Designing ExperiencesA Practical Framework for Human-Centered Product Design
by Nathan C. RahnDesign Research Lead, Merchant
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Six Essential Steps of Product DesignPRInCiPleS: A Human-Centered Design Framework
A Design FrameworkAnalysis SynthesisP R I C P SPredispositions Research Insights Concepts Prototypes StrategiesBlevis E. The PRinCiPleS Design Framework. Indiana University School of Informatics and Computing
PredispositionsWhat are the initial hypotheses or beliefs that the product team holds to be true?
Predispositions• Define the problem• Note the constraints (and then forgetthem)• Collects the points of view of theteam(eng/design/prod/marketing/etc.)• Forms initial hypotheses• Exposes conflicting views• Later helps drive buy-in from adiverse audience
Predispositions: Examples• Merchants have a difficult time getting new customers in the door• People want to try new things around them but don’t know whereto go• Merchants want to focus on the reason for their business and notthe details of running the business
ResearchLiterature, Observations, Ethnography, User Testing
Research• Observational• Contextual inquiry• Ethnography• Usability of current system• Literature• Competitive analysis• Established guidelines• Data gathering• Survey
Research: Examples• Diary study to better understand local shopping behavior• Survey to understand what technologies merchants currently useand how they acquired those technologies• Ethnographic study to understand how merchants interact withthe technologies they currently have• A trip to a cash register museum to observe the changes in formand function over time
InsightsWhat does the research tell you?
Insights• Interpretation of research• Identify problems with currentsystem• Discover a vision for somethingbetter• Evidence to affirm/refutepredispositions• Techniques include system andobject diagrams, models, etc.
Insights: Examples• Ethnographic findings from merchants into categories that showmerchants will lose their place in a certain system if interruptedby a customer• Survey results showing that merchants use the first POS systemthey come across that seems reasonable rather than conduct adeeper analysis of features and cost• Affinity diagram that organizes diary study results into categoriesshowing people tend to find one or two places via word of mouthand stick with them, rarely branching out
ConceptsWhat ideas come out of the insights?
Concepts• Changes to the human environment• Concepts are innovations that changeinteractions
Concepts: Examples• Location based recommendation: Given a person already havingcertain technologies at their disposal such as a GPS-enabledmobile phone, we can suggest places with or without deals thatmay suit their interests based on current behavior when they arenearby• De-technology POS: Removing as much complexity as possible fromthe merchants, establish centrally controlled terminal POSsystems that our reps install and then maintain from our centralhub (much like the ADP security system)
PrototypesExploration, Appearance, Usability
Prototypes• Exploratory• Appearance• Working
Prototypes: Examples• Location based recommendation: Experience prototype, in which aresearcher and participant go for a walk through a busy citycenter, and the researcher occasionally informs the participant ofnearby deals• De-technology POS: Paper prototype used to understand specificterminal needs and interactions in order to determine the bestusability and feature set for terminal vs mainframe vs outsourcedmanagement
StrategiesWhat is the plan to implement the design or system?
Strategies• Defines how to implement a design• Look at the constraints again• Enterprise: marketplace viability• Technology: technical feasibility• Social: social effects
Strategies: ExamplesBlevis E. The PRinCiPleS Design Framework. Indiana University School of Informatics and Computing
A Design FrameworkAnalysis SynthesisP R I C P SPredispositions Research Insights Concepts Prototypes StrategiesThe things webelieve to be trueat the outset of adesign processObservationsLiteraturereviewCollectionsreviewDesign issues thatarise out ofresearchThings, services,communications,or strategies thatwe envision as aresponse toinsights• Exploratorybehavioral lowfidelity• Appearancelook & feel• Usability proofof concepthigh fidelity• Social value &desireability• Technologicalfeasibility• Enterprise &economicviabilityplanningBlevis E. The PRinCiPleS Design Framework. Indiana University School of Informatics and Computing