Copyright in a Digital World-Open Education Resources29 May 2013Jessica SmithNational Copyright OfficerNational Copyright Unitwww.smartcopying.edu.au
National Copyright Unit (NCU) The Ministers’ Copyright Advisory Group (CAG),through the NCU, is responsible for copyright policyand administration for the Australian school andTAFE sector. This involves:• Managing the obligations under the educationalstatutory licenses• Advocating for better copyright laws on theSchool and TAFE sector’s behalf• Educating the School and TAFE sector regardingtheir copyright responsibilities2
3Smartcopying Website• National Copyright Guidelines for Schools and TAFEs• Practical and simple information sheets and FAQs• Interactive teaching resources on copyright• Search the site for answers to your copyright questionswww.smartcopying.edu.au
Slides available @http://www.slideshare.net/nationalcopyrightunit/This work is licensed under the CC Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Australia License(unless otherwise noted)http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/au/
7Copyright protects…FilmsSoundRecordingsBroadcastsPublishedEditions• cinematographicfilms• DVDs• televisionadvertisements• music videos• interactive games• interactive films• vinyl music orvoice• CD• DVD• audio cassettetapes• digital recordings(eg MP3 or AACfiles)• podcasts• radio and TVbroadcasts• podcasts andwebcasts of theabove• typesetting(the layout andlook of apublication)‘Other Subject Matter’
Copyright in essenceThe right of the copyright owner to:copyperformcommunicate to the publiccopyright material.8
Copying Activitiesscanning downloadingprintingSaving to usb/hardrivePhotocoPyingSaving to mobile phone / smartphone / iPod / iPad9Upload to cloud
Performance Activitiesplaying films and sound recordingssinging songsPlaying instrumentsacting out a playreciting a poem10
Communication Activitiesmake available to studentsonline(intranet, LMS, wiki, etc)email to studentsdisplay on interactive whiteboard11
12What can teachers copy andcommunicate?Whatever the licence says you can.
13What can teachers copy andcommunicate?A. Statutory Licences (text, pics, TV)B. Voluntary Licences (music)C. Free Use Exceptions (video,performances)allow teachers to re-use copyrightmaterials, without further permission neededOtherwise….
14Statutory Licences• Part VB: Statutory Text and Artistic Works Licence• Part VA: Statutory Broadcast Licence
15Part VB: Statutory Text andArtistic Works LicenceUnder this licence, a teacher can copy andcommunicate (email, place online) text and artisticworks for educational purposes…subject to copying limits.books, newspapers, journal articles, paintings,diagrams, photographs, animations, song lyrics,plays, poems, maps, etc, in both hardcopy andelectronic form, including free and publicly availableinternet sites.
16Part VB: Copying LimitsThere are specific copying limits under Part VB.You can only copy a reasonable portion.For more information, see the “Education Licence B” in the “National CopyrightGuidelines” at: http://www.smartcopying.edu.au/scw/go/pid/700
17You can only copy a reasonable portion:• 10% or 1 chapter of a hardcopy book or e-book• 10% of words on a website or CD Rom• One article in a journal (more than one article ifon the same subject matter)• One literary or dramatic work in an anthology(15p max) (eg one short story)Part VB: Copying Limits
18Pt VB: Copying LimitsCan copy more (eg the whole work) if:• it has not been separately published• or is not commercially available within areasonable time at an ordinary commercialprice.• Reasonable time:• Textbooks: 6 months• All other material: 30 days
19Part VB: Copying from websites• Available on the web does not mean free to use• Almost all web content is protected by copyright• Some websites are ‘free for education’ – can be copiedfor educational purposes.• Website terms and conditions will determine whether awebsite is ‘free for education’.For further information see Understanding Website Terms and Conditions on theSmartcopying website: http://www.smartcopying.edu.au/scw/go/pid/999
Pt VB: Simultaneous Storage Rule Licence does not allow two parts of a work -eg two 10% excerpts - to be made availableonline at once. To minimise risk of infringement, restrictaccess to relevant classes only.• Class A sees chapter A : Class B sees chapter B22
Pt VB: Notice Requirements Mandatory notice must be attached to allcopies made available online Notice is available on the Smartcopying website at:www.smartcopying.edu.au/scw/go/pid/70523
25Pt VB: Copying LimitsStatutory Text and Artistic Licence doesn’t permit:• mass digitisation of books• mass copying of ebooks• copying of softwareFor more information, see “Education Licence B” in the“National Copyright Guidelines” at:http://www.smartcopying.edu.au/scw/go/pid/700
26Part VA Statutory BroadcastLicenceCovers the copying and communication of:• TV and radio broadcasts• TV/radio from a broadcaster’s website IF it has beenbroadcast on free-to-airDoesn’t cover online TV/radio:• from Pay TV sources• which have not been broadcast – IPTV, Netflix,YoutubeFor more information see:“Education Licence A” in the “National Copyright Guidelines”:http://www.smartcopying.edu.au/scw/go/pid/699
27Pt VA: Copy limits• No limit on how much you can copy.• Format shifting is permitted
28Pt VA: Notice Requirements• If putting a copy online (eg IWB, LMS, wiki,blog, school intranet)….you must attach the prescribed notice.A copy of this notice is available at:www.smartcopying.edu.au/scw/go/pid/704
NOTICE ON MATERIAL COMMUNICATED UNDER PART VA LICENCEFORM OF NOTICE FOR PARAGRAPH 135KA (a) OF THECOPYRIGHT ACT 1968COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIACopyright Regulations 1969WARNINGThis material has been copied and communicated to you by or on behalf of[insert name of institution] pursuant to Part VA of the Copyright Act 1968 ( theAct ).The material in this communication may be subject to copyright under the Act.Any further copying or communication of this material by you may be the subjectof copyright protection under the Act.Do not remove this notice.29
30Part VA:ClickView & Video Commander Using ClickView, Video Commander or othersrepositories to copy and communicate broadcasts? Permitted because of the Pt VA the StatutoryBroadcast Licence. Note… as they make copying so easy, costs underthe Licence are likely to increase. Schools can help manage copyright costs by:• Only copying what they need for educational purposes• Archiving copies regularly – broadcasts available tostudents and teachers online for longer than 12 months arepaid for again.• Attach the mandatory notice.
32Music licencesUnder paid licences with copyright owners,schools can:copy music from CD to use in Powerpoint orteaching resourcescopy music to digital format for use in teachingcopy music to play in school performancescopy sheet music (subject to copy limits)For the educational purposes of the school.
34s 28 - performing orcommunicating in class foreducational instruction• Allows schools to perform andcommunicate material in class (includesremote students)• A free exception – no fees are paid.• Does not permit copying – justperforming/playing in classSee “Performance and Communication of works and audio-visual material –What am I allowed to do?” :http://www.smartcopying.edu.au/scw/go/pid/535
35s 200AB: Flexible Dealing• Rely on flexible dealing when no statutory licence (PartVA or Part VB) or free use exception (s 28) applies toyour use.• Teachers may copy videos (eg YouTube) and soundrecordings (eg podcasts, music) under flexible dealingsubject to certain requirements.• Flexible dealing will not apply where it is possible topurchase a similar teaching resource• A free exception – no fees are paid.See information sheet:“The New Flexible Dealing Exception – What am I allowed to do?”:http://www.smartcopying.edu.au/scw/go/pid/542
36s 200AB: Flexible Dealing -Examples1. Compile short extracts of audio-visual material for use in class (egmaking DVD of short films clips from VHS or digital files when it isnot possible to purchase similar teaching resources.2. Format shift audiovisual content from CD to digital for use oniPads, etc lacking CD-ROM drives when it is not possible to buy adigital version of the film or sound recording.See information sheet:“Flexible Dealing and the Copyright Amendment Act 2006 –What am I allowed to do?”http://www.smartcopying.edu.au/scw/go/pid/542
s 200AB and Commercial DVDsCannot copy from commercial DVDs.• Commercial DVDs are protected by ATPMs - accesscontrol technological protection measures.• ATPMs – any technology that prevents a user fromeasily accessing and copying the content on a DVD.• It is illegal to circumvent an ATPM (eg CSS)• Making a digital copy of a commercial DVD is likely toinvolve circumventing the ATPM and therefore is illegal.See information sheet ‘Technological Protection Measures and the CopyrightAmendment Act 2006’: http://www.smartcopying.edu.au/scw/go/pid/526
38s 200AB:Flexible Dealing Dos and Don’ts• Do not use pirated material.• ‘Just in case’ format shifting is not permitted:• Schools cannot make ‘back up’ copies of resources ‘in case’the original is destroyed.• Schools are not allowed to format shift their whole library orcollection just in case it will be useful later on.• Any format shifting needs to be done for the purpose ofgiving educational instruction in the near future.See information sheets:“Flexible Dealing and the Copyright Amendment Act 2006 – What am I allowed to do?”http://www.smartcopying.edu.au/scw/go/pid/542“Format Shifting and the Copyright Amendment Act 2006: what am I allowed to do?”:http://www.smartcopying.edu.au/scw/go/pid/529
39s 200AB:Flexible Dealing Dos and Don’ts• Don’t copy more than you need. If you copy too large anamount, it might not be covered by this exception.• Access to s 200AB copies must be limited to thosestudents who need to use the material for a class exercise,homework or research task• Remove once no longer needed the s 200AB copy fromthe LMS, school intranet, class blog/wiki, portal orinteractive media gallery as soon as practical, once nolonger required for the class, homework or research task.• Label s 200AB copies with words similar to:‘Copied under s200AB of the Copyright Act 1968’See information sheet: “Flexible Dealing and the Copyright Amendment Act 2006 –What am I allowed to do?”http://www.smartcopying.edu.au/scw/go/pid/542
40Snapshot SummaryPart VB Copying limits:10% or 1 chapter Attach notice ifcommunicating.Part VANo copyinglimits.Can formatshift.Attach notice ifcommunicating.s.200ABLimited formatshifting rights.You cannot buy it.Only copy whatyou need.Schools’musiclicenceImages or print worksOff air television and radiobroadcastsPodcasts of free-to-airbroadcasts (available onthe broadcaster’s website)YouTube videosDVDs and videosNote: Most commercial DVDsare protected by ATPMs andcannot be copied because itillegal to circumvent an ATPM.Cassette tapes and CDsTypeofMaterialCopied and Communicated Under
41Tricky areas: YouTube The terms of YouTube provide that the contentcan only be used for ‘personal, non-commercial’ use. This may not include copying by educationalinstitutions for ‘educational use’.
4242YouTubeCan I copy YouTube videos for use in class or as part of a resource?• There is no clear answer.• You may be able copy a YouTube video and use it for educationalinstruction under s 200 AB….. BUT the terms and conditions of YouTube may not strictly allow this.• It is arguable that the terms and conditions do not form a contract andtherefore are not enforceable because sufficient notice is not provided.• YouTube now allows video owners to upload their videos under aCreative Commons licence so they can share their work with others.Teachers Tube is a great alternative: www.teachertube.comFor further information: “YouTube: Use by Teachers” : http://www.smartcopying.edu.au/scw/go/pid/855“Teachers Tube: Use by Teachers”: http://www.smartcopying.edu.au/scw/go/pid/858
4343YouTube: Linking andStreaming Practical alternatives to copying videos off YouTubeinclude:• Directly streaming YouTube videos in class (permittedunder s 28) – from YouTube website or via a linkembedded on another website.• Linking or embedding the YouTube video. Not acopyright activity - you are not copying the content.See information sheets: “YouTube: Use by Teachers”http://www.smartcopying.edu.au/scw/go/pid/855“Performance and Communication of works and audio-visual materialin class – What am I allowed to do?”http://www.smartcopying.edu.au/scw/go/pid/544
iTunes The new recordings agreement overridesthe general terms of iTunes Schools can use for educationalpurposes under their school’s AMCOS|ARIA|APRA licence44
Smartcopying tips…Link – link or embed material wheneverpossible. Dont download or copy.Providing a link is not a copyright activity. Youare not copying the content, just providing areference to its location elsewhere.47
Smartcopying tips…Label – always attribute the source.• All material created and used for educationalpurposes should be properly attributed.• Applies to both photocopied and digital material• Attribution info needs to include details of thecopyright owner and/or author, where the materialwas sourced from and when.See labelling information sheet at:http://www.smartcopying.edu.au/scw/go/pid/53248
Smartcopying tips…Label – always attribute the source.• Attributing is important to ensure that we dont paylicence fees for material we already own or areallowed to use• eg teacher/school/student created contentSee labelling information sheet at:http://www.smartcopying.edu.au/scw/go/pid/53249
Smartcopying tips…Limit – ensure access to material islimited to relevant students onlyOnce material is communicated to an entireinstitute/campus or jurisdiction, the risk of copyrightinfringement increases dramatically.50
Smartcopying tips…Limit – ensure access to material islimited to relevant students onlyLimiting access is an important cost managementpractice.Collecting societies believe that the value of contentincreases with the number of people who can access it.51
Smartcopying tips…Limit – ensure access to material islimited to relevant students onlyAccess to s200AB copies must be limited to thosestudents who need to use the material for educationalinstruction, ie one class as opposed to an entire school.52
Smartcopying tips…Clear out unwanted content regularlyMaterial copied and communicated under theStatutory Licences is paid for again for every12 months it remains live.Clearing out material that is no longerrequired is one practical way of managing thecopyright costs.53
Smartcopying tips…Clear out unwanted content regularlyTwo options:Archive – for material that is not currently beingused but is likely to be used in the future.Move it into a closed area on the repository orelsewhere online where it can only be accessed byone person, such as the school librarian, ICTManager or teacher who uploaded the material torepository in the first place.54
Smartcopying tips…Clear out unwanted content regularlyTwo options:Delete – for material that the school no longerrequires for educational purposes should becompletely deleted from the repository.55
Smartcopying tips…Use Open Education Resources• Material whose owner has given permission for thematerial to be used for educational purposes, forfree• Depending on the licence, OER can also bemodified and shared by teachers and students.56
57LinkLabelLimitLicencesClear out contentConsider OERSmartcopying:
59Some CopyrightChallenges• While there is a lot that teachers can copy, the licence schemes andfree use exceptions are restrictive and complicated:• Teachers are burdened with complex copying limits and mandatorynotice requirements under the Statutory Licences.• Teachers cannot modify, share or remix material except in limitedcircumstances.• The material can only be made available to parents and the communityin limited circumstances.Free for education, open education and creativecommons material is a great alternative!See list of Free for education/Open education resources on smartcopying at:http://www.smartcopying.edu.au/scw/go/pid/933See Creative Commons information pack on smartcopying at:http://www.smartcopying.edu.au/scw/go/pid/953
60Open EducationResources• OER are teaching and learning materials that are freelyavailable online for everyone to use, whether you are ateacher, student or self learner.• OER includes resources of all sorts: worksheets,curriculum materials, lectures, homework assignments,quizzes, class activities, pedagogical materials, gamesand many more resources from around the world.See: www.oercommons.org
61OER: Fundamental Values•OER share some fundamentalvalues:• Resources are free for any individual to use• Are licensed for unrestricted distribution• Possibility of adaptation, translation, re-mix,and improvement.
OER in a nutshell OER is about creating repositories ofmaterial which are free to:AccessUseModifyShare62
64OER and Creative Commons• Most OER resources use Creative Commons(CC) licences.• This is because CC licences are well knownblanket licences that are free and easy to use.• A creator needs only to do one thing - selectthe type of licence they want from the CCwebsite!
OER: How it all works What is CC?• CC creates a “some rights reserved”model.• The copyright owner retains copyrightownership in their work while invitingcertain uses of their work by the public.• CC licences create choice and options forthe copyright owner.65
Attributing CC material CC requires that you label materials with:• author/copyright owner,• title and source,• type of CC licence that applies• a link to the licence terms. It is important to always check whether the creator has specified aparticular attribution. Open Attribute (http://openattribute.com) is a tool recently developedby Mozilla Drumbeat to assist users of CC material properly attributethe CC material.For further information on attributing CC material, see:http://www.smartcopying.edu.au/scw/go/pid/95674
Example: Image licensed under CC Attribution licence75Eid Mubarak by Hamed Saber available athttp://www.flickr.com/photos/44124425616@N01/1552383685
In Australia: Free for Education (FFE)•‘Free for education’ (FFE) material is similar to OER•But FFE material may not permit a teacher tocommunicate, modify or share the material. This willdepend on the particular terms and conditions of use.The Smartcopying website lists good some FFE resources:www.smartcopying.edu.au/scw/go/pid/93676
Resources- Free for Education A number of organisations have agreed to maketheir online material free for education:• Enhance TV Website http://www.enhancetv.com.au• Museum Victoria http://museumvictoria.com.au• Cancer Council http://www.cancer.org.au/Home.htm• World Vision http://www.worldvision.com.au Material available on these websites can be copiedfor ‘educational purposes’.The Smartcopying website lists FFE websites:http://www.smartcopying.edu.au/scw/go/pid/93683
Resources- Creative Commons Encyclopedia – Wikipedia Photos - Flickr Videos - Blip.tv Music - Magnatune Sounds - Opsound Articles - Directory of Open Access Journals Remix community – ccMixter Everything else - Internet Archive84
Smartcopying Fact Sheets Using Digital Content Repositories - Copyright Compliance Manualfor Schools: www.smartcopying.edu.au/scw/go/pid/1020 Understanding Website Terms and Conditions:www.smartcopying.edu.au/scw/go/pid/999 Creative Commons information pack:www.smartcopying.edu.au/scw/go/pid/953 Open Education/Free for Education Resources:http://www.smartcopying.edu.au/scw/go/pid/933 Using Wikis and Blogs: www.smartcopying.edu.au/scw/go/pid/944 Using YouTube: www.smartcopying.edu.au/scw/go/pid/855 Using iTunes: www.smartcopying.edu.au/scw/go/pid/104985
Copyright 4 Educators Free online course for educators who want to learnabout copyright, statutory licensing, educationalexceptions and open educational resources 7 week course beginning July 29th Signups open July 15th More information on the Smartcopying website orhere on the P2PU website:https://p2pu.org/en/courses/111/copyright-4-educators-aus/97