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HM Sports Psychology
HM Sports Psychology
HM Sports Psychology
HM Sports Psychology
HM Sports Psychology
HM Sports Psychology
HM Sports Psychology
HM Sports Psychology
HM Sports Psychology
HM Sports Psychology
HM Sports Psychology
HM Sports Psychology
HM Sports Psychology
HM Sports Psychology
HM Sports Psychology
HM Sports Psychology
HM Sports Psychology
HM Sports Psychology
HM Sports Psychology
HM Sports Psychology
HM Sports Psychology
HM Sports Psychology
HM Sports Psychology
HM Sports Psychology
HM Sports Psychology
HM Sports Psychology
HM Sports Psychology
HM Sports Psychology
HM Sports Psychology
HM Sports Psychology
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HM Sports Psychology

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  • 1. Sports PsychologySports Psychology
  • 2. Sports PsychologySports Psychology It is the discipline with the integration ofIt is the discipline with the integration of mental, physical and emotional skillsmental, physical and emotional skills leading to optimal or peak performance.leading to optimal or peak performance. It is commonly known as a science, whichIt is commonly known as a science, which utilises strategies to improve performance,utilises strategies to improve performance, especially in competitive sports.especially in competitive sports. (Macquarie Dictionary, 1992)(Macquarie Dictionary, 1992)
  • 3. No matter how skilful someone may beNo matter how skilful someone may be physically, in sport this can account forphysically, in sport this can account for nothing if he / she is not correctly attunednothing if he / she is not correctly attuned mentally.mentally. A lack of preparation, worries overA lack of preparation, worries over performance, a loss of confidence can allperformance, a loss of confidence can all be poison to a successful performance.be poison to a successful performance. The world of sport is littered withThe world of sport is littered with individuals who never gained the successindividuals who never gained the success that their talent suggested that they shouldthat their talent suggested that they should have had.have had.
  • 4. Peak PerformancePeak Performance Performance is the execution or doing ofPerformance is the execution or doing of work, acts or feats.work, acts or feats. Performance is associated with the way inPerformance is associated with the way in which someone reacts under particularwhich someone reacts under particular conditions or fulfils an intended purpose.conditions or fulfils an intended purpose. This may be sport, music, dance, dramaThis may be sport, music, dance, drama or any activity performed before anor any activity performed before an audience.audience. Performance is subject to evaluation.Performance is subject to evaluation.
  • 5. Peak performance is the highest level orPeak performance is the highest level or quality reached by an individual. It isquality reached by an individual. It is when physical and mental skills comewhen physical and mental skills come together and the performer transcends ortogether and the performer transcends or reaches above ordinary levels.reaches above ordinary levels. These performers have been defined asThese performers have been defined as ‘reaching their peak or optimal level in an‘reaching their peak or optimal level in an episode of superior functioning’.episode of superior functioning’. (Williams and Krane, 1993)(Williams and Krane, 1993)
  • 6. Characteristics of Peak PerformanceCharacteristics of Peak Performance Many studies suggest that peakMany studies suggest that peak performances occur when the person hasperformances occur when the person has mastered the skills at a high level, is inmastered the skills at a high level, is in peak physical condition and has morepeak physical condition and has more potential control over their performance.potential control over their performance.
  • 7. Mental characteristics of peak performance include:Mental characteristics of peak performance include:  Mentally relaxed and calm – an inner calm, a sense of time slowingMentally relaxed and calm – an inner calm, a sense of time slowing down and a high level of focus.down and a high level of focus.  Physically relaxed – muscles are loose with fluid and surePhysically relaxed – muscles are loose with fluid and sure movements, making the performance automatic and effortless.movements, making the performance automatic and effortless.  Confident and optimistic with no fear of negative consequences – aConfident and optimistic with no fear of negative consequences – a positive attitude, are poised, feel strong and are in control.positive attitude, are poised, feel strong and are in control.  Highly focused on the present and are immersed in the task at handHighly focused on the present and are immersed in the task at hand – have a sense of harmony with body / mind and are performing– have a sense of harmony with body / mind and are performing automatically without conscious effort.automatically without conscious effort.  Highly energised – intensely ‘charged’ or ‘hot’ as they are havingHighly energised – intensely ‘charged’ or ‘hot’ as they are having fun.fun.  Extraordinary awareness – an acute ability to respond in harmonyExtraordinary awareness – an acute ability to respond in harmony with their environment.with their environment.  In control of themselves and their performance – body and mindIn control of themselves and their performance – body and mind perform automatically and in unison.perform automatically and in unison.  ‘‘In the zone’ or ‘In the cocoon’ with total commitment to the qualityIn the zone’ or ‘In the cocoon’ with total commitment to the quality or their performance – the feeling of being in an envelope,or their performance – the feeling of being in an envelope, completely detached from the external environment and anycompletely detached from the external environment and any potential distractions. It is a sense of complete access to all ofpotential distractions. It is a sense of complete access to all of one’s powers and skills.one’s powers and skills.
  • 8. Psychological Skills TrainingPsychological Skills Training The advantages ofThe advantages of psychological skillspsychological skills training include:training include:  Self awarenessSelf awareness  Self worthSelf worth  Self expressionSelf expression  Personal growthPersonal growth  Improved communicationImproved communication  Improved confidenceImproved confidence  Improved concentrationImproved concentration  Increased self esteemIncreased self esteem  Increased motivationIncreased motivation  Increased emotional talkIncreased emotional talk  Positive self talkPositive self talk  Stress managementStress management  Team cohesionTeam cohesion  ConsistencyConsistency  Leadership effectivenessLeadership effectiveness  Appropriate goalsAppropriate goals  Appropriate arousalAppropriate arousal  Improved performanceImproved performance The process of psychological skill development assists performers in transforming insight into performance effectiveness
  • 9. There are five interrelated psychological skills, which affectThere are five interrelated psychological skills, which affect performance. The lines of the diagram below demonstrate theperformance. The lines of the diagram below demonstrate the interrelationships of these skills and that mastery in one is necessaryinterrelationships of these skills and that mastery in one is necessary for maximising the other.for maximising the other. Psychic Energy Goal setting Stress Management Attention skills Imagery skills
  • 10. Excellence in any sport or in any taskExcellence in any sport or in any task depends on:depends on:  How well you know where you want to goHow well you know where you want to go  How much you really want to get thereHow much you really want to get there  How strongly you believe in your ability toHow strongly you believe in your ability to arrive at your desired destination.arrive at your desired destination. Performance is largely a function of yourPerformance is largely a function of your experience of yourself.experience of yourself.
  • 11. MotivationMotivation  The definition of motivation – ‘is all the causes ofThe definition of motivation – ‘is all the causes of initiation, maintenance and intensity of behaviour’initiation, maintenance and intensity of behaviour’ (Mogill)(Mogill) - ‘energisation and direction of behaviour’ (Roberts)- ‘energisation and direction of behaviour’ (Roberts)  Motivation is a complex topic that involves identifying aMotivation is a complex topic that involves identifying a number of personal and social factors that reflect somenumber of personal and social factors that reflect some form of valued reward or incentive.form of valued reward or incentive.  The concept of motivation includes such ideas as:The concept of motivation includes such ideas as:  Innate desireInnate desire  Desire to achieveDesire to achieve  Level of aspirationLevel of aspiration  This level of motivation influences:This level of motivation influences:  Your selection of and preference for an activityYour selection of and preference for an activity  PersistencePersistence  How well you perform relative to your abilityHow well you perform relative to your ability  How much effortHow much effort
  • 12. There are many theories which try and explain theThere are many theories which try and explain the relationship between motivation and sport.relationship between motivation and sport.  Freud (1920) – believed people were driven by sexualFreud (1920) – believed people were driven by sexual and aggressive impulses struggling for expressionand aggressive impulses struggling for expression (sport deemed more appropriate for men as an(sport deemed more appropriate for men as an expression of innate aggressive impulses)expression of innate aggressive impulses)  Rogers (1963) – saw within us a striving for selfRogers (1963) – saw within us a striving for self enhancement and growth ie motivational forcesenhancement and growth ie motivational forces resulted from a need for positive regard (sportresulted from a need for positive regard (sport provides an environment where successfulprovides an environment where successful participation is rewarded with admiration andparticipation is rewarded with admiration and acceptance from others)acceptance from others)  Skinner (1971) – believed rewards and punishmentSkinner (1971) – believed rewards and punishment directed behaviour and identified factors outside thedirected behaviour and identified factors outside the individual to motivateindividual to motivate
  • 13. Contemporary research suggests motivation in sport isContemporary research suggests motivation in sport is dependent on the multidimensional nature of thedependent on the multidimensional nature of the individuals personality and social / cultural environment.individuals personality and social / cultural environment.  Personal qualities – physical / mental maturity, gender, affiliation,Personal qualities – physical / mental maturity, gender, affiliation, fitness, achievement orientation, self actualisation and personalfitness, achievement orientation, self actualisation and personal improvementimprovement  Social reinforcers – social status, recognition, rewards, socialSocial reinforcers – social status, recognition, rewards, social approval (peers, parents, coaches)approval (peers, parents, coaches) Both individual and social reinforcers impact upon the choices weBoth individual and social reinforcers impact upon the choices we make, the intensity by which we play and our desire to remainmake, the intensity by which we play and our desire to remain involved or withdraw from the sportinvolved or withdraw from the sport DirectionDirection MotivationMotivation IntensityIntensity Duration / PersistanceDuration / Persistance
  • 14. MotivationMotivation Motivation is the heightened state of arousal directed to improvingMotivation is the heightened state of arousal directed to improving performance.performance. Motivation can be:Motivation can be:  Intrinsic – from within the athlete and pushes them to achieveIntrinsic – from within the athlete and pushes them to achieve  Occurs when you are motivated by such factors as – satisfaction, sense ofOccurs when you are motivated by such factors as – satisfaction, sense of competency, enjoyment/pleasure/fun, friendship, positive self regard,competency, enjoyment/pleasure/fun, friendship, positive self regard, personal mastery/self improvementpersonal mastery/self improvement  An athlete intrinsically motivated is competent, self determined and drivenAn athlete intrinsically motivated is competent, self determined and driven from withinfrom within  Extrinsic – from outside the athlete, generally people through positiveExtrinsic – from outside the athlete, generally people through positive and negative reinforcementand negative reinforcement  Involves participation for material gain from external sources – socialInvolves participation for material gain from external sources – social approval from adults/peers, money/trophies, glory and recognition, winning,approval from adults/peers, money/trophies, glory and recognition, winning, social statussocial status  Extrinsic rewards by a good coach can lead to intrinsic motivation of anExtrinsic rewards by a good coach can lead to intrinsic motivation of an individualindividual Some professional athletes can lose intrinsic motivation. Why?Some professional athletes can lose intrinsic motivation. Why? The intrinsic and extrinsic motivational changes that individualsThe intrinsic and extrinsic motivational changes that individuals experience have a substantial effect on their perceived confidence,experience have a substantial effect on their perceived confidence, control and tendencies to approach or avoid achievementcontrol and tendencies to approach or avoid achievement
  • 15. Forms of motivationForms of motivation There are two ways for developing motivatedThere are two ways for developing motivated behaviours:behaviours:  Positive motivation – this occurs whenPositive motivation – this occurs when individuals behave because of the positive,individuals behave because of the positive, rewarding, or reinforcing eventsrewarding, or reinforcing events  Negative motivation – in this form of control,Negative motivation – in this form of control, individuals behave to avoid or escape negative,individuals behave to avoid or escape negative, punishing or aversive consequences ofpunishing or aversive consequences of behaviour.behaviour. Positive motivation is the best form of coachingPositive motivation is the best form of coaching controlcontrol
  • 16. ReinforcementReinforcement  It is a form of reward or punishment thatIt is a form of reward or punishment that influences the probability that an action orinfluences the probability that an action or behaviour will or will not re-occur.behaviour will or will not re-occur.  There are three types of reinforcement:There are three types of reinforcement:  Social reinforcement is from coaches, players,Social reinforcement is from coaches, players, parents and others. It is needed to gain recognition.parents and others. It is needed to gain recognition. This is usually accomplished through comments.This is usually accomplished through comments.  Material reinforcement is something that is tangible.Material reinforcement is something that is tangible. For example medals and trophies.For example medals and trophies.  Internal reinforcement is from within, the drive orInternal reinforcement is from within, the drive or desire to succeed. For example increasing selfdesire to succeed. For example increasing self confidence.confidence.
  • 17. Behaviour modificationBehaviour modification 1.1. Extrinsic Rewards – The Law of EffectsExtrinsic Rewards – The Law of Effects Rewarding behaviour will increase the probabilityRewarding behaviour will increase the probability that the behaviour will be repeated, andthat the behaviour will be repeated, and punishing behaviour decreases the probabilitypunishing behaviour decreases the probability that the behaviour will be repeated.that the behaviour will be repeated. Problems occur if:Problems occur if:  Appropriate reinforcers are not used.Appropriate reinforcers are not used.  Reinforcers are not made for a particular behaviourReinforcers are not made for a particular behaviour  Reinforcers are not given at the right time.Reinforcers are not given at the right time.
  • 18. 2.2. Continuous Positive ReinforcementContinuous Positive Reinforcement If an athlete is performing at a certain level and theIf an athlete is performing at a certain level and the level of performance needs to be increased, then thelevel of performance needs to be increased, then the coach must ensure the occurrence of positivecoach must ensure the occurrence of positive consequences following each performance.consequences following each performance. It is a constant supply of rewarding or reinforcing everyIt is a constant supply of rewarding or reinforcing every performance instead of just the desired ones.performance instead of just the desired ones. Implementation of continuous positive reinforcementImplementation of continuous positive reinforcement can be achieved by the following:can be achieved by the following:  If the coach is to be the source of the positive reinforcementIf the coach is to be the source of the positive reinforcement then he/she must devote blocks of time to individuals or smallthen he/she must devote blocks of time to individuals or small homogenous groups to the exclusion of others in the team.homogenous groups to the exclusion of others in the team.  Educate athletes how to evaluate and reinforce their ownEducate athletes how to evaluate and reinforce their own behaviours and that of others.behaviours and that of others.  Have every member evaluate each other and themselves onHave every member evaluate each other and themselves on the same behavioural content.the same behavioural content.  Devices, which supply performance information and monitorsDevices, which supply performance information and monitors mental attitude. For example, diaries and goal setting.mental attitude. For example, diaries and goal setting.
  • 19. Sources of reinforcementSources of reinforcement TypeType PositivePositive NegativeNegative SocialSocial Approval, esteem, recognition,Approval, esteem, recognition, congratulations, attention, adoration,congratulations, attention, adoration, courtesy, considerationcourtesy, consideration Disapproval, hate, reproof,Disapproval, hate, reproof, scolding, degradation, sarcasm,scolding, degradation, sarcasm, rebuke, chidingrebuke, chiding MaterialMaterial Badges, trophies, medals, records,Badges, trophies, medals, records, money, rewards, progress chartsmoney, rewards, progress charts Demonstration in grades or levelsDemonstration in grades or levels PerformancPerformanc ee InformationInformation Intrinsic – ball in basket, targetIntrinsic – ball in basket, target accuracy, length of driveaccuracy, length of drive Extrinsic – coach saying ‘leg is atExtrinsic – coach saying ‘leg is at right height, videotape showing goodright height, videotape showing good formform Intrinsic – missed target, failure toIntrinsic – missed target, failure to stop opponent, missed puttstop opponent, missed putt Extrinsic – peer commenting ‘legExtrinsic – peer commenting ‘leg is too low’, film shows form error,is too low’, film shows form error, fitness test results indicate poorfitness test results indicate poor statusstatus InternalInternal Self control – ‘That felt good’, ‘YouSelf control – ‘That felt good’, ‘You did it’did it’ Vicarious – watching a gold medalVicarious – watching a gold medal performance, seeing a diveperformance, seeing a dive performed for the first time, a raceperformed for the first time, a race winner holding his/her hands up in awinner holding his/her hands up in a jubilant fashionjubilant fashion Self control – ‘Miserable’, ‘I amSelf control – ‘Miserable’, ‘I am not going to let myself down nextnot going to let myself down next time’time’ Vicarious – watching a missedVicarious – watching a missed tackle, seeing a game strategytackle, seeing a game strategy fail, seeing someone sent fromfail, seeing someone sent from the field for fightingthe field for fighting Reinforcers are available from a wide variety of origins within the sport setting.Reinforcers are available from a wide variety of origins within the sport setting.
  • 20. Factors Affecting MotivationFactors Affecting Motivation  State of the game – winning or losingState of the game – winning or losing  Self esteemSelf esteem  Spectator supportSpectator support  Standard of the competitionStandard of the competition  Ability of the coach to motivate and encourageAbility of the coach to motivate and encourage  Expectation – own and what we think othersExpectation – own and what we think others think of usthink of us  EnvironmentEnvironment  Self improvement in a skill or techniqueSelf improvement in a skill or technique
  • 21. Mental EnergyMental Energy  All athletes need a certain level of mental energyAll athletes need a certain level of mental energy to perform successfullyto perform successfully  Arousal is the level of anxiety before or during aArousal is the level of anxiety before or during a performanceperformance  In sport, it refers to the degree of energyIn sport, it refers to the degree of energy released and the intensity or readiness of thereleased and the intensity or readiness of the performerperformer  The level of arousal can be measured in relationThe level of arousal can be measured in relation to performanceto performance  If a set level of arousal is not achieved an athleteIf a set level of arousal is not achieved an athlete will lack motivationwill lack motivation
  • 22. This is illustrated in the Inverted U HypothesisThis is illustrated in the Inverted U Hypothesis Goo d Poo r Low High ArousaArousa ll PerformancPerformanc ee Optimal Performance will increase in proportion to arousal up to a certain point. Above the optimal level of arousal, performance will begin to decrease. An under aroused athlete has difficulty in ‘getting into the game’ and are not focused enough An over aroused athlete is nervous, anxious, rushed, fatigue sets in early and the athlete feels ‘tight’.
  • 23. 1.1. Under Aroused State (Social loafing)Under Aroused State (Social loafing) SymptomsSymptoms  Haven’t given much though to the gameHaven’t given much though to the game  Reduced personal effort / lack of interestReduced personal effort / lack of interest  LethargicLethargic  Communication is poor (none, bad, negative)Communication is poor (none, bad, negative)  Performance downPerformance down In this situation the athlete generally does not takeIn this situation the athlete generally does not take responsibility to prepare for the match – and willresponsibility to prepare for the match – and will tend to blame anyone but themselves.tend to blame anyone but themselves.
  • 24. 1.1. Over Aroused StateOver Aroused State SymptomsSymptoms  Worrying ideas occupy thought space eg ‘whether they haveWorrying ideas occupy thought space eg ‘whether they have what it takes’what it takes’  Expectations are high (sometimes unrealistic)Expectations are high (sometimes unrealistic)  ‘‘Top response’ from excessive tension and nervousness leadsTop response’ from excessive tension and nervousness leads to increased HR, body temp and muscle tensionto increased HR, body temp and muscle tension  Performance dropsPerformance drops SolutionSolution  Need to concentrate on what information is going to help youNeed to concentrate on what information is going to help you do a particular task successfully – preferably actiondo a particular task successfully – preferably action information not self talk that is negative, worrying, criticising orinformation not self talk that is negative, worrying, criticising or questioning yourselfquestioning yourself  Get athletes to use internal dialogue that is positiveGet athletes to use internal dialogue that is positive
  • 25. Variations in ArousalVariations in Arousal Poor performance Arousal levels fluctuate before and during a performance and vary between individuals. In general, a high level of arousal is required for Gross Body Skills and a low level for Fine Motor Skills. Sport Specific Optimal Levels of Arousal Goo d Poo r Low High ArousaArousa PerformancPerformanc ee Moderate Archery Football
  • 26. Drive TheoryDrive Theory ArousalArousal High Low Low High PerformancPerformanc ee Performance will increase directly as a function of increasing arousal. A coach delivering a pre-match address is an example of this. This theory is often too simplistic and will not work well for complex sporting performance.
  • 27. ConcentrationConcentration  Concentration is referred to as attentionConcentration is referred to as attention  It is the ability to focus on the right thing at the right timeIt is the ability to focus on the right thing at the right time  Every athlete has an optimal level of arousal called ourEvery athlete has an optimal level of arousal called our Ideal Performing State (IPS)Ideal Performing State (IPS)  During IPS an athlete efficiently matches the attentionalDuring IPS an athlete efficiently matches the attentional demands of a situation with the use of the appropriatedemands of a situation with the use of the appropriate types of concentrationtypes of concentration  When arousal shifts away from the IPS the use ofWhen arousal shifts away from the IPS the use of appropriate types of concentration and attentional focusappropriate types of concentration and attentional focus becomes mismatchedbecomes mismatched  Due to pressure during a performance the ability toDue to pressure during a performance the ability to concentrate properly decreases markedlyconcentrate properly decreases markedly
  • 28. Classification of Attentional FocusClassification of Attentional Focus Certain athletes do well in situations, whichCertain athletes do well in situations, which require the use of particular types of attentionalrequire the use of particular types of attentional focus.focus. These include:These include: 1.1. Width of ConcentrationWidth of Concentration  Broad – focusing on a wide range of cuesBroad – focusing on a wide range of cues  Narrow – focusing on a limited range of cuesNarrow – focusing on a limited range of cues 2.2. Direction of ConcentrationDirection of Concentration  Internal – focusing on one’s own thoughts and feelingsInternal – focusing on one’s own thoughts and feelings  External – focusing on objects and events outside the bodyExternal – focusing on objects and events outside the body
  • 29. Classifications of Attentional FocusClassifications of Attentional Focus Broad External Narrow Internal Broad External Awareness of everything that is going on around them – seeing, hearing and feeling. Necessary for good court or field vision. More critical in team sports than individual sports. Narrow External Ability to concentrate in a focused way, to focus on one thing, to narrow onto the relevant aspects of a task. Very useful in target skills and as a way of blocking out distractions. Broad Internal Needed to analyse, organise and plan. The ability to recall information, mix it with what is going on and draw some logical conclusions. Being able to deal with a large number of ideas at the one time. Narrow Internal Ability to focus on a single thought or idea and stay with it. Need to enhance awareness of aspects of body reactions to stress (tight muscles, high HR). Usually indicates extreme dedication and capacity to follow instructions and to stick to a performance plan.
  • 30. Errors in PerformanceErrors in Performance As pressure increases an athlete will return to their concentrationalAs pressure increases an athlete will return to their concentrational strength subconsciously.strength subconsciously. If this does not match the focus required for the activity an error will occur.If this does not match the focus required for the activity an error will occur. Errors in performance occur due to:Errors in performance occur due to:  ConfusionConfusion  Overload – this can be internal or externalOverload – this can be internal or external Internal OverloadInternal Overload  This occurs when there are too many thoughts running through the athlete’sThis occurs when there are too many thoughts running through the athlete’s headhead External OverloadExternal Overload  This occurs when there is too much noise (crowd, coach, team), too muchThis occurs when there is too much noise (crowd, coach, team), too much movement around or too many complex thing to watch or listen to.movement around or too many complex thing to watch or listen to. To overcome the overload the athlete needs to have clear and well learnedTo overcome the overload the athlete needs to have clear and well learned performance plans.performance plans. The athlete can then maintain a concentration focus on appropriate aspects ofThe athlete can then maintain a concentration focus on appropriate aspects of the performance and not be distracted.the performance and not be distracted. To control concentration fluctuations athletes need to practise self regulationTo control concentration fluctuations athletes need to practise self regulation skills.skills. ExampleExample - arousal skills- arousal skills - attention control training- attention control training - performance planning- performance planning

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