OER (Open Education Resources)


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OER - Open Education Resources

Delia Browne, National Copyright Director, National Copyright Unit, Australia outlines the potential for 'open education resources' for the Australian education sector.

30 November 2011
!dea 2011
Melbourne, Australia

Published in: Education, Technology
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  • Sir John Daniel, President & CEO of the Commonwealth of Learning (intergovernmental organisation created by Commonwealth Heads of Government to encourage the development and sharing of open learning/distance education knowledge, resources and technologies.)What do you think the odds are the world will buildfour major universities (30,000 students) to open every week for the next fifteen years?How to address this need? OER one part of the answer.
  • What are Open EducationalResources? Resources created and released openly – open license is key.Free as in free beer (no cost) andfree as in freedom (free to use, repurpose and re-share)Commonly defined as digital materials offered free for educators, students and self learners to use, re-use and re-distribute for teaching, learning and research. They often rely on the use of common "open" licences, such as the Creative Commons licences.  They are different to traditional distribution models which generally require remuneration and largely restrict the rights of end-users to copy, re-use and re-purpose material.
  • Website terms and conditions can be unclear, confusing and/or difficult to understand.In some cases, there are no terms and conditions at all. Often, ‘educational use’ may not have been specifically considered when website terms and conditions were drafted. In many cases, website terms and conditions refer to 'personal' or 'non-commercial' use, but not to 'educational use'As a result, the intention of the website publisher with regards to educational use of their site is unknown.OER overcomes a lot of the above tensions.
  • How do OER work?
  • Open licences key aspect of this – eg Creative CommonsCreative Commons works to make it easy for creators to share … to realize the full potential of the internet – universal access to research, education, full participation in culture – to drive a new era of development, growth, and productivity.CC Licenses make it easy and legal to share… and, as we all know, the core part of any OER definition is the educational resource is eitherOpen licenseIn the public domainSo anyone can: reuse, revise, remix and redistribute.
  • UNESCO: whose participants in 2002 expressed “their wish to develop together a universal educational resource available for the whole of humanity”November 2011 launched Guidelines on Open Educational Resources (OER) in Higher Education and associated tools to implement OER initiativesHosting 2012 Global OER Conference next June
  • OECD’s OER project that asks why OER is happening, who isinvolved and what the most important implications are of this global movement. 2007 report explores the OER concept and reasons for government to support OER. (Giving Knowledge for Free: The Emergence of Open Educational Resources)
  • Long list of international entities developing these resources… the OPEN community is large, passionate, strong.
  • Higher education – other new models P2PU – people learn from peers, badges system University of the People Others emerging around the globe
  • No government policy on OER yet, at either Cth or State/Territory level.
  • Instead we have ad-hoc FFE initiatives in Australian Schools and TAFEs. Differences between FFE and OER: Like OER, FFE materials are free for educational use BUT unlike OER, FFE cannot be shared with the public at large and usually cannot be modified or adapted. Limits use that can be made – must be maintained in original form and cannot onward share or re-use
  • FFE examples in Australia:National Education Access Licence for Schools (NEALS) – jursidiction-owned/developed educational materialsAEShareNetLicences -> now being transitioned to CCNDLRN (formally The Le@rning Federation (TLF)) -> now being transitioned to CCLearning Object Repository Network (LORN)
  • OER is gaining traction in Australia.
  • NSW Dept of Education has released a range of interactive teaching resources under CC licences.
  • Other examples of OER in Australia include: Move from FFE to OER (as seen on previous slide): TLF materials shortly to be released under CCAESharenet currently going through a transition phase - we hope to CC licences ACARA has released the Australian National Curriculum under a CC licence (Delia – note they're speaking at the session after yours)Tasmanian Polytechnic has embarked on a project (using WikiEducator) to incorporate OER into teaching. The institute is currently working on a state-wide eLearning Strategy for 2012-2014 which will include policy recommendations to use and contribute to OER. Smartcopying website – full of useful educational resources re Creative Commons and OER, as well as much other information about copyright for educators. Itself open to use under a CC licence.
  • Related to the OER movement is the open PSI movement, fostering open access to government (public sector) information. Going on around the world – both the US and UK have significant, whole-of-government policies recommending the use of CC licences to release public data. In Australia: Government 2.0 (2009) – recommends all PSI be released under CC-BYIn May 2011, the Australian Information Commissioner released the Principles on Open Public Sector Information, building on that recommendation. Major public sector websites already implementing CC include: ABS (census data), Geosciences Australia (geosciences data) the Bureau of Meteorology Australian Parliament Australian Budget
  • OER necessary to realise full potential of digital education policies in AustraliaNational Digital Economy Strategy, Digital Education Revolution, and Online Curriculum Resources and Digital Architecture all support digital education strategies NBN rollout expected to significantly increase digital engagement, eg: May 2011 saw NBN-Enabled Education and Skills Services (NBN-EESS) Program launched, to support proposals stimulating the development of education through the NBN
  • Time to extend existing Australian PSI policies, and ad-hoc OER activities, into a coordinated OER policy framework?
  • Where can teachers / users find and share their OER?
  • Many sites you can goto to find Open Resources for you to re-use....OR..... (see next slide)
  • .... Search from Creative Commons' own website
  • OER (Open Education Resources)

    1. 1. Delia Browne National Copyright Director Ministerial Council for Education, Early Childhood Development and Youth Affairshttp://www.flickr.com/photos/opensourceway/4378920267/ !
    2. 2. Slides available @http://www.slideshare.net/nationalcopyrightunit/ This work is licensed under the CC Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Australia License (unless otherwise noted) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/au/
    3. 3. “Nearly one-third of the world’spopulation (29.3%) is under 15.Today there are 158 millionpeople enrolled in tertiaryeducation1. Projections suggestthat that participation will peakat 263 million2 in 2025.Accommodating the additional105 million students wouldrequire more than four majoruniversities (30,000 students)to open every week for thenext fifteen years.1 ISCED levels 5 & 6 UNESCO Institute of Statistics figures2 British Council and IDP Australia projections CC BY – C Green 2007
    4. 4. OpenEducationalResources
    5. 5. OER are teaching, learning, andresearch materials in any medium that reside in the public domain or have been released under an open licence that permits their free use and re-purposing by others. CC BY – C Green 2007
    6. 6. OER: Fundamental Values–Resources are free for any individual to use–Are licensed for unrestricted distribution–Possibility of adaptation, translation, re- mix, and improvement. 6
    7. 7. OER in a nutshellOER is about creating repositories of material which are free to: Access Use Modify Share 7
    8. 8. OER in a nutshellYou can do more with OER as compared with traditional copyright material 8
    9. 9. Compliance and Cost Issues• New technologies facilitate access to and storage and sharing of copyright materials.• This makes copyright a serious issue for the education sector as it must: – Ensure systems, teachers and students comply with copyright law – Manage increasing cost implications• Eg schools paid c.$80m in 2010 for sector-wide licences (more on direct licences & own content) 10
    10. 10. Compliance and Cost Issues• Current to pay to copy/save freely and publicly available internet content, under the compulsory statutory licence (CAL and Screenrights)• Current sector-wide licences & statutory exceptions do not necessarily sit well with the current ICT use in education: – content may not be modified – content cannot be shared widely (eg with parents, community, other schools) – Limit on how much you can copy/communicate 11
    11. 11. Website terms and conditionsWebsite terms and conditions can be unclear and confusing…or absent entirely ….meaning the intention of the website publisher with regards to educational use of their site is unknown. 12
    12. 12. http://www.flickr.com/photos/kalexanderson/6051120264/
    13. 13. A simple, standardizedway to grant copyright permissions to your creative work. CC BY – C Green 2007
    14. 14. Step 1: Choose ConditionsAttribution Share AlikeNon-Commercial No Derivative Works CC BY – C Green 2007
    15. 15. Step 2: Receive a License CC BY – C Green 2007
    16. 16. most freeleast free CC BY – Adapted from Green 2007
    17. 17. 55 Jurisdictions Ported CC BY – C Green 2007
    18. 18. Over 500 million items CC BY – C Green 2007
    19. 19. CC BY – C Green 2007
    20. 20. 175+ Million CC Licensed Photos on Flickr 2
    21. 21. UNESCO: http://www.moveoneinc.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/UNESCO.jpg
    22. 22. http://www.eifl.net/system/files/201106/oecd_text_20cm_hd_0.jpg
    23. 23. ConnexionsMERLOTCK-12OER AfricaOER BrazilOER FoundationOLnetWikipediaMozillaPIRGSOLIUniversities & Community Colleges… and MANY others CC BY – C Green 2007
    24. 24. Higher Ed CC BY – C Green 2007
    25. 25. Higher Ed
    26. 26. NEW HE Models are En Route CC BY – C Green 2011
    27. 27. Government
    28. 28. Search and Discovery CC BY – C Green 2011
    29. 29. No OER policy(Commonwealth / State / Territory)
    30. 30. Free forEducation (mostly ad hoc)
    31. 31. © 2011 Education Services Australia Limited
    32. 32. Some OERdevelopments
    33. 33. © 2011 Education Services Australia Limited
    34. 34. Some PSI policies
    35. 35. Digitaleducation(its big)
    36. 36. Time to extend to OER?
    37. 37. Open Education Resources Some good OER sites include: 1. Curriki: http://www.curriki.org/xwiki/bin/view/Main/WebHome 2. OER Commons: www.oercommons.org/ 3. Encyclopaedia of Life: www.eol.org/ 4. Comprehensive Knowledge Archive Network: www.ckan.net/ 5. Connexions: www.cnx.org/ 6. Teaching Ideas: www.teachingideas.co.uk/ The Smartcopying website lists Open Education Resources: http://www.smartcopying.edu.au/scw/go/pid/936 43
    38. 38. Free for Education Initiatives • A number of organisations have agreed to make their online material free for education: – Enhance TV Website http://www.enhancetv.com.au – Museum Victoria http://museumvictoria.com.au – Cancer Council http://www.cancer.org.au/Home.htm – World Vision http://www.worldvision.com.au • Material available on these websites can be copied for ‘educational purposes’. The Smartcopying website lists FFE websites: http://www.smartcopying.edu.au/scw/go/pid/936 44
    39. 39. CC sites• Encyclopedia – Wikipedia• Photos - Flickr• Videos - Blip.tv• Music - Magnatune• Sounds - Opsound• Articles - Directory of Open Access Journals• Remix community – ccMixter• Everything else - Internet Archive 45
    40. 40. References• This presentation – http://www.slideshare.net/nationalcopyrightunit/• Smartcopying website - http://www.smartcopying.edu.au/scw/go• CC BY SA – C Green 2007 - http://www.slideshare.net/cgreen/sloan-the- obviousness-of-open-policy• Flickr images - http://www.flickr.com/• CC in Australia - http://creativecommons.org.au/• CC in Australian government - http://wiki.creativecommons.org/Government_use_of_Creative_Commons#Australia