Am sports nutrition

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Am sports nutrition

  1. 1. TSP Athlete Management Sports Nutrition
  2. 2. The Effects of Good Nutrition  Gives you vitality and energyGives you vitality and energy  Helps you stay at a weight that’s right forHelps you stay at a weight that’s right for youyou  Boosts your immune systemBoosts your immune system  Wards off serious illness such as heartWards off serious illness such as heart disease, certain types of cancer and Type 2disease, certain types of cancer and Type 2 diabetesdiabetes  Delays the effects of agingDelays the effects of aging  Builds strong, dense bonesBuilds strong, dense bones  Improves sports performanceImproves sports performance  Protects your teeth and keeps gums healthyProtects your teeth and keeps gums healthy  Enhances your ability to concentrate andEnhances your ability to concentrate and possibly alter your moodpossibly alter your mood
  3. 3. The Effects of Good Nutrition Many foods benefit the physical health of anMany foods benefit the physical health of an individual, as they are known to have specificindividual, as they are known to have specific disease fighting qualities.disease fighting qualities.  TomatoesTomatoes lower the risk of prostate cancerlower the risk of prostate cancer  Broccoli, cauliflower and brussel sproutsBroccoli, cauliflower and brussel sprouts can helpcan help reduce the likelihood of contracting cancerreduce the likelihood of contracting cancer  Fish and seafoodFish and seafood help to reduce blood pressure andhelp to reduce blood pressure and steady the hearts rhythmsteady the hearts rhythm  TeaTea has been found to lower the risk of contracting cancerhas been found to lower the risk of contracting cancer and helps keep the heart healthyand helps keep the heart healthy  Red wineRed wine helps keep the blood thin and allows a smootherhelps keep the blood thin and allows a smoother flow through the arteriesflow through the arteries
  4. 4. The Effects of Good Nutrition The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating suggests:The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating suggests:  Eat enough food from each of the five food groupsEat enough food from each of the five food groups (see the following page) every day(see the following page) every day  Choose different varieties of foods from withinChoose different varieties of foods from within each of the five food groups from day to day, weekeach of the five food groups from day to day, week to week and at different times of the yearto week and at different times of the year  Eat plenty of plant foods (rice, cereal, bread etc),Eat plenty of plant foods (rice, cereal, bread etc), moderate amounts of animal foods (milk, yoghurt,moderate amounts of animal foods (milk, yoghurt, cheese, etc) and small amounts of the extra foods,cheese, etc) and small amounts of the extra foods, and margarine and oilsand margarine and oils  Drink plenty of water.Drink plenty of water.
  5. 5. Enjoy a variety of foods every day
  6. 6. Nutrients Nutrients are those essential elements in food that we need for life andNutrients are those essential elements in food that we need for life and growth.growth. Over 50 types of nutrients are available in the various foods we eat.Over 50 types of nutrients are available in the various foods we eat. These different nutrients can be grouped into 7 essential categories:These different nutrients can be grouped into 7 essential categories:  CarbohydratesCarbohydrates  ProteinProtein  FatsFats  VitaminsVitamins  MineralsMinerals  Dietary fibreDietary fibre  WaterWater Nutrients are required to perform many needs:Nutrients are required to perform many needs:  Supply of energy to the bodySupply of energy to the body  Normal growth, development and functioning of the bodyNormal growth, development and functioning of the body  Building, repairing and regulation of the functioning of cells inBuilding, repairing and regulation of the functioning of cells in the bodythe body  Resistance to disease and infectionResistance to disease and infection
  7. 7. Carbohydrates  Carbohydrates play a vital role in exerciseCarbohydrates play a vital role in exercise performance because they are the most readilyperformance because they are the most readily available source of energy to fuel working muscles.available source of energy to fuel working muscles.  Eating adequate carbohydrates is equally importantEating adequate carbohydrates is equally important for sprint and endurance athletes.for sprint and endurance athletes.  Insufficient carbohydrates in the diet may jeopardiseInsufficient carbohydrates in the diet may jeopardise performance and cause early fatigue.performance and cause early fatigue.  The more you exercise the greater yourThe more you exercise the greater your carbohydrate needs.carbohydrate needs.  There are two types of CHO’sThere are two types of CHO’s  Complex carbohydrates – pasta, rice, potatoes, breadComplex carbohydrates – pasta, rice, potatoes, bread  Simple carbohydrates – fruits, sugar, chocolates, biscuits,Simple carbohydrates – fruits, sugar, chocolates, biscuits, cakescakes
  8. 8. Protein  Is essential for normal growth and development.Is essential for normal growth and development.  It plays an important role in the repair and recoveryIt plays an important role in the repair and recovery of damaged tissue (such as muscle)of damaged tissue (such as muscle)  It acts as a fuel source during exercise only whenIt acts as a fuel source during exercise only when stores are depleted.stores are depleted.  Athletes require more protein than the recommendedAthletes require more protein than the recommended daily intake for the sedentary population, particularlydaily intake for the sedentary population, particularly those involved in strength programs.those involved in strength programs.  Protein intake over the daily requirements isProtein intake over the daily requirements is converted into and stored as unwanted fat tissueconverted into and stored as unwanted fat tissue  Protein examples include – red meat, chicken, fish,Protein examples include – red meat, chicken, fish, cheese, eggs, low fat yoghurt, tofucheese, eggs, low fat yoghurt, tofu
  9. 9. Fats  Fat plays an important part in the diet for all athletesFat plays an important part in the diet for all athletes  It provides essential fatty acids and fat solubleIt provides essential fatty acids and fat soluble vitamins necessary to maintain optimal health andvitamins necessary to maintain optimal health and fitness.fitness.  Fats are a concentrated source of energy (kilojoules)Fats are a concentrated source of energy (kilojoules) providing twice the kilojoules of CHO’s and protein.providing twice the kilojoules of CHO’s and protein.  Athletes should aim to consume a moderate amountAthletes should aim to consume a moderate amount of fat without eliminating it all together.of fat without eliminating it all together.  There are three types of fats:There are three types of fats:  Saturated fats – meat, cream, cheeseSaturated fats – meat, cream, cheese  Unsaturated fats – olives, nuts, seeds (healthier types ofUnsaturated fats – olives, nuts, seeds (healthier types of fats)fats)  Polyunsaturated fats -Polyunsaturated fats - oily fish, walnuts, sesame andoily fish, walnuts, sesame and pumpkin seedspumpkin seeds
  10. 10. FLUID AND FUEL PREPERATION The best diet, no matter how good,The best diet, no matter how good, can’t improve fitness or sporting skill bycan’t improve fitness or sporting skill by itself – but a poor diet can certainly stallitself – but a poor diet can certainly stall peak performance. Nutrition requirespeak performance. Nutrition requires eating to a lifestyle not just a pre-eventeating to a lifestyle not just a pre-event meal. Remember as an athlete it ismeal. Remember as an athlete it is crucial to prepare the body for thecrucial to prepare the body for the heavy requirements of exerciseheavy requirements of exercise
  11. 11. Fluid Most athletes do not properly replace the amount of fluid loss during exercise. ThisMost athletes do not properly replace the amount of fluid loss during exercise. This results in dehydration which negatively affects performance and in extreme cases isresults in dehydration which negatively affects performance and in extreme cases is life threatening.life threatening. Hints for increasing fluid intake:Hints for increasing fluid intake:  Do not rely on thirst as an indicator for fluid needs as it is a poor indicator (especially inDo not rely on thirst as an indicator for fluid needs as it is a poor indicator (especially in young children).young children).  Monitor your urine – the clearer the colour, the better hydrated you areMonitor your urine – the clearer the colour, the better hydrated you are  Have drinks readily accessible eg at the end of a swimming lane rather than the bubblersHave drinks readily accessible eg at the end of a swimming lane rather than the bubblers in the change roomsin the change rooms  Avoid drinking excess caffeine drinks (up to 4 cups a day) and alcohol as they have aAvoid drinking excess caffeine drinks (up to 4 cups a day) and alcohol as they have a diuretic effect and result in fluid loss from the body. It is important to note that these drinksdiuretic effect and result in fluid loss from the body. It is important to note that these drinks cause urine to become clear and give a false sense of true fluid balancecause urine to become clear and give a false sense of true fluid balance  Develop good drinking practices in training – as a guide drink 150 – 250 ml every 15 – 20Develop good drinking practices in training – as a guide drink 150 – 250 ml every 15 – 20 minutes during exerciseminutes during exercise  Strategically place drink bottles around the perimeter of the ground if they are preventedStrategically place drink bottles around the perimeter of the ground if they are prevented from taking them onto the fieldfrom taking them onto the field  Hot conditions increase the amount of fluid loss which is often difficult to replace during theHot conditions increase the amount of fluid loss which is often difficult to replace during the event. Therefore it is crucial that fluid intake is maximised before exercise (500 -1000 mlevent. Therefore it is crucial that fluid intake is maximised before exercise (500 -1000 ml per hour for 2 -3 hours pre-event)per hour for 2 -3 hours pre-event)  Weigh yourself before and after training / competition – as weight loss during exerciseWeigh yourself before and after training / competition – as weight loss during exercise indicates the amount of fluid not replaced due to sweating. One kilo of weight loss isindicates the amount of fluid not replaced due to sweating. One kilo of weight loss is equivalent to 1 litre of fluid not replaced.equivalent to 1 litre of fluid not replaced.  Water is suitable for exercise lasting up to 90 minutes. Sports drinks are better suited forWater is suitable for exercise lasting up to 90 minutes. Sports drinks are better suited for extended periods of exerciseextended periods of exercise  Coaches should schedule drink breaks every 10 – 15 minutes to minimise fluid lossCoaches should schedule drink breaks every 10 – 15 minutes to minimise fluid loss
  12. 12. Things to consider when choosing Sports Drinks  Choose something that you like the taste ofChoose something that you like the taste of  Consider the cost – powdered drinks are best for frequentConsider the cost – powdered drinks are best for frequent usersusers  The concentration of sports drinks can be altered – they areThe concentration of sports drinks can be altered – they are often too concentrated for what the athlete requiresoften too concentrated for what the athlete requires  Sports drinks are a great aid to recovery after exercise but areSports drinks are a great aid to recovery after exercise but are best used during exercise to enhance sports performancebest used during exercise to enhance sports performance  Sports drinks are often labelled ‘high in salt’ to replace the saltSports drinks are often labelled ‘high in salt’ to replace the salt lost in sweat and are therefore inappropriate for regular uselost in sweat and are therefore inappropriate for regular use  The acid in sports drinks effects dental health. Washing yourThe acid in sports drinks effects dental health. Washing your mouth with water at the end of exercise after using a sportsmouth with water at the end of exercise after using a sports drink may minimise any possible effects.drink may minimise any possible effects.
  13. 13. The Pre-event meal On competition day the pre-event meal serves to topOn competition day the pre-event meal serves to top up glycogen stores and fluid levels beforeup glycogen stores and fluid levels before competition. Try using the following as a guide:competition. Try using the following as a guide:  Larger, more substantial meals such as cereals, low fatLarger, more substantial meals such as cereals, low fat milk, toast and juice should be consumed 3 – 4 hoursmilk, toast and juice should be consumed 3 – 4 hours before competitionbefore competition  Smaller snacks such as sports bars and sports drinks canSmaller snacks such as sports bars and sports drinks can be consumed 1 – 2 hours beforehandbe consumed 1 – 2 hours beforehand  Meals and snacks should be high in carbohydrates and lowMeals and snacks should be high in carbohydrates and low in fatin fat  Eat foods that you are comfortable with – now is not a goodEat foods that you are comfortable with – now is not a good time to try new and exotic foodstime to try new and exotic foods  If nerves affect the ability to eat solid foods, try smoothiesIf nerves affect the ability to eat solid foods, try smoothies and liquid meal supplements (eg Sustagen Sport)and liquid meal supplements (eg Sustagen Sport)
  14. 14. SUGGESTED PRE-EVENT MEALS • Breakfast cereal with skim milk and fresh or canned fruit • Toast with baked beans or tinned spaghetti • Pancakes with syrup and a fruit juice or sports drink • Liquid meals such as Sustagen Sport or low-fat fruit smoothie • Low fat yoghurt, custard or creamed rice with fruit salad • Banana sandwiches or rolls • Mini pizzas (made on pocket bread) or pasta with tomato based sauce for lunch or afternoon meals in preparation for afternoon or night competitions
  15. 15. Replacing fuel and fluid during exercise Athletes need to replace sweat loss and maintain fuel stores whileAthletes need to replace sweat loss and maintain fuel stores while exercising. If exercising for less than an hour the main nutritional goalexercising. If exercising for less than an hour the main nutritional goal is too drink enough water – competing for periods longer than thisis too drink enough water – competing for periods longer than this involves replacing carbohydrates also.involves replacing carbohydrates also. The following may help you plan your fluid and fuel intake for exercise:The following may help you plan your fluid and fuel intake for exercise:  Consider the timing of foods and fluids – as it is important to consume aConsider the timing of foods and fluids – as it is important to consume a combination of both regularly in endurance events. Aim for about 0.8 –combination of both regularly in endurance events. Aim for about 0.8 – 1.0g of CHO per kilo of body weight each hour and 750 – 1000ml of fluid1.0g of CHO per kilo of body weight each hour and 750 – 1000ml of fluid per hour of exerciseper hour of exercise  To meet fluid and CHO needs simultaneously you can either use a CHOTo meet fluid and CHO needs simultaneously you can either use a CHO drink (sports drink) or consume a combination of eating and drinking (egdrink (sports drink) or consume a combination of eating and drinking (eg water + sports drink + banana)water + sports drink + banana)  Be familiar with fluids and food made available at the event and if youBe familiar with fluids and food made available at the event and if you intend to consume them, practise doing so beforehandintend to consume them, practise doing so beforehand  Athletes not comfortable with consuming solids should use liquid mealsAthletes not comfortable with consuming solids should use liquid meals  Find something that is easily digestible, convenient and compact as theyFind something that is easily digestible, convenient and compact as they are practical and best tolerated (sports bars, breakfast bars etc areare practical and best tolerated (sports bars, breakfast bars etc are excellent choices)excellent choices)
  16. 16. Recovery following exercise Optimal recovery is essential (as discussed in ‘Athletes Recovery’Optimal recovery is essential (as discussed in ‘Athletes Recovery’ section) and the type and timing of foods and fluids is a part of this.section) and the type and timing of foods and fluids is a part of this. The following will assist recovery following exercise:The following will assist recovery following exercise:  Consume CHO foods or fluids within 20 minutes of completing exerciseConsume CHO foods or fluids within 20 minutes of completing exercise (and continue consuming 50 – 60 g of CHO within the first 2 hours and(and continue consuming 50 – 60 g of CHO within the first 2 hours and every 2 hours until the next meal)every 2 hours until the next meal)  Snacks containing nutritious and refined CHO are best – avoid high fatSnacks containing nutritious and refined CHO are best – avoid high fat CHO foodsCHO foods  High CHO supplements (sports drinks or bars) can be useful for athletesHigh CHO supplements (sports drinks or bars) can be useful for athletes that are too tired to eat or have other commitments eg media commitmentsthat are too tired to eat or have other commitments eg media commitments  Athletes who have difficulty eating food immediately following exerciseAthletes who have difficulty eating food immediately following exercise should drink sports drinks and liquid meal supplementsshould drink sports drinks and liquid meal supplements  In addition to CHO, protein may help speed up the recovery process,In addition to CHO, protein may help speed up the recovery process, particularly in injured athletesparticularly in injured athletes  Drink fluids until urine is copious and clearDrink fluids until urine is copious and clear  Alcohol should be avoided as it delays recovery. If you are going to drinkAlcohol should be avoided as it delays recovery. If you are going to drink alcohol, CHO and fluid needs are the first priority – try to limit the amount ofalcohol, CHO and fluid needs are the first priority – try to limit the amount of alcohol consumed. Injured athletes should avoid alcohol for the first 24alcohol consumed. Injured athletes should avoid alcohol for the first 24 hours to allow the healing process to beginhours to allow the healing process to begin
  17. 17. SUGGESTED 50g CARBOHYDRATE SNACKS AND FLUIDS Foods: Jam or honey sandwich (2 slices of bread and 1 tblsp of honey/jam) Banana sandwich or a salad sandwich with a piece of fruit 2 large pancakes with a tablespoon of syrup 1 – 2 cups of rice / pasta with a low fat topping (tomato based) 1 cup of baked beans or tinned spaghetti with 2 slices of toast 2 breakfast bars 3 muesli bars – chocolate, yoghurt or nut based are high fat 1 ‘sports bar’ on average (such as a Power Bar) 1 cup of breakfast cereal, a small banana and 200ml of low fat milk 1 tub of low fat fruit yoghurt and a piece of fruit 3 average pieces of fruit or 2 medium bananas 10 medium dates, 15 apricot halves or 6 – 7 medium figs ½ cup (60g) or sultanas or raisins 50g of jelly beans (15 – 16 beans) or jelly lollies 2 carbohydrate ‘squeezies’ (such as Carbo-shot) 3 medium sized ice-blocks
  18. 18. Fluids: •Banana smoothie – 200ml of low fat milk, 1 banana, 1 tablespoon of honey and 1 scoop of low fat ice- cream •1 Sustagen Sport popper (250ml) and a banana •250ml of carbo-loader (Gatorlode, Exceed High CHO source) •250 – 300ml of liquid meal supplement (Sustagen Sport) •750 – 1000ml of sports drinks (Isosport, Gatorade, Sports Plus) •700 – 800ml of cordial •500ml of soft drink, flavoured mineral juice or fruit juice
  19. 19. In summary  Know what you are eatingKnow what you are eating  Eat a balanced dietEat a balanced diet  Reduce snack foods that are high in sugarReduce snack foods that are high in sugar and fats instead choosing nutritious optionsand fats instead choosing nutritious options  Prepare adequately for competitionPrepare adequately for competition  Refuel as necessary during eventsRefuel as necessary during events  Recover appropriately following competitionRecover appropriately following competition  A poor diet can effect your performanceA poor diet can effect your performance
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