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2011 sendai earthquake and tsunami

2011 sendai earthquake and tsunami






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    2011 sendai earthquake and tsunami 2011 sendai earthquake and tsunami Presentation Transcript

    • 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake and TsunamiMarch 11, 2011
      Megan McCullough
      President – University of Notre Dame Student Chapter of the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI@UND)
    • Date: March 11, 2011
      Time: 5:46 UTC; 2:46 PM Japanese local time; 4:46 AM Eastern time
      Magnitude: 9.0
      Location: 130 kilometers (81 miles) off the coast of the Oshika Peninsula of Tōhoku near Sendai
      373 kilometers (232 miles) from Tokyo
      Depth: 32 kilometers (19.9 miles)
      Aftershocks: At least 517 (36above magnitude 6)
      Largest earthquake to hit Japan in recorded history
      One of five largest in the world in recorded history
      Earthquake Quick Facts
    • Located where the oceanic Pacific plate subducts beneath the continental Eurasian plate
      The subduction process, together with the friction created ‘drags’ the plates downwards, causing a deep-sea trench to be formed
      The Japan Trench subduction zone is relatively volatile, experiencing 9 earthquakes of magnitude 7 or greater since 1973
      Japan Trench
    • Japan is the nation with the most recorded tsunamis in the world
      195 over a 1,313 year period, averaging one event every 6.73 years
      10-meter (33-foot) high tsunami wave observed in Miyagi
      Alaska Emergency Management reported a 1.55-meter (5.1-foot) wave at Shemya
      2-meter (6.6-foot) high tsunami in Chile (17,000 km away)
      Up to 2.4-meter (8-foot) tsunami surges in California and Oregon
      Largest tsunami in Japanese history occurred June 15, 1896
      M8.5 earthquake off the coast of Sanriku, Japan
      25-meter (80-foot) waves killed 27,000 people and destroyed 170 miles of coastline
      Tsunami Quick Facts
      Tsunami ocean energy distribution forecast map from NOAA
    • Tsunami
      Surging action of the wave and debris impact cause large loads
      Large lateral forces due to water velocity
      Buoyant forces may uproot a structure
      • Three general stages:
      • Generation
      • Propagation
      • Inundation
    • M9.5 May 22, 1960 Valdivia Chile
      M9.2 March 28, 1964 Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA
      M9.1 December 26, 2004 Sumatra, Indonesia
      M9.0 March 11, 2011 Tōhoku region, Japan
      M9.0 November 4, 1952 Kamchatka Russia
      M8.8 February 27, 2010 Maule, Chile
      M8.8 January 31, 1906 Ecuador-Colombia
      M8.7 February 4, 1965 Rat Islands, Alaska, USA
      M8.6 March 28, 2005 Sumatra, Indonesia
      M8.6 August 15, 1950 Assam, India – Tibet, China
      M8.6 March 9, 1957 Andreanof Islands, Alaska, USA
      11 Largest Earthquakes by Magnitude since 1900
    • Casualties: 5,321 dead, 2,383 injured, and 9,329 missing
      Ships, cars, homes carried away by tsunami waves along the cost
      Earthquake/Tsunami Impacts
    • Widespread fires due to broken gas lines
      Large fire at the Cosmo Oil Refinery in Ichihara city in Chiba Province
      State of emergency following the failure of the cooling system at one nuclear plant
      Japanese government ordered thousands of residents near a nuclear power plant in Onahama city to evacuate because the plant’s system was unable to cool the reactor
      Earthquake/Tsunami Impacts
    • Earthquake/Tsunami Impacts
      Most of Tokyo left without power in the hours after the quake
      Parts of port areas flooded
      Shinkansen train services suspended
      Narita and Haneda Airports suspended operations
      Earthquake bent the upper tip of the iconic Tokyo Tower, a 1,093-foot steel structure inspired by the Eiffel Tower