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2011 sendai earthquake and tsunami

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  • 1. 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake and TsunamiMarch 11, 2011
    Megan McCullough
    President – University of Notre Dame Student Chapter of the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI@UND)
  • 2. Date: March 11, 2011
    Time: 5:46 UTC; 2:46 PM Japanese local time; 4:46 AM Eastern time
    Magnitude: 9.0
    Location: 130 kilometers (81 miles) off the coast of the Oshika Peninsula of Tōhoku near Sendai
    373 kilometers (232 miles) from Tokyo
    Depth: 32 kilometers (19.9 miles)
    Aftershocks: At least 517 (36above magnitude 6)
    Largest earthquake to hit Japan in recorded history
    One of five largest in the world in recorded history
    Earthquake Quick Facts
  • 3. Located where the oceanic Pacific plate subducts beneath the continental Eurasian plate
    The subduction process, together with the friction created ‘drags’ the plates downwards, causing a deep-sea trench to be formed
    The Japan Trench subduction zone is relatively volatile, experiencing 9 earthquakes of magnitude 7 or greater since 1973
    Japan Trench
  • 4. Japan is the nation with the most recorded tsunamis in the world
    195 over a 1,313 year period, averaging one event every 6.73 years
    10-meter (33-foot) high tsunami wave observed in Miyagi
    Alaska Emergency Management reported a 1.55-meter (5.1-foot) wave at Shemya
    2-meter (6.6-foot) high tsunami in Chile (17,000 km away)
    Up to 2.4-meter (8-foot) tsunami surges in California and Oregon
    Largest tsunami in Japanese history occurred June 15, 1896
    M8.5 earthquake off the coast of Sanriku, Japan
    25-meter (80-foot) waves killed 27,000 people and destroyed 170 miles of coastline
    Tsunami Quick Facts
    Tsunami ocean energy distribution forecast map from NOAA
  • 5. Tsunami
    Surging action of the wave and debris impact cause large loads
    Large lateral forces due to water velocity
    Buoyant forces may uproot a structure
    • Three general stages:
    • 6. Generation
    • 7. Propagation
    • 8. Inundation
  • M9.5 May 22, 1960 Valdivia Chile
    M9.2 March 28, 1964 Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA
    M9.1 December 26, 2004 Sumatra, Indonesia
    M9.0 March 11, 2011 Tōhoku region, Japan
    M9.0 November 4, 1952 Kamchatka Russia
    M8.8 February 27, 2010 Maule, Chile
    M8.8 January 31, 1906 Ecuador-Colombia
    M8.7 February 4, 1965 Rat Islands, Alaska, USA
    M8.6 March 28, 2005 Sumatra, Indonesia
    M8.6 August 15, 1950 Assam, India – Tibet, China
    M8.6 March 9, 1957 Andreanof Islands, Alaska, USA
    11 Largest Earthquakes by Magnitude since 1900
  • 9. Casualties: 5,321 dead, 2,383 injured, and 9,329 missing
    Ships, cars, homes carried away by tsunami waves along the cost
    Earthquake/Tsunami Impacts
  • 10. Widespread fires due to broken gas lines
    Large fire at the Cosmo Oil Refinery in Ichihara city in Chiba Province
    State of emergency following the failure of the cooling system at one nuclear plant
    Japanese government ordered thousands of residents near a nuclear power plant in Onahama city to evacuate because the plant’s system was unable to cool the reactor
    Earthquake/Tsunami Impacts
  • 11. Earthquake/Tsunami Impacts
    Most of Tokyo left without power in the hours after the quake
    Parts of port areas flooded
    Shinkansen train services suspended
    Narita and Haneda Airports suspended operations
    Earthquake bent the upper tip of the iconic Tokyo Tower, a 1,093-foot steel structure inspired by the Eiffel Tower

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