2011 sendai earthquake and tsunami


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2011 sendai earthquake and tsunami

  1. 1. 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake and TsunamiMarch 11, 2011<br />Megan McCullough<br />President – University of Notre Dame Student Chapter of the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI@UND)<br />
  2. 2. Date: March 11, 2011<br />Time: 5:46 UTC; 2:46 PM Japanese local time; 4:46 AM Eastern time<br />Magnitude: 9.0<br />Location: 130 kilometers (81 miles) off the coast of the Oshika Peninsula of Tōhoku near Sendai<br />373 kilometers (232 miles) from Tokyo<br />Depth: 32 kilometers (19.9 miles)<br />Aftershocks: At least 517 (36above magnitude 6)<br />Largest earthquake to hit Japan in recorded history<br />One of five largest in the world in recorded history<br />Earthquake Quick Facts<br />
  3. 3. Located where the oceanic Pacific plate subducts beneath the continental Eurasian plate<br />The subduction process, together with the friction created ‘drags’ the plates downwards, causing a deep-sea trench to be formed<br />The Japan Trench subduction zone is relatively volatile, experiencing 9 earthquakes of magnitude 7 or greater since 1973<br />Japan Trench<br />
  4. 4. Japan is the nation with the most recorded tsunamis in the world<br />195 over a 1,313 year period, averaging one event every 6.73 years<br />10-meter (33-foot) high tsunami wave observed in Miyagi<br />Alaska Emergency Management reported a 1.55-meter (5.1-foot) wave at Shemya<br />2-meter (6.6-foot) high tsunami in Chile (17,000 km away)<br />Up to 2.4-meter (8-foot) tsunami surges in California and Oregon<br />Largest tsunami in Japanese history occurred June 15, 1896<br />M8.5 earthquake off the coast of Sanriku, Japan<br />25-meter (80-foot) waves killed 27,000 people and destroyed 170 miles of coastline<br />Tsunami Quick Facts<br />Tsunami ocean energy distribution forecast map from NOAA<br />
  5. 5. Tsunami<br />Surging action of the wave and debris impact cause large loads<br />Large lateral forces due to water velocity<br />Buoyant forces may uproot a structure<br /><ul><li>Three general stages:
  6. 6. Generation
  7. 7. Propagation
  8. 8. Inundation</li></li></ul><li>M9.5 May 22, 1960 Valdivia Chile<br />M9.2 March 28, 1964 Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA<br />M9.1 December 26, 2004 Sumatra, Indonesia<br />M9.0 March 11, 2011 Tōhoku region, Japan <br />M9.0 November 4, 1952 Kamchatka Russia<br />M8.8 February 27, 2010 Maule, Chile<br />M8.8 January 31, 1906 Ecuador-Colombia<br />M8.7 February 4, 1965 Rat Islands, Alaska, USA<br />M8.6 March 28, 2005 Sumatra, Indonesia<br />M8.6 August 15, 1950 Assam, India – Tibet, China<br />M8.6 March 9, 1957 Andreanof Islands, Alaska, USA<br />11 Largest Earthquakes by Magnitude since 1900<br />
  9. 9. Casualties: 5,321 dead, 2,383 injured, and 9,329 missing<br />Ships, cars, homes carried away by tsunami waves along the cost<br />Earthquake/Tsunami Impacts<br />
  10. 10. Widespread fires due to broken gas lines<br />Large fire at the Cosmo Oil Refinery in Ichihara city in Chiba Province<br />State of emergency following the failure of the cooling system at one nuclear plant<br />Japanese government ordered thousands of residents near a nuclear power plant in Onahama city to evacuate because the plant’s system was unable to cool the reactor<br />Earthquake/Tsunami Impacts<br />
  11. 11. Earthquake/Tsunami Impacts<br />Most of Tokyo left without power in the hours after the quake<br />Parts of port areas flooded<br />Shinkansen train services suspended<br />Narita and Haneda Airports suspended operations<br />Earthquake bent the upper tip of the iconic Tokyo Tower, a 1,093-foot steel structure inspired by the Eiffel Tower<br />