By: Nathan Solomon P. Nakar Wawi Nava Leonard Cruz
-On April 15, 1961, the first part of the invasion took place. Eight B-29 bombers supplied by the CIA bombed Cuban military aircraft onthe ground at several locations. Later, a B-26 bearing Cubanmarkings and marked with bullet-holes landed at MiamiInternational Airport. The goal being to make the raids on Cubaearlier that morning look like an internal action by defecting Cubanpilots. On April 17 was the date when the actual invasion took placewhere, most of their equipment, ammunition, and food sunk.There was also a lack of soldiers and were outnumbered by theCuban soldiers. The battle continued up to the 20th.
On October 14, 1962 a U2 plane flew over Cuba and was able to snapphotographs of what seemed to be missiles.On October 15, the National Photographic Interpretation Center of theU.S identified that these were medium range ballistic missiles.
On Oct 16, The President and the national defence officials are briefed with what has happened andthe photographs were shown to them. The Executive Committee of the National Security Council isestablished.On Oct 17, The EX- COMM has been discussing what to make of the situation, and the Air Forcestrongly argued for an air strike. Another U2 spy plane was able to photograph an additionalintermediate range ballistic missiles.On Oct 18, JFK and the Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko had a meeting concerning the missilesin Cuba. According to Gromyko these missiles were only there for defence purposes. Most of themembers of the EX- COMM decided to go for a blockade, however there wasn’t a consensus.On Oct 19, JFK left for a campaign trip.On Oct 20, Kennedy returns home from the campaign trip. He was able to discuss together with thetop advisers concerning their policy. They’re still quite confused, however, if they want to go for an airstrike or a quarantine.On Oct 21, General Walter Sweeny of the Tactical Air Command informs the President that air strikescannot totally guarantee the destruction of these missiles. In Kennedy’s speech addressing the nationhe will be making use of the word quarantine instead of blockade, seeing that the word blockade isconsidered as an act of war.
On Oct 22, The Information concerning the plans of the U.S were disseminated to their allies. Military alert reached DEFCON 3. Planes with Nuclear Bombs were already on stand by in case Cuba decides to respond militarily. The President was live on air at 7pm to address to the citizens of the U.S, called as the “Highest National Urgency” the current state that they are in and his plan of action of the U.S. But also on that day, before his speech, a copy of the speech was sent to Kruschev.On Oct 23, In the morning Kennedy ordered 6 Jets to fly above Cuba and take some morePhotographs to get a closer look at these missiles. Also, the Organization of American Statesgave their full support to quarantine, understanding that they too can be affected if thesemissiles were to be launched. It was also settled that the quarantine would start at 10 a.m of the24th . Robert Kennedy meets with Ambassador Dobrynin at the Soviet Embassy, according theSoviet he honestly did not know anything about the matter. Also, the Secretary General’s advicewas to postpone the quarantine, until after 3 weeks, to give JFK and Kruschev a longer time tocome up with their Foreign Policy.
MembersMcGeorge Bundy the assistant to the president for national security affairsGeorge Ball the under secretary of stateC. Douglas Dillon secretary of the TreasuryLyndon B. Johnson vice presidentJohn F. Kennedy PresidentRobert F. Kennedy attorney generalArthur Lundahl director of the National Photographic Interpretation CenterEdwin Martin assistant secretary of state for inter-American affairsGen. Maxwell Taylor chairman, Joint Chiefs of StaffMarshall Carter deputy director Central Intelligence AgencyRobert McNamara secretary of defenseDean Rusk secretary of stateSidney Graybeal Central Intelligence Agency
On Oct 24, the quarantine started at 10 a.m. As the U.S Ships were about to somehow movethe USSR submarines up to the surface, because it was blocking the path of the USSRships, 20 USSR ships turned around and didn’t anymore pursue the travel, while 6 moreships remained moving towards the Cuba.On Oct 25, The offer given by the United Nations Secretary General was turned down byJFK. Also on that day, the Ambassador Adlai Stevenson confronted the Soviet AmbassadorZorin in the U.N and asked about their purpose for having placed the missiles in Cuba, theSoviet refused to comment on the matter, the U.S ambassador then showed thephotographs, a clear evidence of Soviet missiles in Cuba.On Oct 26, The U.S ship allowed the Marcula ship of the USSR to go through theblockade, because they were not carrying any missiles or anything that could effectivelyharm the U.S. The EX-COMM and JFK are now starting to believe that a “quarantine” alonewill not remove the missiles in Cuba. Which led them to the assumption that there wereonly 2 choices left. It was either they proceed with and air strike and then an invasion rightafter or an agreement of removing their missiles in Turkey and Italy, for the removal of themissiles in Cuba. But the most important event of that day is letter sent by Kruschev to JFK.Kruschev promised to remove the missiles in Cuba as long as they promised not to invadeCuba.
You and I should not now pull on the ends of the rope in which you have tied aknot of war, because the harder you and I pull, the tighter the knot will become.And a time may come when this knot is tied so tight that the person who tied itis no longer capable of untying it, and then the knot will have to be cut. Whatthat would mean I need not explain to you, because you yourself understandperfectly what dread forces our two countries possess.I propose we, for our part, will declare that our ships bound for Cuba are notcarrying any armaments. You will declare that the United States will not invadeCuba with its troops and will not support any other forces which might intend toinvade Cuba. Then the necessity of the presence of our military specialists inCuba will disappear.
On Oct 27, A U-2 plane was shot, killing the pilot, Major Rudolph Anderson. Also onthis day, A letter from Kruschev was sent to Kennedy with a very different proposal tothat of the first letter. This is why I make this proposal: We agree to remove those weapons from Cuba which you regard as offensive weapons. We agree to do this and to state this commitment in the United Nations. Your representatives will make a statement to effect that the United States, on its part, bearing in mind the anxiety and concern of the Soviet state, will evacuate its analogous weapons from Turkey. Let us reach an understanding on what time you and we need to put this into effect. The EX- COMM decides to respond to the 1st letter instead.
Later that night, Robert Kennedy and Anatoly Dobrynindiscussed U.S plans to remove the missiles in Turkey in a fewmonths and that’s why the USSR should remove its missiles inCuba, but if this information was leaked to the public or airedin any way, R. Kennedy assured that the U.S would deny suchclaims and would call off the agreement.
In order to eliminate as rapidly as possible theconflict which endangers the cause of peace,to give an assurance to all people who cravepeace, and to reassure the American people,who, I am certain, also want peace, as do thepeople of the Soviet Union, the SovietGovernment, in addition to earlier instructionson the discontinuation of further work onweapons construction sites, has given a neworder to dismantle the arms which youdescribe to be offensive, and to crate andreturn them to the Soviet Union.
Views the state’s actions as that of a rational person. As arational person, before one comes up with a decision, hewould first consider all of his options and adroitly choose theone that would maximize his benefits while minimizing theharms. 1. Why did the Soviet Union decide to place missiles in Cuba? 2. Why did the U.S Respond to the Missile deployment with a blockade? 3. Why did the Soviet Union withdraw the missiles?
1.Why did the Soviet Union decide to place missiles in Cuba? Hypothesis 1: Cuban Defense Bay of Pigs - There was fear on the part of the U.S.S.R that the fact that the bay of pigs was a complete failure, the U.S might want to redeem itself. The USSR wanted to prevent another invasion. Operation Mongoose - The CIA plan to stir up a revolution in Cuba.
Flaws- Missiles were too much for defence purposes.A sizeable number of troops could’ve beenused to deter invasions.- The Soviets and Cuba could have signedpublic defence treaty, to assure that if the U.Swould try to invade, they will support Cubamilitarily.- The missiles placed in Cuba were too much.
Hypothesis 2: Cold War Politics-A competition of power and pre-eminencebetween the USSR and the U.S-To try to show to the international communitythat the U.S cannot even prevent theadvancement of USSR power even in their ownhemisphere, therefore other states would favorthe USSR more, because of the perceived power.
Flaws-MRBM’s would have been enough to threatenand possibly intimidate the U.S-Why try to probe firmness of the U.S after theAmerican stand on Berlin in 1961?
Hypothesis 3: Missile Power-Power Stability between the USSR and the U.S-Missiles in Turkey and Greece.-If there happens to be a war between the U.Sand the USSR, the USSR can attack the allies ofthe U.S, but not the U.S, because of it’sdistance.-“Even the playing field”
2. Why did the UnitedStates Respond to theMissile Deployment with aBlockade?
Alternative 1: Do Nothing• If the U.S did not have acted on the situation it would have been reckless on their part, given that the U.S already did try to invade Cuba in the past.
Alternative 2: Diplomatic Pressures• A secret Ultimatum to Kruschev demanding a removal of the missiles and providing ample time for him to comply, without the need for military action.• Be settled through the U.N, as advised by Adlai Stevenson.
Alternative 3: Secret Approach to Castro• “Split of fall”• Castro might break with Moscow if he thought he was in deadly jeopardy
Alternative 4: Invasion• There were already Contingency plans if ever this was considered, although this would probably be the last resort because JFK did not want the event to herald into a war. Also, this would cost a lot of money.
Alternative 5: Air Strike• An air strike can possibly damage these missiles and kill the people in charge of these missiles, however there is no 100% assurance that it can damage to the point of it not working anymore.
Alternative 6: Blockade• A blockade was what they came up with. Although they used a different word that made a huge difference. “Quarantine”, instead of “blockade”, the reason why they had to change this, according to Mcnamara was because blockade is considered to be an act of war.
3.Why did the Soviet Unionwithdraw their missiles fromCuba?
In this model, the process of decision making involves avariety of pre determined solutions in which can plausiblysolve the problem at hand. This is quite different from therational actor model in a way where in the Organizationalprocess you have to consider not the state’s decision as awhole, but the intricacies of that certain decision.Decisions are not made from scratch but have already beenplanned before.The head of the state can come up with novel ideas, althoughwhat is usually the case is that he is given options to choosefrom.
1. To engage Castro and Khrushchev on thediplomatic stage in a gamble to resolve the crisisopenly -- an option which most members of EX-COMM deemed unlikely to succeed.2. A blockade against offensive weapons enteringCuba.3.Military action directed against Cuba, startingwith an air attack against the missiles
Bureaucratic Politics• The process of decision making involves a hierarchical way of choosing decisions.• Your ability to contribute, is ideally based on the power you posses within the Government.• Results of given problems and situations went through a lot of negotiation, lobbying, arguments, and conflicts within the Government.