Constitution Of India Acts

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Constitution Of India Acts

  1. 1. 1 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA PREAMBLE W E , T HE P EO P LE OF I ND I A, h avin g sol emnl y r esolved toconst itut e Indi a into a S OVERE IGN S O CI ALIST S E CULARD E M O C R AT I C R E P UB LI C an d t o s e cu r e t o all i t s ci t i z en s : J US TI C E, so ci al , econo mi c and polit i cal; LI BERT Y of thought , expr ession , b eli ef , f aith and worship; E Q U A LI T Y o f s t atu s an d o f o p p o r t u n it y;and to pro mot e amo ng th em al l F R ATERNI TY assur ing th e dignit y of th e individu al and th e unit yand int egri t y o f th e Nation; I N OU R C O NS TI T UE N T ASS E MB L Y t h i s t w en t y- s i x t h d ay ofN o v e mb e r , 1 9 4 9 , d o H E REB Y A D OP T , E N A C T AN D G I V E TOO U RS E L V ES TH I S CO NS TI T UT I O N.
  2. 2. 2 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA PART I THE UNION AND ITS TERRITORY 1 . Na me a nd t errito ry of th e Union .—(1 ) Indi a, th at is Bh ar at , sh all b ea Un ion o f S t at es . (2 ) Th e St at e s a n d th e t er rito ri es th er eo f sh all b e as sp e c ifi ed in th eFir st Sch edu l e. (3) Th e t errito ry of Indi a sh all co mpris e — (a ) t h e t err itori es of th e St at es ; (b ) t h e Union t erri tori es sp ecif ied in th e First Sch edul e; and (c ) s u ch oth er t erri tori es as may b e acquir ed . 2 . Ad mi ssion or es tablish men t of n ew Stat es .—Parli ament may b y l awad mit in to th e Union , or est ab lish , n ew S t at es on su ch t er ms and condit ionsas it th inks fit . 2 A . [S i kki m to b e asso ciat ed with th e Union .] Rep . b y th e Const itution(T h i rt y- si xth Am e n d men t ) A c t, 1 9 7 5 , s . 5 ( w.e. f. 2 6 - 4 - 1 9 7 5 ) . 3 . Fo rma tion of n ew S tat es and a lt eration of a rea s, bounda ri es o rna me s of ex isting Stat es .—P arli ament may b y l aw— (a ) f o r m a n ew St at e b y s ep ar ation of t errito r y fro m an y St at e or b y unit ing t wo o r mo r e St at es or p arts of S t at es or b y unit ing any t err itor y to a p art o f an y St at e ; (b ) i n cr e as e t h e a r e a o f an y S t ate ; (c ) d i mini sh th e ar ea of an y St at e; (d ) al t er the bound ari es of an y St at e; (e ) al t er th e n ame o f an y St at e: Provid ed th at no Bill for th e purpos e sh al l be introdu ced in ei th er Hous eof P arli a me nt ex cept on th e r eco mme nd ation of th e Pr esid en t and un l ess ,wh er e th e propos al cont ain ed in th e Bi ll aff ects th e ar ea, bound ari es orn a me of an y of th e St at es , th e Bil l h as b e en r e ferr ed b y th e Pr esid ent to th eLegisl atur e of th at S t at e for expr ess ing its vi ews th er eo n within su chp eriod as ma y be sp ecifi ed in the r e f er en ce or with in su ch further p e riod asth e Pr esid en t may allo w and th e p eriod so sp ecifi ed or allo wed h as expir ed . Explanation I .— In this arti cl e, in cl aus es (a ) to (e), “ St at e’ ’ in clud es aUnion t erritor y, bu t in th e proviso , “St at e’’ do es not in clud e a Uniont err itor y. Explanation II .— Th e p o w e r co n f err ed o n P ar l i a men t b y cla u s e (a )in clud es th e power to for m a new St at e or Union t erritor y b y unit ing a p ar tof an y St at e or Union t erri tor y to an y oth er St at e or Union t erritor y. 4 . Law s ma d e und er a rti cl es 2 and 3 to p rovide f o r th e a mend men t ofth e Fi rst and th e Fou rth S chedul es and suppl emen tal , in cid ental andcons equ entia l ma t t e rs . —(1 ) An y l a w r ef err ed to in arti cl e 2 or ar ti cl e 3sh al l co n t ain such provision s for th e amend men t of th e Firs t S ch edul e an dth e Fou rth S ch edul e as ma y b e n ecess ar y to give eff e ct to th e provis ions of 2
  3. 3. 3 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIAth e l aw and may al so cont ain su ch suppl ement al , in cid ent al andcons eq u ent ial provis ions (in cluding prov isions as to r epr es en t a tion inP arl i ament and in th e Legis l atur e or Legisl atur es o f th e S tat e o r St at esa ff e ct ed b y su ch l a w) as P a rli a me n t ma y d e e m n e c e ss ar y . (2 ) N o s u ch l a w a s a f o r es aid s h a l l b e d e e me d t o b e an a me n d me n t o f t h i sConsti tution for th e purpos es of arti cle 368 .
  4. 4. 4 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA PART II CITIZENSHIP 5 . Citiz enship at th e co mmen cemen t of th e Co nstitu tion .— At th eco mmen cement of this Constitution , ev er y p erson who h as hi s do mi cil e inth e t err itor y of Indi a and — (a ) wh o was born in th e t erri tory of Indi a; or (b ) ei th er of whos e p ar ents was born in th e t erritor y of Indi a; or (c ) wh o h as b e en ordin ar il y r esid ent in th e t erritor y of Indi a for not l ess th an f iv e years i mmed i at el y pr eceding su ch co mmen cement ,sh al l b e a citi zen of Indi a. 6 . Rights of cit iz enship of certain p e rson s w ho hav e mig rat ed toIndia f ro m P aki s tan. —Not withst and ing an ything in arti cl e 5 , a p ersonwho h as migr ated to th e t e rritor y of Indi a from t h e t er ritor y no w in clud edin P ak ist an sh all b e d eemed to b e a cit i z en of Indi a at th e comme n cemen tof this Const itution if — (a ) h e o r eith er of hi s p ar ents or an y of his gr andp ar ents was born in Indi a as d ef in ed in th e Gov ern me nt of Indi a Act , 1935 ( as orig in all y en act ed); and (b )(i ) i n th e c as e wh er e su ch p erson h as so mi gr at ed b efor e th e nin et e en th d a y of Ju l y, 1948, h e h as b e en ordin ar il y r esid ent in th e t err itor y of India sin ce th e d at e of his migr ation, o r (i i ) i n th e cas e wh er e su ch p erson h as so migr at ed on or aft er th e nin et een th d ay of Jul y, 1948 , he h as b een r egist er ed as a ci ti zen of Ind i a b y an offi cer appoint ed in th at b eh alf b y th e Go v ern me nt of th e Do minion of Indi a on an appli cation ma d e b y h i m th er efor to su ch offi cer b efo r e th e co mmen cement of thi s Const itution in th e for m and ma n n er pr es cribe d b y th at Gov ern me nt: Provid ed th at no p erson sh all b e so r eg ist er ed unl ess h e h as b e enr esid en t in th e t er ritor y of Indi a fo r at l e ast six months i mme d i at el ypr eceding th e dat e of his appli cation . 7 . Rights of cit iz enship of certain mig rants to Pa kis tan.—Not withs t anding an ything in arti cl es 5 and 6, a p er son who h as aft er th efir st d a y of Ma r ch , 1947, migr at ed fro m the t err itor y of Indi a to th et err itor y no w includ ed in P ak ist an sh al l not b e d eemed to b e a cit i z en o fIndi a: Provid ed th at nothing in this art i cl e sh al l apply t o a p erson who , aft erh aving so migr at ed to th e t e rritor y no w in clud ed in P akis tan , has r eturn edto th e t erri tor y of Ind i a und er a p er mit for r es ettl ement or p er man en t r e turnis su ed b y o r u n d er th e au th o r ity o f an y l a w an d ev er y su ch p erso n sh al l fo r 4
  5. 5. 5 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIAth e purpos es of cl aus e ( b) o f art i cl e 6 b e d e eme d to h av e mig r at ed to th et err itor y of India aft er th e nin eteenth d ay of July, 1948 . 8 . Rights of citiz ensh ip of certain p ersons of Indian origin resid ingouts id e India .— No twithst anding an yth ing in art i cl e 5 , an y person who oreith er o f whos e p ar ents or an y of whos e gr andpar ents was born in Indi a asd efin ed in th e Gov ern ment o f Indi a Act , 1935 ( as origin al l y en act ed) , andwho is ord in arily r esiding in any countr y ou tsid e Indi a as so defin ed sh allb e d e e me d to b e a c i t i z en o f In d i a if h e h as b ee n r eg ist er ed a s a c i t i z en o fIndi a b y the d iplo mati c or consul ar r epr es ent ativ e o f Indi a in th e countr ywh er e h e is for th e ti me b eing r esiding on an appli c at ion ma d e b y h i mth er efo r to su ch diplo mati c or consul ar r epr es en t a tiv e, wh eth er b efor e oraft er th e co mm en cement of this Const itution , in th e for m and mann erpr es cr ib ed b y the Gov e rn men t of th e Do minion of Indi a or th e Gov ern me ntof India. 9 . Persons volunta ri ly a cqu i ring citiz en ship of a fo reign Stat e not tob e ci tiz ens .— N o p erson sh all b e a citi zen of Ind i a b y vi rtu e of arti cl e 5,o r b e d e e me d to b e a c i ti z en o f I n d i a b y v irtu e o f art i cl e 6 o r a rt i cl e 8 , ifh e h as volunt aril y acquir ed th e cit i z enship of an y for eign St at e. 10 . Continuan ce of th e rights of cit iz enship .— Ev er y p erson w ho is oris d eemed to b e a citi zen of Indi a und er an y of th e for egoing provis ions ofthi s P ar t sh all , subj ect to th e provis ions of any l a w th at ma y b e mad e b yP arl i ament , continu e to b e su ch cit i zen. 11 . Pa rlia me n t to regu lat e the righ t of cit izenship by law .— No t h in gin th e for egoing provis ions of thi s P art sh all d erog at e f ro m th e po wer ofP arl i ament to mak e an y provis ion with r espect to th e acquis ition andt er min at ion o f cit i z en ship and all oth e r matt ers r el a ting to citi ze nship .
  6. 6. 6 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA PART III FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS G e n er a l 1 2 . D ef i n i t io n .—In this P art , unl ess th e cont ext o th er wis e r equir es , “ th eSt at e’’ in clud es th e Gov ernmen t and P arli ament of Indi a and th eGov ern ment and th e Legisl atur e of each of th e St at es and all local or oth erauthor iti es within th e t erri tor y of Indi a or und er th e contro l of th eG o v er n me n t o f I n d i a . 13 . Law s in consi st ent w ith o r in deroga tion of th e funda me n talrights . —(1) All l a ws in for ce in th e t errito r y of Ind i a i mmed iat el y b efor eth e co mmen cement of this Const itution , in so f ar as th ey ar e in cons ist entwith th e prov isions of thi s Part , sh all , to th e ext ent of su ch in consi st en cy,b e void . (2) Th e S t at e sh all not mak e an y l aw whi ch t ak es aw ay or abridg es th erigh ts conf err ed b y this P ar t an d an y l a w mad e in contr av ention of thiscl au s e sh al l, to th e ex t ent of th e contr av ention , b e void . (3) In this ar ti cle, un l ess th e cont ext oth er wi s e r equir es,— (a ) “ l aw” in clud es an y Ordin an ce, ord er , b ye-l aw, rul e, r egulation , noti fi c ation , cu sto m or us ag e having in th e t erri tor y o f Ind i a th e for ce of l aw; (b ) “ l aw s in force” in clud es l aws p ass ed or mad e b y a Legisl atur e o r oth er co mp et ent autho rit y in th e t erritory of Indi a befor e th e co mmen cement of this Consti tution and not pr evious l y r ep eal ed , not with st anding t h at an y su ch law or an y p art th er eof may n ot b e th en in op er at ion ei th er a t all or in p arti cul a r ar e as . (4) No thing in t his ar ti cl e shall appl y to any amen d ment of this Consti tution mad e und er arti cl e 368 . Right to Equali ty 14 . Equal ity befo re law .—The S t at e shall not d en y to an y p ersonequ ali t y b efor e th e l aw or the equ al pro t ection of th e l aws within th et err itor y of India. 15 . Prohib ition of dis cri mi nation on g rounds of relig ion, ra ce, ca st e,s ex o r pla ce o f bi rth .—(1 ) The S t at e sh all not dis cr i min at e ag ainst an ycit i zen on g rounds onl y of r eligion , r ace, caste, s ex , p l ace of bir th o r an yo f t h e m. ( 2 ) N o cit i z en s h all , o n g r o u n d s o n l y o f r el ig i o n , r a c e , c a s t e , s ex , p l a c eof birth or an y of th em, b e subject to an y dis abil it y, l i abilit y, restr i ction orcondit ion wi th reg ard to — (a ) acces s to shops , publi c r es taur ants , hot els and pl aces of publi c e nt er t ain men t; or 6
  7. 7. 7 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA (b ) t h e us e of well s, t anks , b athing gh ats , ro ads and pl aces of publi c r esor t ma int ain ed wholl y or p artl y ou t of St at e funds or d edi cated to th e us e of th e g en eral publi c. (3) Noth ing in thi s arti cl e shall p r ev ent th e St at e fro m making an ysp eci a l prov ision for wo men an d ch ildr en . (4) Noth ing in this arti cl e or in cl au s e (2) of arti cl e 29 sh al l prev en t th eSt at e fro m ma king an y sp ecial provision for th e ad v an c emen t o f an yso ci all y and edu c ation a ll y back ward cl ass es of ci ti zens or for th eS ch ed u l ed C ast es an d th e S ch ed u l ed Trib es . 16 . Equa lity of oppo rtunity in ma tt ers o f publ ic emp loymen t.—(1)Th er e sh all b e eq u ali t y of opportuni t y for all citi zens in ma tt ers r el ating toemp lo yment or appoint ment to an y offi ce und er th e St at e. (2) No citi zen sh all , on grounds onl y of relig ion, r ace, cast e, s ex ,d es cent , pl ace of bir th, r esid en ce or an y of th em, b e in eligibl e for, ordis cr i min at ed ag ains t in r esp ect of , an y emplo yment or off i ce und er th eS t at e . (3) No thing in this arti cl e sh all pr ev en t P arl i amen t f ro m making an y l a wpr es cr ibing , in r eg ard to a cl ass or cl as s es of emp lo yme nt or appoint me ntto an off i ce und er th e Gov ernme n t of , or any lo cal or o th er author it ywithin , a St at e or Union t err itor y , an y r equir emen t as to r es id en ce withinth at St at e or Union t err itor y prior to su ch emp lo yment or appoint ment . (4) Noth ing in thi s arti cl e shall p r ev ent th e St at e fro m making an yprovis ion for th e r es erv ation of appoin t men ts or po sts in favour of an yb a ck ward cl ass of ci ti zens whi ch , in th e opinion of th e St at e, is notad equ at el y r epres ent ed in th e servi ces und er the St at e. (4 A) No thing in this art i cl e sh all pr ev en t the St at e fro m making an yprovis ion fo r res erv at ion in ma t t ers of promo tion , with cons equ ent i als enior it y, to any cl ass or cl asses o f posts in the s e rvi c es und er t h e St at e inf avour of th e Sch edul ed Cast es and th e S ch edul ed Trib es whi ch , in th eopinion of th e St at e, ar e not ad equ at el y r epr es ent ed in th e s ervi ces und erth e St at e. (4 B) Nothing in this art i cl e sh all pr ev ent th e Stat e fro m considering an yu n fi ll ed v a c an cie s o f a y e ar wh i ch ar e r es erv ed fo r b ein g fi ll ed u p in th atyear in accord an ce wi th an y provis ion for r es erv at ion mad e und er cl aus e(4 ) o r cl au s e (4 A ) as a s ep a ra te c l ass o f v a c an ci es to b e fil le d u p in an ysu cceeding year or years and su ch cl ass of v acan ci es sh all not b econsid er ed tog eth er with th e v acan ci es of th e year in whi ch th ey ar e b eingfi ll ed up fo r d et er min ing th e ce il ing of f ift y per cen t. r es erv ation on tot a ln u mb er o f v a c an ci es o f t h at y ea r . (5) No thing in thi s art i cl e sh all aff ect th e op er at ion of an y l aw w hi chprovid es th at the in cu mb ent of an off i ce in conn ection wi th the aff ai rs ofan y r el igious or d eno min ation a l in stitut ion or an y memb er of the gov erning
  8. 8. 8 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIAbod y th er eof shall b e a p erson prof es sing a p arti cu l ar r el igion or b e longingto a p arti cul ar deno min ation . 17 . Abolition of Untou chabi lity .—“ Un to u ch ab il it y’’ i s ab o lish ed an dit s pr acti ce in an y for m i s forbidd en . Th e en for cement of an y di sab ilit yaris ing out of “ Untou ch ab ilit y’’ shall b e an off en c e punish ab l e inaccord an ce with l aw. 18 . Abo lition of tit l es .—(1) No ti tl e, no t b eing a milit ar y or acad emi cdis tin ction , sh all b e conf err ed by th e St at e. (2) No citi zen of Indi a sh al l accept an y tit l e f rom an y for eign St at e. (3) No p erson who is no t a citi zen of Indi a sh all , whil e h e holds an yoffi ce of profi t or trust und er th e St at e, accep t withou t th e cons ent of th ePr esid en t an y t itl e fro m an y foreign St at e. (4) No p erson holding an y of fi ce of profi t or trust und er th e S tat e sh al l,without th e cons ent of th e Pr esid en t, accept an y p res ent , emolu ment , oroffi ce of an y kind fro m o r und er an y for eign Stat e. Right to Fr eedom 19 . Prot ection of certain rights rega rding f reedo m o f sp eech , et c.—(1) All cit i zens sh al l h av e th e right — (a ) t o fr eedo m of sp eech and expr ess ion; (b ) t o ass embl e p eaceabl y and withou t ar ms ; (c ) t o for m associ at ions or un ions; (d ) t o mov e fr eel y throughou t the t erri tor y of Indi a; (e ) t o r esid e and s ett l e in an y p art of th e t err itory of Indi a; and * * * * * (g ) t o pr actis e an y prof ess ion, or to carr y on an y o c cup ation , tr ad e or busin ess . (2) Nothing in sub- cl au s e (a) of cl aus e (1) sh all aff e ct th e oper at ion ofan y ex isting l aw , or p r ev ent th e S t at e fro m mak ing an y l aw, in so f ar assu ch l a w i mpos es r e ason ab l e r est ri ctions on th e ex er cis e of th e righ tconf err ed b y the s aid sub - cl au s e in th e int er est s o f th e sov er eign t y andint eg rit y of Ind ia, th e s e cu ri t y of th e S t at e, fr iendl y r el ation s with for eignSt at es, publi c ord er , decen cy or mo r alit y, o r in r el ation to cont empt ofcourt , d ef a ma tion or in cit e me nt to an off en ce. (3) Noth ing in sub- cl aus e (b ) o f th e s aid cl au s e sh al l aff e ct th e o p er at io nof an y exist ing l aw in so f ar as it i mpos es , or pr ev ent th e S t at e fro mma k ing an y l aw i mpos ing, in the in t er ests o f the sov er e ignt y an d in t egrit yof Indi a or publi c ord er , r e asonabl e r estr i ctions on th e ex er cis e of th e rightconf err ed b y th e s aid sub- cl aus e. (4) Nothing in sub- cl au s e (c) o f th e s aid cl au s e sh al l af f e ct th e o p er at io nof an y exist ing l aw in so f ar as it i mpos es , or pr ev ent t h e S t at e f r o mma k ing an y l aw i mpos ing, in the in t er ests o f the sov er e ignt y an d in t egrit y
  9. 9. 9 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIAof Indi a or publi c ord er or mor ali t y, r eason ab l e r est ri ctions on th e ex er cis eof th e right conferr ed b y th e s aid sub- cl aus e. (5) Nothing in sub- cl aus es (d ) and ( e) o f th e s aid cl au s e sh al l a ff e ct th eop er at ion of any ex isting l aw in so f ar as it imp os es , or pr event th e S t atefro m mak ing any l aw i mposing , r eason abl e r es tri ctions on th e ex er cis e ofan y of th e rights conf err ed b y th e s aid sub- cl au s es eith er in th e int er est s ofth e g en er al publi c o r for th e prot ection of th e int e r ests of any S ch edul edTrib e. (6) Noth ing in sub- cl aus e (g ) o f th e s aid cl au s e sh al l aff e ct th e o p er at io nof an y exist ing l a w in so f ar as it i mpos es , or pr ev ent th e S t at e fro mmak ing an y l aw i mposing , in the int er es ts o f the g en er al publi c, r eason abl er est ri ctions on th e ex er cis e of th e r ight conf er red b y th e s a id sub- cl au s e,and , in p arti cu lar , noth ing in th e s aid sub- cl au s e sh all aff e ct th e op er ationof an y ex isting l a w in so f ar as it r el at e s to , or p r ev en t th e St at e fro mmak ing an y l aw r el ating to,— (i) th e prof ession al or t e chni cal qu al ifi c ation s n eces s ary for pr act ising an y prof es sion or carr ying on an y o c cup ation, tr ad e or busin es s, or (i i) th e carr ying on b y th e S tat e, o r b y a corpor at ion o wned or contro ll ed b y th e S t at e, of any t r ad e, busin ess , industr y or s e rvi c e, wh eth er to th e ex clus ion, co mplet e or p arti al, of citi zen s or oth er wis e. 20 . Prot ection in resp ect of convi ct ion fo r off en ces .—(1) No p e rsonsh al l b e convi cted of an y off ence ex cept for viol at ion o f a l aw in for ce atth e ti me of the co mmi ss ion of th e Act ch arg ed as an offen ce, nor b esubj ect ed to a p en alt y gr eat er th an th at wh i ch mi ght h av e b een infl i ct edund er th e l aw in for ce at th e ti me of th e co mmission of th e off en ce. (2 ) No p erso n sh al l b e p ro s e cu t ed an d p u n ish ed fo r th e s ame o ff en c emo r e th an once. (3) No p erson accus ed of an y off en ce sh all b e co mp ell ed to b e a wi tn essag ains t h i ms elf. 21 . Prot ection of lif e and p ersonal lib erty .— No p er so n sh al l b ed epriv ed of his l if e or p er sonal lib ert y ex cept accord ing to pro c edur ee st ab lish ed b y la w . 1 22 . Prot ection agains t a rrest and d et ention in certain cas es . — ( 1 ) Nop erson wh o is arr est ed sh al l b e d e t ain ed in cu stod y without b einginfor med , as soon as may b e, of th e grounds for su ch arr est nor sh all h e b ed eni ed th e r ight to consu lt, and to b e d ef end ed b y, a l eg al pr ac ti tion er ofh i s ch o i c e . (2) Ev er y p e rson who is a rr est ed and d et ain ed in cu stod y sh al l beprodu ced b efore th e n e ar est ma g istr a t e within a p er iod of t w ent y- fourhours of su ch arr es t ex cluding th e t i me n ecessar y for th e jou rn e y fro m th epl ace of arr est to th e court of th e ma gis tr at e an d no su ch p erson sh al l b e _______________________________________________ 1.On the commencement of s. 3 of the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978, art. 22 shall stand amended as directed in s. 3 of that Act. For the text of s. 3 of that Act, see Appendix III.
  10. 10. 10 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIAd et ain ed in cu stod y b eyond the s a id p eriod without th e au thori t y of ama g istr a t e. (3) Nothing in cl aus es (1) and (2) sh all appl y— (a) to an y p erson who for th e t ime b eing is an en emy ali en; or (b) to an y p erson wh o is arr est ed or d e t ain ed und er an y l a w provid ing fo r prev en tiv e d et en tion . (4) No l a w providing for prev en tiv e d e t ention sh all au thoris e th ed et ent ion of a person for a longer p eriod th an thr ee months unless — (a) an Adv isor y B o ard con sisting of p ersons who ar e, or h av e b een , or ar e qu al ifi ed to b e appoint ed as , Judg es of a High Court h as r eport ed b efor e th e exp iration o f th e s aid p eriod o f thr ee mo nths th at th er e is in it s op inion suffici en t caus e for su ch d et ention : Provid ed th at nothing in this sub- cl au s e sh all au thor is e th e d etention of an y p er son beyond th e maximu m p eriod pr es crib ed b y an y l aw mad e b y P arli a me nt und er sub- cl aus e (b) of cl aus e (7); or (b) su ch p e rson is d e t ain ed in accord an ce with th e prov isions of an y l aw mad e b y P arl i ament und er sub- cl aus es ( a ) and (b ) o f cl au s e (7 ) . (5) Wh en an y person is d et ain ed in pur su an ce of an ord er ma d e und eran y l aw providing fo r pr ev ent ive d e t ention , th e au thorit y ma king th e ord ers h al l , as s o o n as ma y b e , co mmu n i c at e t o s u ch p e r s o n t h e g r o u n d s o n wh i chth e o rd er h as been ma d e and sh all afford hi m th e earli es t opportun it y ofma k ing a rep r esent at ion ag ainst th e ord er . (6) Nothing in cl aus e (5) sh al l r equir e th e author it y mak ing an y su chord er as is r ef err ed to in th at claus e to dis clo se f acts whi ch su ch autho rit yconsid er s to b e ag ains t the publi c int e rest to disclos e . ( 7 ) P ar l i a men t ma y b y l a w p r esc r i b e — (a) th e cir cu ms tan ces und er which , and th e cl ass or cl as s es of cas es in wh i ch, a p erson ma y b e det ain ed for a period long er than thr e e mo nths und er an y l aw providing for pr ev entiv e d et ent ion without obt ain ing th e opinion of an Advisor y Bo ard in accord an ce with th e provis ions of sub- cl aus e (a) of cl aus e (4) ; (b) th e ma xi mum p e riod for whi ch an y p erson ma y in an y cl ass or cl ass es of cas es b e det ain ed und er an y l aw provid ing for pr ev ent iv e d et ent ion; and ( c) th e pro cedure t o b e fol lowed b y an Advisor y Bo ard in an inquir y und er sub- cl ause (a) of cl aus e (4) . Right agains t Ex ploi tation 23 . Proh ibition of t raffi c in hu ma n b eings and fo rced labou r .—(1)T r affi c in h u man b ein g s an d b egar and oth er s imi l ar for ms of for ced l abourar e prohibit ed and an y contr av ention of this provis ion sh al l b e an off en c epunish ab l e in accord an ce with law.
  11. 11. 11 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA (2) Nothing in this arti cl e sh all pr ev ent the S t at e fro m imp osingco mpulsor y s ervi ce for publ i c purpos es , and in i mpos ing su ch s ervi ce th eSt at e sh all no t mak e an y dis cr imi n ation on grounds on l y of r eligion , r ace,c a s t e o r cl ass o r a n y o f t h e m. 24 . Prohibition of emp loy ment of chi ld ren in fa cto ri es, et c. — Nochild b e low th e ag e of four t e en years sh all be emp lo y ed to work in an yf actor y or min e or eng ag ed in an y oth er h azardous emplo yment. Right to Fr eedom of Religion 2 5 . F re ed o m o f co n s ci en c e a n d f r e e p ro f ess io n , p ra ct i c e a n dp ropagation of relig ion. —(1) Subj ect to pub li c ord er , mo r alit y and h e althand to th e oth er provi sions of this P art , all p ersons ar e eq u ally ent itl ed tofr eedo m o f cons ci en ce and th e right fr eel y to prof ess, pr act is e andp r o p ag at e r el ig i o n . (2) Nothing in this art i cl e sh all aff e ct th e op eration of an y ex ist ing l awor pr ev ent th e St at e fro m mak ing an y l aw — (a) r egul ating or r est ri cting an y econo mi c, fin an ci a l, pol iti ca l or oth er s e cul ar activ it y wh i ch ma y b e asso ci at ed with r el igious pr act i ce; (b) providing for so ci al wel far e and r efor m or th e throwing op en of Hindu r e ligious i n stitu tions of a p ubli c ch aract er to al l cl ass es and s e ct i o n s o f Hin d u s . Explanation I .—Th e wearing and carr ying of kirpans sh all b e deemed tob e in clud ed in th e prof ession of th e Sikh r eligion . Explanation II .— In sub- cl aus e (b) o f cl aus e (2) , th e ref er en ce to Hindu ssh al l b e con strued as in clud ing a r e f er en ce to persons prof ess ing th e Sikh ,J ain a or Buddh ist r elig ion, and th e r ef er en c e to Hindu r eligious ins titution ssh al l b e const rued accordingl y. 2 6 . F r e ed o m t o ma n a g e r el ig i o u s a f f a i rs .— Subj ect to publi c ord er ,mo r ali t y and h ealth , ev er y r el igious d eno min ation or an y s e ction ther eofsh al l h av e th e right — (a) to est abli sh and maint ain inst itutions for r elig ious and ch arit ab l e purpos es ; (b) to man ag e its o wn aff airs in mat t ers of r el igion; ( c) to o wn and ac quir e mov abl e a nd i mmov ab l e prop ert y; and (d) to ad minist er su ch prop ert y in accord an ce with l a w. 27 . F r e edo m a s to pay me n t of tax e s fo r p romo t ion of any pa rti cu la rrelig ion.— No person sh all b e co mp ell ed to p a y an y t axes, th e pro ceeds ofw hi ch ar e sp ec if i c all y appropri a t ed in p a yme n t of exp ens es for th epro motion o r ma i n t en an c e of an y p arti cul ar r eligion or r eligiousd eno min ation .
  12. 12. 12 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 28 . Freedo m a s to att endan ce at religiou s ins truction o r relig iousw orship in certain edu cational i nstitut ions .— (1) No r elig ious i nstru ct ionsh al l b e provided in an y edu cation al ins titution wholl y mai ntain ed ou t ofS t at e f u n d s . (2) Nothing in cl aus e (1) sh all appl y to an edu cation al in stitu tion wh i chis ad min ist er ed b y th e S t at e but h as b e en e st ablish ed und e r an y e ndo w me ntor t rust whi ch requir es th at r eligious instru ct ion sh al l b e i mp art ed in su chins titution . (3) No p erson att end ing an y ed u c ation a l institut ion r e cognised b y th eSt at e or r eceiv ing aid out of St at e funds sh all b e r equir ed to t ak e p art inan y r elig ious instru ction th at may b e i mp ar t ed in su ch inst itution or toatt end an y r e ligious worship that ma y b e condu ct ed in su ch inst itution orin an y pr emis es at t a ch ed th er eto un l ess su ch person or, if su ch p er son is ami nor , his gu ardi an h as giv en his cons ent th er eto . Cultura l and Edu cationa l Righ ts 29 . Prot ection of in t erests of mi no rit i es.— (1) An y s e ction of th ecit i z en s r esiding in th e t erritor y of Indi a or an y p art th er eo f h aving adis tin ct l angu ag e, s c ript or cu ltu r e of its own shall h av e th e right toc o n s erv e t h e s ame . (2) No citi zen sh all b e d eni ed ad mission into an y edu cation al inst itutionmai nt ain ed b y th e St at e or r eceiving aid out of St at e funds on grounds onl yo f r el i g i o n , r a c e, c a s t e , l an g u ag e o r an y o f t h e m. 30 . Right o f mi n o riti es to establ ish and ad mi nist er edu cationa lins titutions . — (1) Al l minoriti es , wh eth er b ased on r el igion or l angu ag e,sh al l h av e th e right to est abl ish and ad mini st er edu cat ion al inst itutions ofth ei r ch o ic e . (1 A) In making an y l a w providing for th e co mpulsor y acqu isition of an yprop ert y of an edu cation al institu tion est abl ish ed and ad minist er ed b y ami nori t y, r ef e rred to in cl au s e (1) , th e St ate sh all en su r e th at th e amountfix ed b y o r d et er min ed und er such l a w for th e ac quis ition of such prop ert yis su ch as would no t r es tri ct or abrog at e th e right gu ar ant e ed und er th atc l au s e . (2) Th e St at e sh al l no t, in gr ant ing aid to edu cation al insti tutions ,dis cr i min at e ag ains t an y ed u c ation a l inst itution on th e g round th at it isund er th e manag ement of a mi nori t y, wh eth er b as ed on r el igion orl an g u ag e .
  13. 13. 13 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA * * * 31 . [ Co mpul sory a cquisit ion of prop ert y .] Re p . b y th e Const itution(F o rt y- fo u rth Am e n d men t ) A c t, 1 9 7 8 , s . 6 ( w.e. f. 2 0 - 6 - 1 9 7 9 ) . Sa ving of Certain La ws 31 A. Saving of law s p roviding fo r a cqu isition of estat es, et c.—(1) Not wi thst anding an yth ing cont ain ed in arti cl e 13, no l aw providingfor — (a) th e acquisi tion b y th e St at e of an y est at e or of an y rights ther ein or th e extingui sh me nt or modi fication of an y such rights , or (b) th e t aking ov er of th e man ag e me nt of an y prop ert y b y th e St at e for a l i mit ed p eriod eith er in the pub li c int er est o r in ord er to secur e th e prop er man ag ement of th e prop ert y, or (c) the amalgamation of two or more corporations either in the public interest or in order to secure the proper management of any of the corporations, or (d) th e ex tinguish me nt or modifi cation of an y righ ts of man aging ag ents , s ecr et ari es and tr easur ers , man aging di r ectors , directors or man ag ers of corpor at ions , or o f an y vo ting rights of shar ehold er s th er eof , or ( e) th e ext inguish me nt or modif i cation o f any r ights accruing b y vir tu e of an y agr eement , l eas e or li cen ce for th e pu rpos e of s ear ching for , or winning , an y mi n er al or mi n er al oil , or th e pr ematur e t ermi n ation o r c an c ell at io n o f an y s u ch ag r ee me n t , l e as e o r l i c en c e ,sh al l b e d eemed to b e void on th e ground th at it i s in consis tent wi th, ort ak es away or abridg es an y of th e right s conf err ed b y arti cl e 14 or arti cl e19: P rovid ed th at w h er e su ch l a w is a l a w mad e b y th e Leg isl atur e of aSt at e, th e provision s of this arti cl e sh all not appl y th er eto unl ess such l a w,h aving b e en r eserv ed for th e consid er ation of th e Pr esid en t , has r eceiv edhis ass en t: Provid ed furth er th at wh ere an y l aw mak es an y provision for th eacquis ition b y th e S t at e of an y est a t e and wh ere an y l and co mpris ed th er einis h eld b y a p erson under his p erson al cult ivation , i t sh al l not be l a wfu l forth e St at e to acquir e an y port ion of su ch l and as i s with in th e ceil ing li mi tappli c ab l e to him u nd er an y l aw for th e t i me being in for ce or an y bu ildingor stru ctur e st anding th er eon or appurt en ant th ereto , unl ess th e law r el atingto th e acquisit ion of su ch l and, build ing or structur e, provid e s for p a ymentof co mpen s ation at a r at e which sh all not b e l ess th an th e mar k et v alu eth er eo f . (2) In this articl e ,— (a) th e expr ession ‘‘ es t at e’’ sh all , in r el ation to an y lo cal ar ea, h av e th e s ame mean ing as th at expression or its local equiv al en t h as in th e
  14. 14. 14 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA exis ting l a w r elating to l and t enur es in for ce in th at ar ea an d sh al l also in clud e— (i) an y jagir , ina m o r muafi or oth er si mil ar gr ant and in the S t at e s o f T a mil N a d u and K er al a , an y jan ma m rig h t ; (i i ) an y l and h eld und er r yot wari s et tl emen t; (i i i ) an y l and h eld or l et for purpos es of agri cu ltur e or for purpos es an cillar y th er eto, in cluding was t e l and , for est l and, l and for p astur e o r sit e s of bu ildings and oth er stru ctur es o c cupi ed b y cult iv ators of l and , ag ri cu ltur a l l abour er s an d vill ag e art is ans; (b) th e expr ession ‘‘right s’’ , in r el ation to an est a t e, sh all in clud e an y rights v esting in a propri eto r, sub-propri e tor, und er-propri e tor, t enur e-ho ld er, r a i ya t , u n d er- ra i y a t o r o th er in te r me d i ar y an d an y rig h ts or privi l eg es in r esp ect of l and rev enu e. 31 B. Va lidation of certain Ac ts and Regulation s. —Wi thout pr ejud iceto th e g en er al ity of th e prov isions cont ain ed in arti cl e 31A, non e of th eActs and Regul at ions sp eci fi ed in th e Ninth S ch edu l e nor an y of th eprovis ions th ereof sh al l b e d eemed to b e void , or ev er to hav e b e co mevoid , on th e ground th at su ch Act , Regul at ion o r provis ion is i n consist en tw ith , o r t ak es a w a y o r ab rid g es a n y o f th e r ig h ts co n f err ed b y, a n yprovis ions of this P art , and notwiths t anding any j udg men t, d ecr ee o r ord erof an y court or Tribun al to th e cont r ar y, each of th e said Acts andRegul at ions sh all , subj ect to th e po wer of any co mp et ent Legis l atur e tor ep eal or amend it , continu e in for ce. 31 C. Saving of law s giving eff e ct to certain di rectiv e p rincipl es.—Not withs t anding an ything cont ain ed in ar ti cl e 13 , no l aw giving eff ect to 1th e poli c y o f the S t at e to wards s e cu ring [ a ll or an y of th e prin cip l es l a iddo wn in P a rt IV] sh all b e d eemed to b e void on th e g round th at it isin cons ist ent with , or t ak es away or abridg es any of th e r ights conf err ed b y 2a rt i cl e 1 4 o r arti cl e 1 9 ; and no la w contain ing a d e clarat ion that i t is forgi ving eff e ct to su ch po li cy sha ll b e ca ll ed in qu est ion in an y court on th eground that i t do es not gi ve eff ect to su ch poli cy: Provid ed th at wh er e su ch l a w is ma d e b y th e Legisl atur e of a S t at e, th eprovis ions of this arti cl e sh all no t appl y th ereto un l ess su ch l a w, h av ingb e en r es erv ed for th e consid er at ion of th e Pr esid en t, h as receiv ed hisa s s en t . 3 1 D. [Sa ving of la ws in r esp ect of anti-na tional a cti viti es .] Rep . b y th eConsti tution (F ort y- third Amen d m en t ) Act ,1977, s .2 (w . e . f .13-4-1978 ). Right to Consti tutiona l Remedi es 32 . Remedi es fo r enfo rcemen t of rights con ferred by thi s Pa rt .—(1)Th e righ t to mov e th e Sup r eme Court b y appropri at e pro ceedings for th eenfor cement of th e righ ts con ferr ed b y this P art is gu ar ant eed . ____________________________________________ 1. Subs. by the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976, s. 4, for “the principles specified in clause (b) or clause (c) of article 39” (w.e.f. 3.1.1977). Section 4 has been declared invalid by the Supreme Court in Minerva Mills Ltd. and others vs. Union of India and others (1980) s. 2, S.C.C. 591. 2. In Kesavananda Bharati vs. the State of Kerala (1973),Supp. S.C.R.1., the Supreme Court held the provisions in italics to be invalid.
  15. 15. 15 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA (2) Th e Sup r eme Court sh all h av e power to is su e dir e ction s or ord ers orwrits , in clud ing writs in the n atur e of hab eas corpus , mandamus ,prohib ition , quo warranto a n d cert iorari , which ev er may b e appropri at e,for th e enfor c emen t of an y of th e rights conf err ed b y this P art . (3) Without pr ejudi ce to th e powers conf err ed on th e Supr eme Court b yc l au s es (1 ) an d (2 ), P arli a me n t ma y b y l a w emp o w e r an y o th er co u rt toex er cis e wi thin th e lo cal li mits of it s jurisdi ction all or an y of th e po werse x er cis ab l e b y th e Supr e me Court und er cl aus e (2) . (4) Th e right guar ant eed b y this ar ti cl e sh al l not b e susp end ed ex cept asoth er wis e prov id ed for b y this Consti tution . 3 2 A . [ Consti tutional validi t y of S tat e la ws not to b e consid er ed inpro ceedings und er arti cl e 32 .] Rep. b y th e Con stitut ion (F o rt y- thirdA m e n d m en t ) A ct , 1977 , s . 3 (w . e . f . 1 3 - 4 - 1 9 7 8 ) . 33 . Pow er of Pa rlia men t to modify th e rights conf erred by thi s Pa rtin th ei r appli cation to Fo rces , et c.—P ar li a me n t ma y , b y l a w, d e t er min e towh at ex t en t any of th e rights conf err ed b y th is P art sh all , in th eirappli cation to ,— (a ) t h e me mb ers o f th e A r med F o r c es; o r (b ) t h e memb ers of th e For ces ch arg ed with th e maint en ance o f publi c ord er ; or (c ) p e rsons emp lo yed in an y bur eau o r oth er org anis at ion est ab lish ed b y th e S t at e for purpos es of int e llig en ce or count er int e llig en ce; or (d ) p e rsons emp lo y ed in , or in conn ection with , th e t el eco mmu ni cation s yst ems s et up for th e purpos es of an y For ce, bur eau or org anis a tion r ef err ed to in claus es (a ) to ( c) ,b e r e stri ct ed o r a b ro g a t ed so as to en su r e th e p ro p e r d is ch arg e o f th eirduti es and th e maint en an ce of dis cip lin e among th em 34 . Rest ri ction o n rights conf erred by thi s Pa rt w hil e ma rtia l law isin fo rce i n any a r ea . —Not with st anding an ything in the f o r egoingprovis ions of this P ar t, P ar li ament may b y l aw ind emnif y an y person in thes ervi ce of th e Union or of a St at e o r an y oth er p erson in r esp ect of an y actdon e b y hi m in conn ection wi th th e ma int en an ce or r esto ration of ord er inan y ar ea within th e t erri tor y of Indi a wh er e mar ti al l aw was in for ce orv alid at e an y s ent en ce p ass ed , punish me nt in fli ct ed , forf eitur e ord er ed oroth er act don e und er marti al l aw in su ch ar ea. 35 . Legislat ion to giv e ef fect to th e p rovis ions of this Pa rt . —Not withs t anding an ything in this Constitu tion ,— (a) P ar li ament sh al l h av e, and th e Legis l atur e of a St at e sh all not h av e, po w er to mak e l aw s—
  16. 16. 16 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA (i) with r esp ect to an y of th e matt ers whi ch und er cl aus e (3) of art i cl e 16, cl ause (3) of art i cl e 32 , arti cl e 33 and arti cl e 34 may b e provid ed for b y l a w mad e b y P arl i a ment ; and (i i) for pr es cribing punish me nt for thos e acts wh i ch are d ecl ar ed to b e off en ces und er this P art ; and P arli ament sh al l, as soon as may b e af t er th e co mmen cement of thi s Consti tution , mak e l aws fo r pr es crib ing pun ishmen t for th e acts r ef err ed to in sub- cl au s e ( ii) ; (b) an y l a w in for ce i mme d i at el y b efor e th e co mme n cement of this Consti tution in th e t err itor y of Indi a with r espect to an y o f the mat t ers r ef err ed to in su b - cl au s e ( i) of cl aus e (a) or provid ing fo r punish me nt fo r an y a c t r ef err ed to in su b - cl au s e (ii ) o f th at cl au s e sh all , su b j e ct to th e t er ms th er eof and to an y a d apt at ions and mo difi c at ions th at ma y b e ma d e th er ein und er arti cl e 372 , cont inu e in f or ce unt il alt er ed or r ep e al ed or a me nd ed b y P a rli a me nt . Explanation . —In this ar ti cl e, the expr es sion "l aw in for ce h as th e s amemean ing as in arti cl e 372 .
  17. 17. 17 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA PART IV DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY 3 6 . D ef in i t i o n .—In this P art , unl ess th e cont ext oth er wis e r equir es , ‘‘th eSt at e’’ h a s the same mean ing as in P art III . 3 7 . App li ca tio n o f th e p rin cipl e s co n ta in ed in thi s P a rt .— Th eprovis ions contain ed in th is P art sh all not b e enfor ceabl e b y an y cour t, butth e p rin cip l es th er e in l aid d o w n ar e n ev er th el ess fu n d a me n t al in th egov ern an ce o f th e coun tr y and i t sh all b e th e du t y of th e Stat e to appl yth es e prin cipl es in mak ing l aws. 38 . Sta t e to s e cu re a so cia l o rd er fo r th e p romo t ion of w elfa re of th ep eopl e .—(1) The St at e sh all s triv e to pro mo t e th e welf ar e of the p eopl e b ys e curing and prot ect ing as eff ectiv el y as it ma y a so ci al order in whi chjus ti ce, so ci al , econo mi c and poli ti c al , sh all infor m all th e inst itutions ofth e n ation al lif e. (2) Th e St at e sh all , in p art i cular , s triv e to mi ni mis e th e in equ ali ti es inin co me, an d en d e avour to elimi n at e in eq u aliti es in st atu s, facil iti es andopportun iti es , not onl y amongst indiv idu als but also amongst groups ofp eopl e r esid ing in diff er ent ar eas or eng ag ed in diff er ent vocations . 39 . C ertain p rin cip l es of poli cy to b e follow ed by th e Stat e.— Th eSt at e sh all, in part i cul ar , d ir e ct it s po li cy to wards s e cu ring — (a ) t h at th e citizens , men and w o men equ all y, h av e th e right to an ad equ at e me ans of liv elihood; (b ) t h at th e o wn ership an d contro l of th e ma t eri al r esour ces of th e co mmun it y ar e so distr ibut ed as b est to subs erv e th e co mmon good; (c ) t h at th e op er at ion of th e econo mi c s ys t em do es no t r esult in th e con c en tr at ion of wealth an d mean s of produ ction to th e co mmon d etr i ment ; (d ) t h at th er e i s e q u al p a y fo r eq u al wo rk fo r b o th men an d wo me n ; (e ) t h a t th e h ea lth and str eng th of work ers , men a nd wo men , and th e t en d er ag e o f ch ild r en ar e n o t ab u s ed an d th at cit i z en s a r e n o t fo r c ed b y econo mi c n ecessi t y to en ter avocation s unsu it ed to th eir ag e or str eng th; (f ) t h at ch ildr en ar e giv en opportun iti es an d f acil iti es to d ev e lop in a h e al th y ma nner and in condit ions of fr eedo m and d ignit y and th at childhood and youth ar e protect ed ag ainst exploi t ation and ag ainst mo r al an d mat e r i al ab an d o n me n t . 39 A. Equal ju sti ce and f ree l egal aid .— Th e S t at e sh all s e cu re t h at th eo p er at io n o f th e l eg a l s yst em p ro mo t es ju st i c e, o n a b asi s o f eq u alopportun it y, and sh al l, in p ar ti cul ar, prov id e fr ee l eg al aid, b y sui t abl el egi sl ation or s ch e me s or in an y oth er way, to en sur e th at opportuni ti es for 17
  18. 18. 18 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIAs ecuring justi ce ar e not d eni ed to an y cit i zen b y r eason of econo mi c oroth er dis ab ilit i es . 40 . Organisation of vi llag e pan chayats .—Th e St ate sh all t ake st ep s toorg anis e vill age p an ch ayat s and endo w th em wi th su ch po wers andauthor it y as ma y b e n ecess ar y to en ab l e th em to fun ction as unit s of s e lf-gov ern ment . 41 . Right to wo rk, to edu cation and to publi c assis tan ce in certaincas es .— Th e St at e sh all , within th e l i mits of it s econo mi c cap acit y andd ev elop ment , ma k e ef fectiv e provis ion for s e curing th e r ight to work , toedu cation and to publ i c assis tan ce in cas es of un emplo yment , old age,s i ck n es s an d d i s a b l e me n t , an d i n o t h er c as es o f u n d es erv ed w an t . 42 . Provis ion fo r ju st and huma n e condit ions of w ork and ma t ernityreli e f. —Th e S tat e sh al l mak e provision for s ecuring jus t and hu man econdit ions of work and for materni t y r eli ef . 4 3 . Liv i n g w ag e, et c. , f o r w or ke r s .— Th e S t at e s h a l l en d e av o u r t os e cur e , b y suitabl e l eg isl ation or econo mi c org anis a tion or in an y oth erway, to all work ers , agr i cultural , industri a l or o th erwis e, work , a livingwag e, condi tions of work ensuring a d ecent st and ard of lif e and ful lenjo yment of l ei sur e an d soci al an d cu ltur al oppor tunities an d , inp art i cul ar , th e St at e sh al l endeavour to pro mot e cott ag e industr i es on anin d iv id u al o r co -o p er at iv e b as is in ru r al ar e as . 43 A. Pa rt i cipation of w orkers in ma nag emen t of indust ri es . — Th eS t at e sh all t ak e st ep s , b y su it ab le l eg i sl atio n o r in an y o th e r w ay , to s e cu r eth e p arti cip a tio n o f wo rk ers in th e ma n ag e me n t o f u n d ert ak in g s,est ab lish ments or oth er org anisation s en g ag ed in an y industr y. 44 . Uni fo rm civil cod e fo r the citiz ens . —The St at e sh all en d e avour tos e cu r e for th e cit i z en s a un ifor m civil co d e throughout th e t erri tor y ofIndia. 45 . Provision fo r f ree and comp u lso ry edu cation fo r chi ldren .— Th eSt at e sh all endeavour to provid e , within a p eriod of ten years fro m th eco mmen cement of this Const itution , fo r fr ee and co mpulsor y edu cation forall chi ldr en un til th ey co mpl et e th e ag e of fourteen years . 46 . Pro mo tion of edu cational and econo mi c int erest s of S ch edul edC a st es , S ch ed u l ed T rib es a n d o th e r w ea ke r s e ctio n s.— Th e S t at e s h a l lpro mot e with sp eci al car e th e edu c ation a l and econo mi c inter est s of th eweak er s ections o f th e p eopl e, and , in p arti cu lar , of th e S ch edul ed Cast esa nd th e S ch edule d Trib es , and sh all p rot e ct th em f ro m so ci al injus ti c e andall for ms of exploi t ation . 47 . Duty of th e Stat e to ra is e th e l ev el of nutrit ion and th e standa rdof liv ing and to i mp r ov e publi c h eal th.— Th e S t at e sh all r eg ard th er ais ing of th e l ev el of nutrit ion and th e st an d ard of living of its p eopl e andth e i mprov ement of pub li c health as among i ts pri mar y duti e s and , inp art i cul ar , th e St at e sh all endeavour to bring about prohibit ion of th e
  19. 19. 19 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIAconsu mption except for me di cin al pu rpos es of i ntoxi cating drinks and ofdrugs whi ch ar e injur ious to h e alth . 48 . Organisation of ag ri cultu re and an i mal hu sband ry.—T h e St at esh al l en d e avour to org anis e ag ri cu ltur e an d an i mal husb and ry on mo d erna nd s ci en tifi c lin es and sh a ll , in p art i cul ar , t ak e st ep s for pr es erving a ndi mproving th e br eeds , and prohibi ting th e s l aught er , of co ws and calv esand oth er mil ch and dr aught cattl e. 4 8 A . P ro t e ct io n a n d i mp r o v eme n t o f en v i ro n me n t a n d s a f e g u a rd i ngof fo rests and w ild lif e. —Th e St at e sh al l end eavour to prot ect andi mprov e th e environ ment and to s af egu ard th e f o r ests an d wild lif e of th ecountry. 49 . Prot ection of mo nu men ts and p la ces and obj ects of nationa li mp o rta n c e .—I t s h all b e th e oblig ation of th e S t at e to prot ect ev er ymo nu men t or place or obj ect of ar tist i c or h istori c int er es t, d ecl ar ed b y oru n d er l aw ma d e b y P a rli a me n t to b e o f n atio n a l i mp o rta n c e , fro mspol i ation , disfigur ement , d estru ction , r e mo v al, dispos al o r export , as th ec a s e ma y b e . 50 . S epa ration of judi cia ry f rom ex ecutiv e.—Th e St at e sh all t ak e st ep sto s ep ar at e th e judi ci ar y fro m th e ex ecutiv e in th e publi c s ervi c es of th eS t at e . 5 1 . P ro mo ti o n o f i n t e rn a t i o n a l p ea c e a n d s ec u rit y . —Th e Stat e sh al le n d e av o u r t o — (a ) p ro mot e int ern at ion al peace and s ecurit y; (b ) ma i nt ain just and honor abl e r el a tions b et w een n ations ; (c ) f o s t er r esp ec t for int ern ation al l a w an d t rea t y obl ig ations in th e d ealing s of org ani zed p eopl es with on e anoth er; and (d ) en cour ag e sett l emen t of in tern at ion al d isput es b y arbit ration . PART IVA
  20. 20. 20 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA PART IVA FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES 51 A. Funda me ntal du ti es .—I t sh al l b e th e dut y of ev er y cit i z en ofIndia— (a ) t o ab ide b y th e Consti tution an d r esp ect i ts id eals and ins titution s, th e Nation al Fl ag an d th e Nation al Anth em; (b ) t o ch erish and fol low th e nobl e id ea ls whi ch in spired our n ation a l struggle for fr eedo m; (c ) t o uphold and prot ect th e sov er eign t y, unit y and int egrity of Indi a; (d ) t o def end th e coun tr y and r end er n at ion al s ervi ce wh en call ed upon to do so; (e ) t o pro mot e h ar mon y and t h e spir it of co mmon broth erhood amo ngst all th e p eop l e of India t r ans cending r el igious , l inguis ti c and r egion al or s ection al div ersi ti es; to r enoun ce p racti c es d erog ator y to th e digni t y o f wo men; (f ) t o v alu e an d p r es erv e th e ri ch h erit ag e o f o u r co mp o sit e cu ltu r e; (g ) t o pro t ect and i mprov e th e n atur al environ ment in cluding for es ts, l ak es , riv ers and wild li f e, and to h ave co mp assion for living cr eatur e s; (h ) t o d ev elop th e s ci en tifi c temp er , hu manism and the sp irit of inqui r y and r efor m; (i ) t o s af egu ard publi c prop er t y and to abjur e viol en ce; (j ) t o striv e tow ards ex cell ence i n all sph eres o f indiv idu al and coll ectiv e activit y so th at th e nation const an tl y ris es to high er l ev el s of e n d e av o u r an d ac h i ev e me n t . 20
  21. 21. 21 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA PART V THE UNION C HA P TE R I.—T H E E X EC U TI VE Th e Pr esid ent and Vi ce- Pr esid ent 52 . Th e Presid ent of India .— Th er e sh all b e a Pr esid en t o f Indi a . 53 . Ex ecutiv e pow er of th e Union .—(1 ) The ex ecut iv e power of theU n io n sh all b e v est ed in th e Pre sid en t an d sh a ll b e ex er cis ed b y h i m e ith erdir ectl y or through offi cers subordin a t e to him i n accord an ce with th isConsti tution . (2) Without pr ejudi ce to th e gen er al it y of th e for egoing provis ion, th esupr eme co mmand of th e Def ence For ces of the Un ion sh all be v est ed inth e Pr esid en t and th e ex er cis e th er eof sh al l b e re gul at ed b y l a w . (3) Nothing in this art i cl e sh all— (a ) b e d eemed to tr an sf er to th e P r esid en t any f u n ctions conf err ed b y an y ex isting l a w on th e Gov ern me nt of any St at e or oth er authori t y; or (b ) p r ev ent Parl i a ment fro m conf erring by l a w fun c tions on author iti es oth er th an th e Pr esid ent . 54 . El ection of Pres id ent.—T h e P r es id en t sh al l b e el e ct ed b y th ememb er s o f an el ecto r al co ll eg e consis ting of— (a ) t h e el ect ed memb er s o f bo th Hous es of P arli ament ; and (b ) t h e el ect ed memb er s o f the Legisl ativ e As semb li es of th e St at es. Explanation . —In this arti cl e and in art i cl e 55 , ‘‘S t at e’’ in clud es th eNation al Capit al Territor y of Delhi and th e Union t erri tor y of Pondi ch err y. 55 . Mann er of el ect ion of Presid en t. —(1) As f ar as pr acti cabl e, ther esh al l b e u n ifo rmi t y in th e s c a le o f r ep r es en t atio n o f th e d i ff er en t S t at es a tth e el ect ion of th e Pr esid ent . (2) For th e purpos e of s e curing su ch unifor mit y among th e S tat es in t ers e as w ell as p ari t y b e tw e en th e S t at e s as a w h o l e an d th e U n io n , th enu mb er o f vot es whi ch each el ect ed memb er of P arli ament and of th eLegisl ativ e Assemb l y of each St at e is entit l ed to cast at su ch election sh allb e d et er min ed in th e follo wing man n er: — (a ) ev er y el ected memb er o f th e Leg isl ativ e Ass embl y o f a St at e sh al l h av e as ma n y vot es as ther e ar e mu lt ipl es of on e thous an d in th e quoti en t ob t ained b y d ividing th e popul at ion of th e St at e b y th e tot al n u mb er o f th e e le c t ed me mb er s o f th e Ass e mb l y; 21
  22. 22. 22 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA (b ) i f , aft er t aking th e s a id mu ltipl e s of on e thous an d , th e r e maind er is not l es s th an fiv e hundr ed , th en th e vot e of each me mb er r ef err ed to in sub- cl au s e (a) s h all b e fu rth er in cr e as ed b y o n e; (c ) e a c h e l e c t ed member of either House of Parliament shall have such number of votes as may be obtained by dividing the total number of votes assigned to the members of the Legislative Assemblies of the States under sub-clauses (a) and (b) by the total number of the elected members of both Houses of Parliament, fractions exceeding one- half being counted as one and other fractions being disregarded. (3) The election of the President shall be held in accordance with the system ofproportional representation by means of the single transferable vote and the voting at suchelection shall be by secret ballot. Explanation.— In this article, the expression ‘‘population’’ means the population asascertained at the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published: Provided that the reference in this Explanation to the last preceding census of which therelevant figures have been published shall, until the relevant figures for the first census takenafter the year 2026 have been published, be construed as a reference to the 1971 census. 56. Term of office of President.—(1) The President shall hold office for a term of fiveyears from the date on which he enters upon his office: Provided that— (a ) t h e Pr es id en t may, b y writing und er his hand addr ess ed to th e Vi ce-Pr es id ent , r esign hi s of fi ce; (b ) t h e Pr esid en t may, for viol ation of th e Consti tution , b e r e mo v ed fro m offi ce b y imp each men t in th e mann er prov id ed in arti cl e 61; (c ) t h e Pr esid en t sh all , not withst an d ing th e expir a tion of his t er m, continu e to hold offi ce unti l h is su ccessor ent e rs upon h is offi ce. (2) Any resignation addressed to the Vice-President under clause (a) of the proviso toclause (1) shall forthwith be communicated by him to the Speaker of the House of the People. 57. Eligibility for re-election.—A person who holds, or who has held, office as Presidentshall, subject to the other provisions of this Constitution, be eligible for re-election to thatoffice. 58. Qualifications for election as President.—(1) No person shall be eligible for electionas President unless he— (a ) i s a citi zen of Indi a, (b ) h as co mpl eted th e ag e of th irt y- fiv e years , and (c ) i s qu al ifi ed for el ect ion as a memb er of th e Hous e of th e P eopl e. (2) A p er son sh all not b e eligibl e for el ection as Pr esid ent if h e holdsan y offi ce of p rofi t und er th e Gov ern ment o f Indi a or th e Gov ern ment ofan y St at e or under an y lo cal or oth er au thorit y subj ect to th e contro l of an yof th e s aid Gov ern ments .
  23. 23. 23 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA Explanation . —For th e purpo s es of th is arti cl e, a p erson sh all not b ed eemed to ho ld an y offi ce of profi t b y r e ason onl y th at h e is the Pr esid entor Vi ce- Pr esident of th e Un ion or th e Governor of an y St at e or i s aMinist er eith er for th e Union or for an y S t at e. 59 . Condit ions of Presid ents offi ce.—(1 ) Th e Pr esid en t sh all n o t b e amemb er of either Hou s e of P arli ament or of a Hous e o f th e Legis l atur e o fan y St ate, and if a memb er of eith er Hou s e of P arl i ament or of a Hous e ofth e Legisl atur e of an y St at e b e el ect ed Pr es ident , h e sh all b e d eemed toh av e v acat ed his s eat in th at Hous e on th e d at e on whi ch h e enters upon hi soffi ce as Pr es ident . (2) Th e Pr esid ent sh al l no t hold an y o th er offi ce of profit . (3) Th e Pr es id en t sh all b e en titl ed without p a ymen t o f r ent to th e us e o fhis of fi ci al r esid en c es and sha ll b e al so en tit l ed to su ch emo lu me nts ,a llo w an c es and priv il eg es as ma y b e d e t er min ed b y P a rli a me nt b y l a w and ,unti l provision in th at b eh alf i s so ma d e, su ch emo lu me nts , allow a n c es andpriv il eg es as are sp ecifi ed in the S e cond S ch edul e. (4 ) T h e e mo lu me n ts a n d allo w a n c es o f th e P r esid en t sh all n o t b edi mini sh ed dur ing his t er m of offi ce. 60 . Oath o r affi rma tion by the Presid ent . —Ev er y Pr es id ent a nd ev er yp erson acting as Pr esid en t or dis ch arg ing th e fun ctions of th e Pr esid en tsh al l, b efor e ent er ing upon hi s offi ce, ma k e and subs crib e in th e pr es en ceof th e Chi e f Just i c e of Indi a or , in his abs en ce, th e s enior - most Judg e o fth e Supr eme Court av ail abl e, an o a th or affir mation in th e fol lo wing for m,th at i s to s a y— "I , A. B . , d o s w e a r i n t h e n a m e o f G o d t h a t I wi l l f ai t h f u l l y ex e cu t e solemnly affirmth e of fi c e of President (or discharge the functions of the President) of India and will to the best of my abilitypreserve, protect and defend the Constitution and the law and that I will devote myself to the service and well-beingof the people of India.". 61 . P ro c edu re fo r i mp e a chme n t of th e P r esid ent . —(1) Wh en aPr esid en t is to b e i mp each ed for v iol ation of th e Cons titut ion, th e ch arg esh al l b e pr ef erred b y eith er Hous e of P arli ament . (2) No su ch ch arg e sh all b e pr eferr ed unl ess — (a ) t h e p ropos al to p ref er su ch ch arg e is contain ed in a r esolution w h i ch h as b e en mo v ed af t er at l e ast fo u rt e en d a ys n o ti c e in wri ting sign ed b y not l ess th an on e-fou rth of th e tot al nu mb er of memb ers of th e Hous e h as b een giv en of th eir int ent ion to mov e th e r esolu tion , and (b ) s u ch r eso lu tio n h as b e en p ass ed b y a ma jo rit y o f n o t l ess th an t wo-th irds of the tot al memb ership of th e House. (3) Wh en a ch arg e h as b een so pr ef err ed b y eith er Hous e of P arl i ament ,th e oth er House sh all inv e stigat e th e ch arg e or cau s e th e ch arg e to b ein v es tig at ed an d th e P re sid en t sh al l h av e th e rig h t to ap p e ar an d to b er epr es en t ed at su ch inv est iga tion .
  24. 24. 24 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA (4) If as a result of the investigation a resolution is passed by a majority of not less thantwo-thirds of the total membership of the House by which the charge was investigated orcaused to be investigated, declaring that the charge preferred against the President has beensustained, such resolution shall have the effect of removing the President from his office asfrom the date on which the resolution is so passed. 62. Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of President and the term of office of person elected to fillcasual vacancy. —(1) An election to fill a vacancy caused by the expiration of the term of office of President shall becompleted before the expiration of the term. (2) An election to fill a vacancy in the office of President occurring by reason of his death,resignation or removal, or otherwise shall be held as soon as possible after, and in no caselater than six months from, the date of occurrence of the vacancy; and the person elected tofill the vacancy shall, subject to the provisions of article 56, be entitled to hold office for thefull term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office. 63. The Vice-President of India.—There shall be a Vice-President of India. 64. The Vice-President to be ex officio Chairman of the Council of States.—The Vice-President shall be ex officio Chairman of the Council of States and shall not hold any otheroffice of profit: Provided that during any period when the Vice-President acts as President or dischargesthe functions of the President under article 65, he shall not perform the duties of the office ofChairman of the Council of States and shall not be entitled to any salary or allowance payableto the Chairman of the Council of States under article 97. 65. The Vice-President to act as President or to discharge his functions during casual vacancies in theoffice, or during the absence, of President.— (1) In the event of the occurrence of any vacancy in the office of thePresident by reason of his death, resignation or removal, or otherwise, the Vice-President shall act as President until the dateon which a new President elected in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter to fill such vacancy enters upon hisoffice. (2) When the President is unable to discharge his functions owing to absence, illness orany other cause, the Vice-President shall discharge his functions until the date on which thePresident resumes his duties. (3) The Vice-President shall, during, and in respect of, the period while he is so acting as,or discharging the functions of, President, have all the powers and immunities of the Presidentand be entitled to such emoluments, allowances and privileges as may be determined byParliament by law and, until provision in that behalf is so made, such emoluments,allowances and privileges as are specified in the Second Schedule. 66. Election of Vice-President.—(1) The Vice-President shall be elected by the membersof an electoral college consisting of the members of both Houses of Parliament in accordancewith the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote andthe voting at such election shall be by secret ballot. (2) Th e Vi ce-Pr esid en t sh all not b e a me mb er of eith er Hous e ofP arl i ament or of a Hous e of the Legi sl atur e o f an y St at e, and if a memb erof eith er Hous e of P arli ament or of a Hous e of th e Legi sl atur e of an y St at eb e el e ct ed Vi c e-Pr es id en t , h e sh all b e d e e me d to h av e v a c at ed h is s e at in
  25. 25. 25 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIAth at Hous e on th e d at e on whi ch h e ent ers upon hi s offi ce as Vi ce-P r esid en t. (3) No p erson sh al l b e eligib le for el ection as Vi ce-Pr esid ent un l essh e— (a ) i s a citi zen of Indi a; (b ) h as co mpl eted th e ag e of th irt y- fiv e years; and (c ) i s qu al ifi ed for el ect ion as a memb er of th e C oun cil of St at es . (4 ) A p er so n sh all n o t b e el ig ib l e fo r el e ct io n as Vi c e -Pr esid en t if h eholds an y office of p rofit und er th e Govern me nt of Indi a or th eGov ern ment of an y St at e or und er an y lo cal or oth er autho rity subj ect toth e control of an y of th e s aid Go v ern me nts . E x p l a n a t i o n . — For th e purposes of th is arti cl e, a p erson shall no t b ed eemed to ho ld an y offi ce of profi t b y r e ason onl y th at h e is the Pr esid entor Vi ce- Pr esident of th e Un ion or th e Governor of an y St at e or i s aMinist er eith er for th e Union or for an y S t at e. 6 7 . T e r m o f o f f i c e o f Vi c e- P re s i d en t . —Th e Vi ce-Pr es id ent sh al l holdoffi ce for a t erm o f fiv e years f ro m th e d at e on whi ch h e enters upon hisoffi ce: Provid ed th at— (a ) a Vi ce-P r esid ent may, b y writ ing und er his h and addr ess ed to th e Pr esid en t, r es ign his offi ce; (b ) a V i c e -Pr esid en t ma y b e r emo v ed fro m h is o ffi c e b y a r e so lu t io n of th e Coun cil of St at es p ass ed b y a ma jori t y of all th e th en me mb ers of th e Coun ci l and agr e ed to b y the Hous e of th e P eopl e; bu t no resolu tion for th e purpos e of this cl au s e sh al l b e mo v ed unl ess at l e ast fourt e en d ays noti ce h as b een g iv en o f th e int ent ion to mo v e th e resolution ; (c ) a Vi ce-Pr esid en t sh al l, not with st anding th e ex p ir ation of his t er m, continu e to hold offi ce unti l h is su ccessor ent ers upon his offi ce. 68 . Ti me o f holding el ection t o fi ll va can cy in th e offi ce o f Vi ce-Presid ent and th e t erm of offi ce of p erson el ect ed to fil l casua lva can cy .—(1) An election to fil l a v acan c y caus ed b y th e expir a tion of th et er m o f offi ce of Vi ce-Pr esid ent sh all b e co mpl et ed b efor e the exp ir ationo f t h e t er m. (2) An el ection to f ill a vacan cy in th e offi ce of Vi ce-Pr esid en to ccurring b y r eason of hi s d eath, r esign at ion or r emov al , or other wis e sh allb e h eld as soon as possib l e after th e o c curr ence of th e v acancy, and th ep erson el ect ed to f ill th e v acancy sh al l, subj ect to th e provi sions of arti cl e67 , b e en ti tl ed to ho ld offi ce for th e full t er m of f iv e years fro m th e d at eon whi ch h e enters upon his offi ce. 69. Oath or affirmation by the Vice-President.—Every Vice-President shall, beforeentering upon his office, make and subscribe before the President, or some person appointed
  26. 26. 26 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIAin that behalf by him, an oath or affirmation in the following form, that is to say— "I , A. B . , d o s w e a r i n t h e n a m e o f G o d t h at I w i l l b e ar t r u e f ai t h and solemnly affirmall eg i an ce to the Consti tution of Indi a as b y l aw est abl ish ed and th at I willf ai thfull y dis charg e th e dut y upon whi ch I am about to ent er . " 70. Discharge of Presidents functions in other contingencies.—Parliament may makesuch provisions as it thinks fit for the discharge of the functions of the President in anycontingency not provided for in this Chapter. 71. Matt ers relating to , o r co nn ect ed w ith, th e el ection of aPresid ent o r Vi ce- P resi den t.— (1) All doub ts an d disput es aris ing out o for in conn ect ion wi th th e el ection o f a Pr esid ent or Vi ce-P resident sh all b einqui r ed into and d e cid ed b y th e Supr eme Court whos e d e cision sh al l b efin a l. (2) If the election of a person as President or Vice-President is declared void by theSupreme Court, acts done by him in the exercise and performance of the powers and duties ofthe office of President or Vice-President, as the case may be, on or before the date of thedecision of the Supreme Court shall not be invalidated by reason of that declaration. (3) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, Parliament may by law regulate anymatter relating to or connected with the election of a President or Vice-President. (4) The election of a person as President or Vice-President shall not be called in questionon the ground of the existence of any vacancy for whatever reason among the members of theelectoral college electing him. 72. Power of President to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commutesentences in certain cases.— (1) The President shall have the power to grant pardons,reprieves, respites or remissions of punishment or to suspend, remit or commute the sentenceof any person convicted of any offence— (a) in all cases where the punishment or sentence is by a Court Martial; (b) in all cases where the punishment or sentence is for an offence against any law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the Union extends; (c) in all cases where the sentence is a sentence of death. (2) Nothing in sub-clause (a) of clause (1) shall affect the power conferred by law on anyofficer of the Armed Forces of the Union to suspend, remit or commute a sentence passed bya Court Martial. (3) Nothing in sub-clause (c) of clause (1) shall affect the power to suspend, remit orcommute a sentence of death exercisable by the Governor of a State under any law for thetime being in force. 73. Extent of executive power of the Union.— (1) Subject to the provisions of thisConstitution, the executive power of the Union shall extend— (a ) t o th e matt ers with r esp ect to whi ch P arliamen t h as power to mak e l aw s; and
  27. 27. 27 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA (b ) t o th e ex erc is e o f su ch r ig h ts , au th o r it y an d ju ri sd i ctio n a s ar e e x er cis ab l e b y th e Gov ern me nt of Indi a b y v irtu e of an y tr ea t y or agr eement: Provid ed th at th e ex ecu tiv e po wer r ef er r ed to in sub- cl aus e (a ) s h allnot , s av e as expr ess l y provid ed in this Const itution or in an y law ma d e b yP arl i a ment , extend in an y St at e to matt ers with r esp ect to whi ch th eLegisl atur e o f th e St at e h as also po wer to make l aws . (2) Un t il o th erwis e provid ed by P arli a ment , a St at e an d an y offi cer orauthor it y of a St at e ma y, not withst and ing an ything in th is arti cl e, continu eto ex er cis e in matt ers with r e spect to whi ch P arl i a ment h as power to mak el aws for th at S tat e su ch ex ecutiv e po wer or function s as th e S t at e or offi ceror authorit y th er eof could ex ercis e i mme d i at ely b e for e th e comme n cemen tof this Const itution . Coun cil of Minist er s 74 . Coun cil of Min ist ers to aid and advise Presid ent .—(1) Th er esh al l b e a Council of Minist er s with th e Pri me Minis t er at th e h e ad to aidand advi s e th e Pr esid en t who sh all , in th e ex ercis e of his fun ction s, act inaccord an ce with su ch advi ce: Provid ed th at th e P r esid ent may r equi r e th e Coun cil o f Minis t ers tor e consid er su ch adv i ce, eith er g en er al l y or o th er wis e, and the P r esid entsh al l act in accord an ce with th e advi ce t end er ed aft er su ch r e consid er ation . (2) Th e qu es tion wh eth er an y, and if so wh at , adv i ce was t end er ed b yMinist ers to th e Pr esid en t sh all not b e inquir ed into in an y court . 75 . Oth er p rovis ions as to Minist ers . —(1) Th e Pri me Minis t er sh allb e appoint ed b y th e Pr esid ent and th e oth e r Minis t ers sh all b e appoint ed b yth e Pr esid en t on th e advi ce of the Pri me Min ist er . (1 A) Th e tot al nu mb er of Ministers , in clud ing th e Pri me Minister , in th eCoun cil of Minist er s sh all not ex ceed fift een per cent . o f th e tot al nu mb erof memb er s of th e Hou s e of th e P eopl e. (1 B) A me mb er of eith er Hous e of P ar li ame nt belonging to an y pol iti calp art y who is disqu alifi ed for b eing a memb er of th at H ous e und erp ar agr aph 2 of th e T enth S ch edul e sh al l a lso b e disqu al ifi ed to b eappoint ed as a Minis t er und er cl aus e (1) for dur ation of th e p eriodco mmen c ing from t h e d at e of his d isqu alif i c ation till th e d at e on whi ch th et er m of h is office as su ch memb er would expi re or wh er e h e cont es ts an yel ect ion to eith er Hou s e of P arliamen t b efor e the expir y o f su ch p eriod , t illth e d at e o n wh i ch h e is d e cl ar ed e l e ct ed , wh i ch ev er is e arl ie r. (2) Th e Mini st ers sh al l ho ld of fi ce during th e pl easur e of th e Pr esid en t. (3) Th e Coun cil o f Min ist ers sh al l b e co ll ectiv el y r esponsible to th eH o u s e o f t h e P eo p l e .
  28. 28. 28 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA (4) Befor e a Minist er ent ers upon his off ice, th e P r esident sh allad minis ter to him t h e o aths of offi ce and of s e cr ecy accord ing to th e for mss et out for th e purpos e in th e Third S ch edul e. (5) A Minis t er who for an y period of six cons ecut iv e months is not amemb er of eith er Hous e of P ar liamen t sh all at th e exp ir ation o f t h at p eriodceas e to b e a Minis t er. (6 ) Th e s a l ari es an d a llo w an c es o f M in ist ers sh all b e su ch as P arl i a men tma y f ro m ti me to ti me b y l a w d et e r min e a n d , u n ti l Pa rl i a men t sod et er min es , sh all b e as sp ecifi ed in th e S econd Sch edul e. The Attorney-General for India 76. Attorney-General for India.—(1) The President shall appoint a person who isqualified to be appointed a Judge of the Supreme Court to be Attorney- General for India. (2) It shall be the duty of the Attorney-General to give advice to the Government of Indiaupon such legal matters, and to perform such other duties of a legal character, as may fromtime to time be referred or assigned to him by the President, and to discharge the functionsconferred on him by or under this Constitution or any other law for the time being in force. (3) In the performance of his duties the Attorney-General shall have right of audience inall courts in the territory of India. (4) The Attorney-General shall hold office during the pleasure of the President, and shallreceive such remuneration as the President may determine. Conduct of Government Business 77. Conduct of business of the Government of India.—(1) All executive action of theGovernment of India shall be expressed to be taken in the name of the President. (2) Orders and other instruments made and executed in the name of the President shall beauthenticated in such manner as may be specified in rules to be made by the President, andthe validity of an order or instrument which is so authenticated shall not be called in questionon the ground that it is not an order or instrument made or executed by the President. (3) The President shall make rules for the more convenient transaction of the business ofthe Government of India, and for the allocation among Ministers of the said business. * * * * * 78. Duties of Prime Minister as respects the furnishing of information to thePresident, etc.—It shall be the duty of the Prime Minister— (a ) t o co mmu ni cat e to th e Pr esid en t all d e ci sions of th e Coun cil of Minist ers r e l ating to th e ad minis tr ation of th e aff ai rs of th e Union and propos al s fo r l egis l ation; (b ) t o furnish su ch infor mation r el ating to th e ad min istr ation of th e aff ai rs of th e Un ion and p roposals for l egis l ation as th e Pr es id en t ma y call for ; and (c ) i f th e Pr esid en t so r equir es , to sub mit for th e consid eration of th e Co u n cil o f M in ist e rs an y ma tt e r o n wh i ch a d e cisio n h as b ee n t ak en b y a Min ist er but whi ch h as not b een consid er ed b y th e Coun cil.
  29. 29. 29 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA CHAPTER II.—PARLIAMENT General 79. Constitution of Parliament.—There shall be a Parliament for the Union which shallconsist of the President and two Houses to be known respectively as the Council of States andthe House of the People. 80. Composition of the Council of States.—(1) The Council of States shall consist of— (a) twelve members to be nominated by the President in accordance with the provisions of clause (3); and (b) not more than two hundred and thirty-eight representatives of the States and of the Union territories. (2) The allocation of seats in the Council of States to be filled by representatives of theStates and of the Union territories shall be in accordance with the provisions in that behalfcontained in the Fourth Schedule. (3) The members to be nominated by the President under sub-clause (a) of clause (1)shall consist of persons having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of suchmatters as the following, namely:— Literature, science, art and social service. (4) The representatives of each State in the Council of States shall be elected by theelected members of the Legislative Assembly of the State in accordance with the system ofproportional representation by means of the single transferable vote. (5) The representatives of the Union territories in the Council of States shall be chosen insuch manner as Parliament may by law prescribe. 81. Composition of the House of the People.—(1) Subject to the provisions of article331, the House of the People shall consist of— (a) not more than five hundred and thirty members chosen by direct election from territorial constituencies in the States, and (b) not more than twenty members to represent the Union territories, chosen in such manner as Parliament may by law provide. (2) For the purposes of sub-clause (a) of clause (1),— (a) there shall be allotted to each State a number of seats in the House of the People in such manner that the ratio between that number and the population of the State is, so far as practicable, the same for all States; and (b) each State shall be divided into territorial constituencies in such manner that the ratio between the population of each constituency and the number of seats allotted to it is, so far as practicable, the same throughout the State: Provided that the provisions of sub-clause (a) of this clause shall not be applicable for thepurpose of allotment of seats in the House of the People to any State so long as the populationof that State does not exceed six millions.
  30. 30. 30 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA (3) In this article, the expression “population” means the population as ascertained at thelast preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published: Provided that the reference in this clause to the last preceding census of which therelevant figures have been published shall, until the relevant figures for the first census takenafter the year 2026 have been published, be construed, — (i) for the purposes of sub-clause (a) of clause (2) and the proviso to that clause, as a reference to the 1971 census; and (ii) for the purposes of sub-clause (b) of clause (2) as a reference to the 2001 census. 82. Readjustment after each census.—Upon the completion of each census, theallocation of seats in the House of the People to the States and the division of each State intoterritorial constituencies shall be readjusted by such authority and in such manner asParliament may by law determine: Provided that such readjustment shall not affect representation in the House of the Peopleuntil the dissolution of the then existing House: Provided further that such readjustment shall take effect from such date as the Presidentmay, by order, specify and until such readjustment takes effect, any election to the House maybe held on the basis of the territorial constituencies existing before such readjustment: Provided also that until the relevant figures for the first census taken after the year 2026have been published, it shall not be necessary to readjust— (i) the allocation of seats in the House of People to the States as readjusted on the basis of the 1971 census; and (ii) the division of each State into territorial constituencies as may be readjusted on the basis of the 2001 census,under this article. 83 . Du ration of Hous es of Pa rlia men t .—(1) Th e Coun c il of St at essh al l no t b e subj ect to d issolution , but as n e arl y as pos sibl e on e-th ird ofth e me mb ers ther eof sh all r et ire as soon as ma y b e on th e expir a tion ofev er y s e cond year in acco rd an ce with th e provision s mad e in that b eh al f b yP arl i ament b y l aw . (2) Th e Hous e o f th e P eopl e, un l ess soon er dis solv ed, sh all con tinu efor fiv e years fro m t h e d at e appoint ed for its fir st me eting and no long erand th e expi r ation of th e s a id p eriod o f fiv e years sh all oper at e as adis solution of th e Ho u s e: Provid ed th at th e s aid p eriod ma y, w hil e a P ro cl a ma tion of Eme r g en c yis in op er ation, b e ex t end ed b y P arli a me nt b y l a w for a p eriod notex ceeding on e year at a ti me and not ext ending in an y cas e b eyond a p eriodo f six mo n th s aft er th e Pro cl a ma tio n h as c e as ed to o p er at e . 84 . Qualif i cation fo r me mb er ship of Pa rliamen t.— A p erson sh all notb e qu alif ied to b e chos en to fill a s eat in P arli amen t unl ess h e— (a ) i s a c it i zen o f In d i a , an d ma k e s an d su b s crib e s b efo r e so me p erson au thorised in th at b eh alf b y th e El ection Co mmi ssion an o ath or
  31. 31. 31 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA affi r mation according to the for m s et out for th e purpos e in th e Th ird S ch edul e; (b ) i s , in th e cas e of a s eat in th e Coun cil of St at es, not l ess th an thi rt y years of ag e and , in th e cas e of a s eat in th e Hous e of the P eopl e, not l ess th an t we nt y- fiv e ye ars of ag e; and (c ) p oss ess es suc h o th er qu al ific a tion s as ma y b e pr e s crib ed in t h at b eh al f b y o r u n d e r an y l a w ma d e b y P a r l i a me n t . 85 . S essions of Pa rlia me n t , p ro rogation and disso lution .—(1) Th ePr esid en t sh al l fro m t i me to time s u mmo n each Hous e of P arl i ament tomeet at su ch time an d p l ace as h e thinks f it , but six months sh al l no tint e rv en e b e twee n it s l ast si tting in on e s ess ion and th e d at e appoint ed fo rit s f irst si tting in th e n ext s ession . (2) Th e Pr esid ent may fro m t i me to ti me— (a ) p rorogu e th e Hous es or eith er Hous e; (b ) d is solv e th e Hous e of th e P eopl e. 86 . Right of Presid ent to add ress and s end messag es to Hous es .—(1)Th e Pr esid ent may ad dr ess eith er Hous e of P arl i ament o r both Hous esass e mbl ed tog eth er , and for th at purpos e requir e th e attend an ce ofmemb er s. (2) Th e Pr es id ent ma y s end me ss ag es to either Hous e of P arl i a ment ,wh eth er with r esp ect to a Bi ll th en p ending in P arl i ament or o th er wis e, anda Hou s e to whi ch an y me ss ag e is so s ent sh all w ith all conv enie nt d esp at chconsid er an y matt er r equ ir ed b y th e mess ag e to b e t ak en into consid er ation . 87 . Sp ecia l address by th e Presid en t. —(1) At th e co mme n c ement of th efir st s es sion af ter each g en er al el ect ion to th e Hous e of th e P eopl e and atth e co mme n cement of th e f irst s ess ion o f each year th e Pr esid en t sh alladdr ess both Hous es of P arli a me nt ass e mbl ed tog eth er and infor mP arl i ament of the caus es of its su mmon s. (2) Prov ision sh all b e ma d e by th e rul e s r egul at ing th e procedur e ofeith er Hous e for th e al lot ment of t i me fo r dis cus sion of th e ma tt ersr ef err ed to in such addr ess . 88 . Right s of Minist ers and Atto rn ey- G en eral as resp ects Hous es. —E v er y Mini st er a nd th e Attorn ey- G en er al of Indi a sh all h av e th e right tosp eak in , and oth er wis e to t ake p a rt in th e pro ceedings of , eith er Hous e,an y joint sit ting of th e Hous es , and an y co mmi tt ee of Parli a me nt of wh i chh e ma y b e n a me d a me mb er , but sh all not by virtu e of this arti cl e b eenti tl ed to vot e. Offi cers o f Par lia ment 89 . Th e Chai rma n and Deputy Chai rman of th e Coun cil of Stat es .—(1) Th e Vi ce- Pr esid en t of Indi a sh all b e ex o ffi cio Ch airman of th eC oun cil of St at es .
  32. 32. 32 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA (2) Th e Coun ci l of S tat es sh all , as soon as may b e, choos e a memb er ofth e Coun ci l to b e Deput y Ch air man th er eof and , so oft en as th e offi ce o fDeput y Ch air man b eco mes vacant , th e Coun cil sh al l choos e anoth erme mb e r to b e De p u t y Ch air ma n th er eo f . 90 . Va ca tion and resignat ion of , and removal f ro m, t h e offi ce ofDeputy Chai rman .— A memb er hold ing offi ce as Deput y Ch air man of th eC oun cil of St at es — (a ) s h all v acate hi s offi ce if h e ceas e s to b e a me mb er of th e C o u n cil ; (b ) may at any ti me, b y writing und er h is hand addr ess ed to th e Ch air man , resign his offi ce; and (c ) ma y b e r e mov ed fro m h is offi c e b y a r eso lution of th e Coun cil p ass ed b y a majori t y of al l th e th en memb ers of th e Coun cil: Provid ed th at no r eso lution fo r th e purpos e of cl au s e (c ) s h al l b e mo v edunl ess at l e ast fourt e en d a ys ’ noti ce h as b e en giv en of th e int ent ion tomo v e th e resolution . 91 . Pow er o f th e D eputy Chai rma n o r oth er p erson to p erfo rm t h eduti es of th e offi ce o f, o r to a ct as , Chai rman .—(1 )Whil e th e off ice ofCh air man i s v acant , or during an y p er iod wh en th e Vi ce-Pr esident is act ingas , o r dis ch a rging th e fun c tions of, Pr esid en t, th e duti es of th e offi ce sh allb e perfor med b y th e Deput y Ch air man , or , if th e off i ce of Deput yC h air man is al so v acant , b y such memb er o f th e Coun cil of St at es as th ePr esid en t ma y appoint for th e purpos e. (2) During th e abs en c e of th e Ch air man fro m an y si tting of th e Coun cilof St at es th e Deput y Ch air man , or , if h e is also abs ent , su ch p erson as mayb e d et er min ed b y th e ru les of pro c edur e of th e Coun cil , or , if no su chp erson is pr es en t , su ch oth er p erson as ma y b e d et er min ed b y th e Coun cil ,s h al l a c t as Ch air ma n . 92 . Th e Chai rma n o r th e D eputy Chai rma n not to p res id e w hi l e aresolut ion fo r his remo val f ro m o ffi ce is und er consid eration .— (1) Atan y sit ting of th e Coun cil of St at es, whil e an y r esolu tion for th e r e mov alof th e Vi ce-Pr esid ent fro m hi s offi ce is und er consid er ation , the Ch ai r man ,or wh il e an y r esolu tion fo r th e r e mo v al of th e Deput y Ch air man fro m hisoffi ce is und er consid er ation , th e Deput y Ch airman , sh all not , though he ispr es ent , pr es id e, and th e provisions of cl aus e (2) of ar ti cl e 91 sh al l appl yin r el ation to ev er y su ch s itting as th ey appl y in r el ation to a si tting fro mw h i ch t h e Ch air ma n , o r, as t h e c a s e ma y b e , t h e D ep u t y Ch air ma n , i sa b s en t . (2) Th e Ch air man sh all h av e the r ight to sp eak in , and oth er wis e to t ak ep art in th e pro ceedings of , th e Coun cil of S t ates wh il e an y r esolu tion fo rth e r e mo v al of th e Vi ce-Pr esid ent fro m h is o ffice is und er consid er ation inth e Coun cil , but , not withs t anding an ything in arti cle 100 , sh al l no t b e
  33. 33. 33 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIAenti tl ed to vot e at al l on su ch r esolu tion or on an y oth er ma t t er during suchp r o c e ed i n g s . 93 . Th e Sp ea ker and Deputy Sp ea ker of th e Hou s e of th e Peopl e.—T h e Ho u s e o f t h e P eo p l e s h al l , a s s o o n as ma y b e , ch o o s e t wo me mb e r s o fth e Hous e to b e r esp ectiv el y Sp eak er and Deput y Sp eak er th er eof and , sooft en as th e offi ce of Speak er or Deput y Speak er b eco mes v acant , th eHous e sh all choos e anoth er memb er to b e Sp eak er or Deput y Sp eak er , ast h e c as e ma y b e. 94 . Va cat ion and resignation o f, and remo val f ro m, t h e offi ces ofS p ea ke r a n d De p u t y S p ea ke r . — A memb er holding of fi ce as Sp eak er orDeput y Sp eak er of th e Hous e o f th e P eopl e— (a ) s h al l v acat e his offi ce if h e ceas es to b e a memb er of th e Hous e of th e P eopl e; (b ) may at an y ti me, b y writ ing und er hi s h and addr ess ed , if su ch memb er is th e Sp eak er , to th e Deput y Sp eak er , and if su ch memb er is th e Deput y Sp eak er , to th e Sp eak er , r esign his offi ce; and (c ) may b e r emov ed fro m h is offi ce b y a r eso lution of th e Hous e o f th e P eopl e p assed b y a majori t y of all th e th en memb er s o f the Hous e: Provid ed th at no r eso lution fo r th e purpos e of cl au s e (c ) s h al l b e mo v edunl ess at l e ast fourt e en d a ys ’ noti ce h as b e en giv en of th e int ent ion tomo v e th e resolution : Provid ed furth er th at, wh en ev er th e Hous e of th e P eop le is dis solv ed,th e Sp eak er sh all no t v acat e his off i ce until imme d i at el y b efor e th e firstmeet ing of th e Hous e of th e P eopl e aft er th e disso lution . 95 . Pow er of th e Depu ty Sp ea ker o r oth er p erson to p erfo rm th eduti e s of th e offi ce of , o r to a ct as , Sp ea ke r.—(1) Whil e th e offi ce ofSp e ak er is v a ca n t , th e d u t i es o f th e o f fi c e sh al l b e p erfo rme d b y th eDeput y Sp eak er o r, if th e off i ce o f Deput y Sp eak er is also v acant , b y su chmemb er of th e Hous e of th e Peopl e as th e P resid en t may appoint for thepurpose. (2) During th e abs en ce of th e Sp eak er fro m an y sitt ing of the Hou s e ofth e P eop l e th e Deput y Sp eak er or , if h e is also abs en t, su ch person as mayb e d et er min ed by th e rul es of pro cedur e of th e Hous e, o r, i f no su ch p ersonis pr esen t, such oth er p erson as ma y b e d e t er min ed b y th e House, sh all acta s S p e ak er . 96 . Th e Sp ea ker o r th e Deputy Sp ea ker not to p resid e w hil e aresolut ion fo r his remo val f ro m o ffi ce is und er consid eration .— (1) Atan y sitting of th e Hou s e of th e P eop l e, whil e an y r eso lution for th er e mov al of th e Sp eak er fro m h is of fi ce is und er consid er ation , th e Sp eak er ,or whil e an y r esolu tion for th e r e mov al of th e Deput y Sp eak er fro m hi soffi ce is und er consid er ation , th e Depu t y Sp eak er , sh all not , though h e i spr es ent , pr es id e, and th e provisions of cl aus e (2) of ar ti cl e 95 sh al l appl y
  34. 34. 34 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIAin r el ation to ev er y su ch s itting as th ey appl y in r el ation to a si tting fro mw h i ch t h e S p e ak e r , o r , as t h e c as e ma y b e , t h e D e p u t y S p e ak er , i s ab s en t . (2) Th e Sp eak er sh all h av e th e righ t to sp eak in , and o th erwise to t akep art in th e pro ceedings of , th e Hous e of th e P eopl e whil e an y resolu tion forhis r e mo v al f rom o ff i ce is und er consid er ation in th e House and sh all ,not with st anding an ything in articl e 100 , b e en t itl ed to vot e onl y in th e firstins t an ce on su ch r eso lution o r on an y o th er ma tt er during such pro ceed ingsbut not in th e cas e of an eq u a lity of vot es . 97 . Sala ri es and allow ances of th e Cha irma n and Deputy Chai rma na n d t h e S p ea ke r a n d D ep u t y S p ea ke r . — Th er e sh all b e paid to th eC h air ma n and th e D epu t y Ch air ma n o f th e Coun cil of St at es , a nd to th eSp eak er and th e Deput y Sp eak er of th e Hous e of th e P eopl e, su ch s al ari esa nd al low an c e s a s ma y b e r esp e ctiv e l y fix ed b y P arli a me nt b y l a w and ,unti l prov ision in th at b eh alf is so mad e, su ch s al ari es and allo wan ces asar e sp ecif ied in th e S e cond S ch edul e. 98 . Secreta riat of Pa rlia men t.— (1) Each Hous e of P ar li ament sh allh av e a s ep ar at e s e cr et a ri al st aff: Provid ed th at nothing in this claus e sh all b e constru ed as pr ev en ting th ecr eat ion of posts co mmon to both Hous es of P arl i ament . (2) P arl i ament may b y l aw r egul at e th e r ecruit ment , and th e condit ionsof s ervi ce of p ersons appoint ed, to the s ecr et ari al st aff of either Hous e ofP arl i a ment . (3) Un til provision is ma d e b y P arl i a ment und er cl au s e (2) , th e P r esid en tma y, aft e r consult a tion with the Sp eak er o f the Hou s e of th e P eopl e or th eC h air man of th e Coun cil of St at es , as th e cas e may b e, mak e rul esr egul ating th e r e cruit ment , and th e condi tions of s ervi ce o f p ersonsappoint ed , to the s ecr et ari al s t aff of th e Hous e of th e P eopl e o r th e Coun cilof S t at es , and an y ru l es so ma de sh all h av e effect subj ect to the prov isionso f an y l a w ma d e u n d er t h e s ai d c l au s e . Condu ct of Busin ess 99 . Oath o r af fi rma tion by me mb ers .— Ev er y memb er o f either Houseo f P ar li a men t sh all , b efo r e t ak in g h is s e at , ma k e an d su b s c rib e b efo r e th ePr esid en t, or so me p erson appoint ed in th at b eh al f b y hi m, an o a th oraffi r mation according to the for m s et out for th e purpos e in th e Th irdS ch ed u l e . 100 . Vot ing in Hous es , power of Hous es to a ct notw ithstand ingv a can ci es a n d q u o ru m. — (1) S av e as other wis e provid ed in thisConsti tution , all qu estions at an y s itting of eith er Hous e o r joint sit ting ofth e Hous es sh all b e d et er min ed b y a ma j o rity of vot es o f th e me mb erspr es ent and voting , oth er than th e Sp eak er or person acting as Ch air man orSp eak er .

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