptations to training.pain during physiological adaptations to training. Pain is an indicator that something is wrong andPain is an indicator that something is wrong and that training should be modified.that training should be modified.
  • 14. FITT principlesFITT principles One way of monitoring the application of the specificOne way of monitoring the application of the specific overload principle is the inclusion of the FITT principlesoverload principle is the inclusion of the FITT principles into a training program.into a training program.  FrequencyFrequency: refers to how often you train, specifically how: refers to how often you train, specifically how many days per week. Individuals seeking to improve theirmany days per week. Individuals seeking to improve their aerobic fitness must train at least 3-4 times per week.aerobic fitness must train at least 3-4 times per week.  IntensityIntensity: refers to how hard you train. To apply the: refers to how hard you train. To apply the overload principle in terms of intensity, the heart rate mustoverload principle in terms of intensity, the heart rate must be increased to a target heart rate. Heart rate shouldbe increased to a target heart rate. Heart rate should remain within the target zone for at least 20 minutesremain within the target zone for at least 20 minutes fitness is to improve. It is vital that a critical thresholdfitness is to improve. It is vital that a critical threshold exists and that unless that point is reached andexists and that unless that point is reached and maintained, then improvements cannot be made.maintained, then improvements cannot be made. Exercise levels that allow the heart rate to remain withinExercise levels that allow the heart rate to remain within the target zone will result in the training effect and thethe target zone will result in the training effect and the body will make the appropriate adaptations.body will make the appropriate adaptations.  Critical Threshold (CT) = Resting HR (RHR) + 60% ofCritical Threshold (CT) = Resting HR (RHR) + 60% of Working HR (WHR)Working HR (WHR)  WHR = MHR – RHRWHR = MHR – RHR (MHR = 220 - your age)(MHR = 220 - your age)
  • 15. FITT principlesFITT principles TimeTime: refers to how long the training: refers to how long the training session will last. To be effective, trainingsession will last. To be effective, training sessions must last longer than 20 minutessessions must last longer than 20 minutes and the heart rate must stay in the targetand the heart rate must stay in the target zone for that period of time. The bestzone for that period of time. The best results occur when training lasts fromresults occur when training lasts from between 30-60 minutes.between 30-60 minutes. TypeType: Activities need to be specific for the: Activities need to be specific for the type of improvement desired. To improvetype of improvement desired. To improve cardio-respiratory endurance, activitiescardio-respiratory endurance, activities should be aerobic, being continuous andshould be aerobic, being continuous and sustained throughout the exercise. This issustained throughout the exercise. This is so the oxygen system is the predominantso the oxygen system is the predominant system for energy requirements. Suchsystem for energy requirements. Such activities include jogging, cycling andactivities include jogging, cycling and swimming.swimming.
  • 16. FITT principlesFITT principles Summary of FITT principles:  F – times per week = 3 or >  I – 75% of MHR = 220 - age x 0.75 = Target Zone  T = 20-30 minutes with HR in target zone  T = continuous aerobic activity with HR in target zone to develop cardio respiratory fitness.
  • 17. Variety and ReversibilityVariety and Reversibility VarietyVariety  Provided that the major principle of specificity is notProvided that the major principle of specificity is not ignored, variety in training activities can beignored, variety in training activities can be beneficial. It can assist in maintaining interest andbeneficial. It can assist in maintaining interest and motivation although it doesn’t specifically aidmotivation although it doesn’t specifically aid performance.performance. ReversibilityReversibility  The effects of training programs are reversible. InThe effects of training programs are reversible. In the same way that the body responds to training bythe same way that the body responds to training by improving the level of fitness, lack of training causesimproving the level of fitness, lack of training causes the opposite to occur. The reversibility processthe opposite to occur. The reversibility process applies equally to aerobic, anaerobic and strengthapplies equally to aerobic, anaerobic and strength training programs.training programs.  Duration of training has an effect on reversibility. ADuration of training has an effect on reversibility. A fast build up will cause a rapid loss if trainingfast build up will cause a rapid loss if training ceases, whereas a slow build up will result in a slowceases, whereas a slow build up will result in a slow loss.loss.
  • 18. Training MethodsTraining Methods These are the different types of training undertaken toThese are the different types of training undertaken to achieve the desired improvements in fitness.achieve the desired improvements in fitness. Continuous TrainingContinuous Training This type of training involves performing an activity for anThis type of training involves performing an activity for an extended period of time, (usually longer than 20 minutes)extended period of time, (usually longer than 20 minutes) at a required intensity, without a rest period. It is subat a required intensity, without a rest period. It is sub maximal and requires an intensity of 65 – 85% of HRmaximal and requires an intensity of 65 – 85% of HR max. This is called themax. This is called the Target Training ZoneTarget Training Zone.. Continuous training works the aerobic energy system andContinuous training works the aerobic energy system and examples include swimming, jogging, rowing, cross-examples include swimming, jogging, rowing, cross- country skiing and cycling.country skiing and cycling. Overloading continuous Training:Overloading continuous Training: To incur physiological adaptations progressive overload isTo incur physiological adaptations progressive overload is necessary and can be implemented by manipulating thenecessary and can be implemented by manipulating the following variables:following variables:  Increase the duration of work (length)Increase the duration of work (length)  Increase the intensity of work by:Increase the intensity of work by:  Increasing the distanceIncreasing the distance  Decreasing the time taken to complete the same distance.Decreasing the time taken to complete the same distance.  FrequencyFrequency
  • 19. Interval trainingInterval training This is a type of training in which periods of work areThis is a type of training in which periods of work are alternated with periods of rest or recovery. Each energyalternated with periods of rest or recovery. Each energy system can be developed, depending on the length of thesystem can be developed, depending on the length of the work and rest periods. The design of this training allowswork and rest periods. The design of this training allows for periods of activity where the energy fuels ATP and PCfor periods of activity where the energy fuels ATP and PC are depleted. By following the work period with a restare depleted. By following the work period with a rest period there is time for the replenishment of these fuels.period there is time for the replenishment of these fuels. This provides the athlete with enough energy to performThis provides the athlete with enough energy to perform at a high intensity during the work period and recoverat a high intensity during the work period and recover during the rest period. The length and time of the workduring the rest period. The length and time of the work interval determines which energy system and fitnessinterval determines which energy system and fitness components are predominately trained.components are predominately trained. Interval training produces very specific training effectsInterval training produces very specific training effects including efficiency in the desired energy system. Theincluding efficiency in the desired energy system. The depletion-replenishment pattern allows the capacity of thedepletion-replenishment pattern allows the capacity of the ATP-PC and lactic acid system to be increased. WhenATP-PC and lactic acid system to be increased. When developing interval training, the following factors can bedeveloping interval training, the following factors can be altered to meet the specific needs of each sport:altered to meet the specific needs of each sport:
  • 20. Variable Description Example Work interval distance The distance of the work 60 metres Work interval time Time in which work must be completed 8 seconds Rest interval time Time between work intervals 40 secs Rest interval type The nature of rest between work intervals Walk Work intensity How hard work is to be done (% of HR) 95% Repetitions Number of work periods in a sequence 8 Sets Number of repetition sequences 3 Frequency Number of training sessions per week 3 Planning Interval trainingPlanning Interval training
  • 21. Examples of Interval trainingExamples of Interval training for runningfor running Energy system Interv al distanc e Interv al time Work intensi ty Reps Sets Rest interva l Work to rest ratio Traini ng frequ ency Suitable sports ATP- PC 60m 8 secs 95% HR max 8 3 40 sec 1:5 3 100m Team Sports Lactic Acid 400m 75 secs 85% HR max 4 2 150 sec 1:2 3 400m Team Sports Aerobi c 1000m 180 secs 75 - 85% HR max 3 2 180 sec 1:1 4 - 5 1500m 10 km Team Sports
  • 22. Work to rest ratioWork to rest ratio Is established by breaking an activity into work and restIs established by breaking an activity into work and rest components. It indicates how much work is completed incomponents. It indicates how much work is completed in an activity in proportion to how much rest is available.an activity in proportion to how much rest is available. Formula for developing an Interval Training Program:Formula for developing an Interval Training Program: 1.1. Divide the personal best time by the percentage of HRDivide the personal best time by the percentage of HR max to calculate the work interval time (7.5 sec / 95% =max to calculate the work interval time (7.5 sec / 95% = 7.8 seconds)7.8 seconds) 2.2. Multiply the work interval time by the appropriate energyMultiply the work interval time by the appropriate energy system ratio to establish rest interval timesystem ratio to establish rest interval time 3.3. Use a higher number of repetitions and sets for shorterUse a higher number of repetitions and sets for shorter work intervalswork intervals 1:5 Phosphate energy system (ATP-PC) 1:2 Lactic Acid Energy system 1:1 Aerobic Energy system
  • 23. Overloading Interval TrainingOverloading Interval Training To incur physiological adaptationsTo incur physiological adaptations progressive overload is necessaryprogressive overload is necessary and can be implemented byand can be implemented by manipulating the following variables:manipulating the following variables:  Increase the duration of workIncrease the duration of work  Increase the intensity of work by:Increase the intensity of work by:  Decreasing the duration of restDecreasing the duration of rest  Increasing the number of sets perIncreasing the number of sets per sessionsession  Increasing the number of repetitions perIncreasing the number of repetitions per set.set.
  • 24. Fartlek trainingFartlek training Fartlek training is a variation of continuous training.Fartlek training is a variation of continuous training. It involves continuous activity with short bursts ofIt involves continuous activity with short bursts of intense work at regular stages throughout theintense work at regular stages throughout the activity (changes in the intensity or adjustments toactivity (changes in the intensity or adjustments to the training environment). Fartlek is a Swedishthe training environment). Fartlek is a Swedish term meaning ‘speed play’. The changes interm meaning ‘speed play’. The changes in intensity use all three energy systems, which canintensity use all three energy systems, which can resemble specific activities and simulates the natureresemble specific activities and simulates the nature of team sports. An example is an athlete, whileof team sports. An example is an athlete, while running, performs 5-10 seconds of intense workrunning, performs 5-10 seconds of intense work every 3-4 minutes.every 3-4 minutes. Overloading Fartlek training:Overloading Fartlek training:  Increasing the frequency of the intense burstsIncreasing the frequency of the intense bursts  Increasing the duration of the intense burstsIncreasing the duration of the intense bursts  Increasing the distance coveredIncreasing the distance covered  Covering the same distance in a reduced timeCovering the same distance in a reduced time  Running against the windRunning against the wind  Running in sandRunning in sand
  • 25. Circuit trainingCircuit training Circuit training involves working at a number ofCircuit training involves working at a number of activity stations in a sequence. There are generallyactivity stations in a sequence. There are generally 5 – 15 stations that focus on specific components of5 – 15 stations that focus on specific components of fitness. Circuits are able to develop a number offitness. Circuits are able to develop a number of fitness components, including aerobic power,fitness components, including aerobic power, strength, power, local muscular endurance andstrength, power, local muscular endurance and agility.agility.  There are three types of circuit:There are three types of circuit:  Fixed load – each station has a set number of reps toFixed load – each station has a set number of reps to be completedbe completed  Fixed time – completion of as many reps as possibleFixed time – completion of as many reps as possible in the allotted time.in the allotted time.  Individual load – individually designed where theIndividual load – individually designed where the person performs the maximum reps at each stationperson performs the maximum reps at each station for one minute. These are then halved and thefor one minute. These are then halved and the person completes the circuit 3 times to determine anperson completes the circuit 3 times to determine an initial time. Target time is then set at two thirds of theinitial time. Target time is then set at two thirds of the initial time.initial time.
  • 26. Circuit TrainingCircuit Training Stations 1 min score Half score Date Date Skipping 50 25 Sit-ups 60 30 Push-ups 50 25 Agility run 6 3 Basketball throw 20 10 Step-ups 50 25 Medicine ball throw 20 10 Ladder climb 6 3 Shuttle run 10 5 Initial time 21 min Target time 14 min
  • 27. Overloading Circuit TrainingOverloading Circuit Training  Increasing the resistanceIncreasing the resistance  Increasing the repetitionsIncreasing the repetitions  Increasing the repetitions but decreasingIncreasing the repetitions but decreasing the time it takes to complete themthe time it takes to complete them  Increasing the number of laps of the circuit.Increasing the number of laps of the circuit.  Changing the length or type of recovery.Changing the length or type of recovery. The variety of this type of training isThe variety of this type of training is particularly beneficial plus not a lot ofparticularly beneficial plus not a lot of equipment is required.equipment is required.
  • 28. Strength/Weight/Resistance TrainingStrength/Weight/Resistance Training Builds strength, power, or local muscular endurance by exercising muscleBuilds strength, power, or local muscular endurance by exercising muscle groups against a resistance. It is important to identify the muscle groupsgroups against a resistance. It is important to identify the muscle groups involved and the actions performed that reflect the needs of your sport.involved and the actions performed that reflect the needs of your sport. Strength training needs to be performed a minimum of 3 times a week for atStrength training needs to be performed a minimum of 3 times a week for at least 30 minutes for a minimum of 6 weeks, for adaptation to occur.least 30 minutes for a minimum of 6 weeks, for adaptation to occur. Generally it is high weights and low reps for strength and low weights – highGenerally it is high weights and low reps for strength and low weights – high reps for endurance.reps for endurance. There are 3 types of resistance training:There are 3 types of resistance training: 1.1. ISOTONIC (free weights)ISOTONIC (free weights)  Dynamic and involves lifting a set weight through the range of motion of aDynamic and involves lifting a set weight through the range of motion of a joint.joint.  There are two distinct phases, theThere are two distinct phases, the concentric phaseconcentric phase (where the muscle(where the muscle contracts against the force of gravity) and thecontracts against the force of gravity) and the eccentric phaseeccentric phase (where the(where the muscle lengthens under tension with the force of gravity)muscle lengthens under tension with the force of gravity)  The muscle is not being trained maximally at the strongest point ofThe muscle is not being trained maximally at the strongest point of contraction.contraction. 2.2. ISOMETRIC (fixed resistance)ISOMETRIC (fixed resistance)  Holding a muscle in one position while it contracts against a resistance.Holding a muscle in one position while it contracts against a resistance.  Tension in the muscle increases but the muscle stays the same lengthTension in the muscle increases but the muscle stays the same length  Effective in improving strength but only in the static positionEffective in improving strength but only in the static position  Examples include pushing against a stationary resistance (handstand, crucifixExamples include pushing against a stationary resistance (handstand, crucifix on the roman rings, martial arts and wrestling).on the roman rings, martial arts and wrestling). 3.3. ISOKINETIC (resistance by machines)ISOKINETIC (resistance by machines)  Undertaken on Nautiliaus, Cybex, Biodex, or Hydrogym equipment.Undertaken on Nautiliaus, Cybex, Biodex, or Hydrogym equipment.  Machines create resistance so that the muacles are worked maximallyMachines create resistance so that the muacles are worked maximally through the full range not just the weakest points.through the full range not just the weakest points.  Machines control momentum, velocity and direction of movement so completeMachines control momentum, velocity and direction of movement so complete
  • 29. Overloading ResistanceOverloading Resistance TrainingTraining  Increase the resistanceIncrease the resistance  Increase the repetitionsIncrease the repetitions  Increasing the number of setsIncreasing the number of sets  Increasing the frequencyIncreasing the frequency  Changing the length or type ofChanging the length or type of recovery.recovery.
  • 30. PlyometricsPlyometrics Aims to increase muscular power by firstly stretching aAims to increase muscular power by firstly stretching a muscle, then contracting it in the shortest possible time. Itmuscle, then contracting it in the shortest possible time. It is known as a stretch reflex or stretch shortening cycle.is known as a stretch reflex or stretch shortening cycle. Plyometrics trains this reflex to make it faster and morePlyometrics trains this reflex to make it faster and more forceful.forceful. There is a general concern about the safety andThere is a general concern about the safety and appropriateness of plyometrics. The following tableappropriateness of plyometrics. The following table outlines the different stress levels and recovery time:outlines the different stress levels and recovery time: Rating Recovery time Example 1 Very low stress Very rapid Jump rope, ankle bounces 2 Low stress 1 day Tuck jumps 3 Moderate stress 1 – 2 days Stair jumps, short jumps 4 High stress 2 days Hops, bounds, long jumps 5 Very high stress 3 days Depth jumps
  • 31. Flexibility TrainingFlexibility Training Flexibility training improves the range of motion (ROM) at desired joints. ItFlexibility training improves the range of motion (ROM) at desired joints. It is important for maximum performance. The requirements of flexibility varyis important for maximum performance. The requirements of flexibility vary for each sport. In some sports, large range of joint motion is required infor each sport. In some sports, large range of joint motion is required in order to perform certain skills. For improvements to occur trainingorder to perform certain skills. For improvements to occur training frequency needs to be 3 – 4 times per week for a minimum of 4 weeks.frequency needs to be 3 – 4 times per week for a minimum of 4 weeks. There are 4 types of stretching techniques, which can be used:There are 4 types of stretching techniques, which can be used:  Static/ Passive stretching – taking the joint to its full range of motion andStatic/ Passive stretching – taking the joint to its full range of motion and holding it for 20-30 seconds. This is the safest method and is mostholding it for 20-30 seconds. This is the safest method and is most effective in warm-down after exercise.effective in warm-down after exercise.  Active stretching – stretching as far as possible ten slowly contracting theActive stretching – stretching as far as possible ten slowly contracting the agonist while relaxing the antagonist.agonist while relaxing the antagonist.  Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) – involves fullyProprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) – involves fully lengthening the muscle. A partner moves your muscle through the fulllengthening the muscle. A partner moves your muscle through the full ROM until the first hint of discomfort, then provides resistance as yourROM until the first hint of discomfort, then provides resistance as your muscle is contracted isometrically this is held for 6 seconds.muscle is contracted isometrically this is held for 6 seconds.  Ballistic stretching – involves moving through ROM using the momentumBallistic stretching – involves moving through ROM using the momentum created rather than muscle contractions (rhythmically bouncing tocreated rather than muscle contractions (rhythmically bouncing to gradually increase the range of motion). This is potentially dangerous andgradually increase the range of motion). This is potentially dangerous and only specifically conditioned athletes such as dancers and gymnastsonly specifically conditioned athletes such as dancers and gymnasts should use this type of stretching.should use this type of stretching.
  • 32. Training ProgramsTraining Programs Training programs are designed to improve theTraining programs are designed to improve the physiological capacity of an athlete that results in aphysiological capacity of an athlete that results in a personal best performance. Undertaking an activitypersonal best performance. Undertaking an activity analysis identifies the demands of the sport, andanalysis identifies the demands of the sport, and training must be designed to develop physiologicaltraining must be designed to develop physiological capacity to meet these demands.capacity to meet these demands. When designing a training program for an athlete orWhen designing a training program for an athlete or team, it is vital to identify the following:team, it is vital to identify the following:  Predominant energy systemsPredominant energy systems  Major muscle groupsMajor muscle groups  Required fitness componentsRequired fitness components Once these factors have been identified,Once these factors have been identified, appropriate training methods can be decided.appropriate training methods can be decided. Individual training sessions and the entire trainingIndividual training sessions and the entire training year must be also developed and are detailed in theyear must be also developed and are detailed in the following sections.following sections.
  • 33. Training SessionsTraining Sessions Each training session should include a warm up which includesEach training session should include a warm up which includes flexibility exercises, followed by conditioning which includes skillflexibility exercises, followed by conditioning which includes skill development and tactics and finally a cool down to enabledevelopment and tactics and finally a cool down to enable recovery.recovery.  Warm Up and StretchingWarm Up and Stretching  A warm up stimulates the central nervous system and prepares theA warm up stimulates the central nervous system and prepares the body physiologically and psychologically including activating thebody physiologically and psychologically including activating the required energy systems, major joints and muscles. The athleterequired energy systems, major joints and muscles. The athlete should experience increased blood flow, raised muscle temperatureshould experience increased blood flow, raised muscle temperature and sweating in response to a warm up.and sweating in response to a warm up.  Stretching is necessary so that the range of motion around a jointStretching is necessary so that the range of motion around a joint can be increased. It also reduces the risk of injury and is morecan be increased. It also reduces the risk of injury and is more beneficial after a warm up when the body is warm.beneficial after a warm up when the body is warm.  ConditioningConditioning  This period incorporates most of the training session. It includes skillThis period incorporates most of the training session. It includes skill development, game tactics, demonstrations, technique analysis anddevelopment, game tactics, demonstrations, technique analysis and discussion. It is designed on the specific requirements of the sportdiscussion. It is designed on the specific requirements of the sport being played.being played.  Cool Down/RecoveryCool Down/Recovery  This period follows conditioning and is the reverse of the warm up.This period follows conditioning and is the reverse of the warm up. This is achieved through gradually reducing the intensity of theThis is achieved through gradually reducing the intensity of the activity and incorporating flexibility work. Cool down assists inactivity and incorporating flexibility work. Cool down assists in recovery by dissipating lactic acid reducing muscle soreness and stiffrecovery by dissipating lactic acid reducing muscle soreness and stiff joints.joints.
  • 34. Activity Components Time (minutes) No. of music tracks 1. Warm-up Light aerobic activity using those parts of the body required in later vigorous movements ie legs, trunk, shoulders, arms 5 minutes 2 tracks 1. Stretching Slow, controlled stretching of body parts to be used: may use PNF or static stretches 5 minutes 2 tracks 1. Aerobic Exercise routines, jogging, running, dance exercises using large muscle groups: non stop exercise 15 – 20 minutes 6 tracks 1. Strength / tone Using gravity, weights, sandbags or partners for resistance: exercises designed to improve strength/tone of muscles 10 minutes 3 tracks 1. Cool-down Recovery exercises to assist in cardiovascular adjustments; includes stretching to prevent muscle soreness and maintain flexibility 5 – 10 minutes 2 tracks Framework for developing anFramework for developing an aerobic floor class.aerobic floor class.
  • 35. The training year andThe training year and periodisationperiodisation The training year can be divided into three mainThe training year can be divided into three main periods including pre-season, competition and postperiods including pre-season, competition and post season.season. Pre-season (the Preparatory phase)Pre-season (the Preparatory phase)  This period aims at providing a solid fitnessThis period aims at providing a solid fitness foundation for the competition phase.foundation for the competition phase.  Subphase 1 generally lasts 4 – 10 weeks and placesSubphase 1 generally lasts 4 – 10 weeks and places emphasis on the aerobic energy system. The volumeemphasis on the aerobic energy system. The volume of training is high, but the intensity begins low andof training is high, but the intensity begins low and increases very slowly. Specialised programs toincreases very slowly. Specialised programs to remedy any specific weaknesses should be continuedremedy any specific weaknesses should be continued in this phase.in this phase.  Subphase 2 lasts from 2 – 6 weeks and is a moreSubphase 2 lasts from 2 – 6 weeks and is a more specific preparatory phase. There is a shift towardsspecific preparatory phase. There is a shift towards more specific game related fitness and skill work.more specific game related fitness and skill work. There is an increase in intensity with a slow decreaseThere is an increase in intensity with a slow decrease in volume.in volume.  Fitness testing is also carried out during this phase soFitness testing is also carried out during this phase so that weaknesses can be amended.that weaknesses can be amended.
  • 36. The training year andThe training year and periodisationperiodisation Competition (the in-season phase)Competition (the in-season phase)  This stage generally lasts 4 – 6 months with an emphasis on skillThis stage generally lasts 4 – 6 months with an emphasis on skill and strategy, whilst maintaining pre-season fitness. Because ofand strategy, whilst maintaining pre-season fitness. Because of the demands of competition, not every session should be longthe demands of competition, not every session should be long and intense. Sessions later in the week should be lighter andand intense. Sessions later in the week should be lighter and less intense so that players are not still recovering from fatigueless intense so that players are not still recovering from fatigue on competition day. Intensity of activity and drills performedon competition day. Intensity of activity and drills performed should be aimed to have the same intensity as the competition.should be aimed to have the same intensity as the competition. Post Season (the transition or off-season phase)Post Season (the transition or off-season phase)  The off-season phase generally lasts 6 – 12 weeks and shouldThe off-season phase generally lasts 6 – 12 weeks and should be both a psychological and physical break from your sport.be both a psychological and physical break from your sport.  Athletes need to gradually reduce the level of activity but alsoAthletes need to gradually reduce the level of activity but also avoid detraining. Maintenance of a suitable level of fitness andavoid detraining. Maintenance of a suitable level of fitness and ‘playing weight’ is required.‘playing weight’ is required.  The off-season period should also include specialised weightThe off-season period should also include specialised weight training and skill development to remedy any diagnosedtraining and skill development to remedy any diagnosed weaknesses. This may include low intensity weight training andweaknesses. This may include low intensity weight training and running twice a week, supplemented by active recreationalrunning twice a week, supplemented by active recreational games for enjoyment.games for enjoyment.
  • 37. The training yearThe training year Pre-season In-season Off-season Pre-season: Develop energy systems Practice individual skills Develop team play patterns (3 months) In-season: Practice individual skills and team play Maintain energy systems (5 months) Off-season: Remain physically active Remedy diagnosed weaknesses in physical profile (4 months)
  • 38. Physiological Responses andPhysiological Responses and Adaptations to ExerciseAdaptations to Exercise Responses Adaptations HEART Heart rate increases. Cardiac output increases. SV increases from resting level. Coronary circulation increases. Max HR may be achieved. Resting HR decreases. SV increases during rest & work. Blood supply to heart muscle increases during rest & work. Volume of left ventricle increases after aerobic training. Hypertrophy of the left ventricle after anaerobic training. Max HR remains the same. HR at sub-max workloads falls. Cardiac output at max workloads increases.CIRCULATORY SYSTEM Systolic blood pressure increases. Speed of blood flow increases. Body temperature increases. Arterio-venous O2 diff increases. Vasodilation occurs. Redistribution of blood flow. Maintained elasticity of artery walls. Diminished fatty deposits. Low risk of high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Capillary supply to heart and skeletal muscles increases. Blood volume increases. Hemoglobin count increases. Oxygen-carrying capacity of blood
  • 39. Responses Adaptations RESPIRATORY SYSTEM  Breathing rate increases.  TV rises from 0.5L to a max of 5L per breath.  Pulmonary diffusion increases.  Lung ventilation increases from 7.5L/min to a max of 150L/min.  Efficiency of intercostals muscles increases.  Elasticity of lungs improves.  Lung volumes increase.  Pulmonary diffusion increases. MUSCULAR SYSTEM  Motor unit recruitment increases, leading to greater strength of contraction.  Temp increases due to increased blood flow.  ATP production increases.  Phosphates in muscle cell increase.  O2 supply to muscles increase.  Enzyme activity increases.  Glycogen, triglycerides and PC all deplete to produce ATP.  Production of LA, CO2 and other by- products increases. Aerobic Training Effects  Capillarisation to muscles increase.  Mitochondria increase in size and number.  Myoglobin concentration increases.  Triglyceride stores increase.  Glycogen stores increase.  Oxidative enzymes increase.  Lactic acid tolerance increases.  Red muscle fibres hypertrophy to a small degree.  Glycogen sparing as fats are used in preference during sub-max efforts. Anaerobic Training Effects  Hypertrophy of muscles occur (size increase of fast twitch).  Glycogen stores increase.  Capillarisation increases.  PC stores increase.  Muscle stores of ATP increase.  Production of LA at sub-max workload falls.  Speed and force of contraction
  • 40. OTHER Perspiration rate increases. Oxygen consumption increases. Arterio-venous oxygen difference increases slightly at maximal efforts. VO2 max increases by up to 30%. Recovery HR returns to resting levels faster. Lactate thresholds increases.
  • 41. Evaluating Training ProgramsEvaluating Training Programs To evaluate a training program efficiently, it is critical thatTo evaluate a training program efficiently, it is critical that accurate and valid pre-tests and post-tests fitness areaccurate and valid pre-tests and post-tests fitness are conducted. Results of before the training program andconducted. Results of before the training program and after completing the training program should give a goodafter completing the training program should give a good guide as to whether or not the program is successful.guide as to whether or not the program is successful. Key factors in evaluating a training program include:Key factors in evaluating a training program include:  Has there been improvement in:Has there been improvement in:  Test results?Test results?  Performance?Performance?  Did I achieve my training program goals?Did I achieve my training program goals?  Have any factors enhanced participation in the trainingHave any factors enhanced participation in the training program?program?  Was the training schedule adhered to?Was the training schedule adhered to?  How can the training program be improved?How can the training program be improved?  Choose a different or more suitable method of training or modifyChoose a different or more suitable method of training or modify the current method?the current method?  Apply the principles of training (specificity, overload, frequencyApply the principles of training (specificity, overload, frequency etc) more effectively? How?etc) more effectively? How?  Add more interest or variety?Add more interest or variety?
  • 42. BibliographyBibliography Information has been taken from the following resourcesInformation has been taken from the following resources for an educational purpose only.for an educational purpose only. Bradford, M., (1998),Bradford, M., (1998), Queensland Health and PhysicalQueensland Health and Physical EducationEducation, Macmillan Education Australia, South Yarra., Macmillan Education Australia, South Yarra. Fitzgibbon, L. (et al), (1992),Fitzgibbon, L. (et al), (1992), Outcomes: Studies in PersonalOutcomes: Studies in Personal Development, Health and Physical EducationDevelopment, Health and Physical Education, The, The Jacaranda Press, Milton.Jacaranda Press, Milton. Griffin, R., (1981),Griffin, R., (1981), The Biology Colouring BookThe Biology Colouring Book, Barnes and, Barnes and Noble Books, New York.Noble Books, New York. Parker, R., (et al), (2000),Parker, R., (et al), (2000), Health Moves 2Health Moves 2, Heinemann,, Heinemann, Melbourne.Melbourne. Williams, P., (et al), (1999),Williams, P., (et al), (1999), Physical Education for Years 11Physical Education for Years 11 and 12and 12, Nelson Thomas Learning, South Melbourne., Nelson Thomas Learning, South Melbourne. Wright, P., (et al), (2000),Wright, P., (et al), (2000), Inside and Out 3rd EditionInside and Out 3rd Edition, John, John Wiley and Sons, Milton.Wiley and Sons, Milton.

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