2. russia nonito (2)


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2. russia nonito (2)

  2. 2. •Formerly known as USSR: United Soviet Socialists Republic •Presently known as the RUSSIAN FEDERATION •The biggest country in the world in land area covering more than 1/8th of the Earth’s inhabited land area •Ranked 9th in terms of population with 143 million people as of 2012 •Has the world’s largest reserve of mineral and energy resources •Largest global producer of Gas and Oil •Has the world’s largest forest reserve •Has one Ms. Universe in the name of Oxana Fedorova
  3. 3. BACKGROUND •Founded in the 12th century, the Principality of Muscovy, was able to emerge from over 200 years of Mongol domination (13th-15th centuries). •In the early 17th century, a new Romanov Dynasty continued this policy of expansion across Siberia to the Pacific. Under PETER I (ruled 1682-1725), hegemony was extended to the Baltic Sea and the country was renamed the Russian Empire. •During the 19th century, more territorial acquisitions were made in Europe and Asia. Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 contributed to the Revolution of 1905, which resulted in the formation of a parliament and other reforms. •Repeated devastating defeats of the Russian army in World War I led to widespread rioting in the major cities of the Russian Empire and to the overthrow in 1917 of the imperial household.
  4. 4. BACKGROUND •The Communists under Vladimir LENIN seized power soon after and formed the USSR. •The brutal rule of Iosif STALIN (1928-53) strengthened Communist rule and Russian dominance of the Soviet Union at a cost of tens of millions of lives. •General Secretary Mikhail GORBACHEV (1985-91) introduced glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize Communism, but his initiatives inadvertently released forces that by December 1991 splintered the USSR into Russia and 14 other independent republics.
  5. 5. BACKGROUND Since then, Russia has shifted its post-Soviet democratic ambitions in favor of a centralized semi-authoritarian state in which the leadership seeks to legitimize its rule through managed national elections, populist appeals by former President PUTIN, and continued economic growth. Russia has severely disabled a Chechen rebel movement, although violence still occurs throughout the North Caucasus.
  6. 6. Demographics Ethnic Russians comprise 81% of the country's population. The Russian Federation is also home to several sizeable minorities. In all, 160 different other ethnic groups and indigenous peoples live within its borders. Though Russia's population is comparatively large, its density is low because of the country's enormous size. Population is densest in European Russia, near the Ural Mountains, and in southwest Siberia. 73% of the population lives in urban areas while 27% in rural ones.
  7. 7. Language Russia's 160 ethnic groups speak some 100 languages. According to the 2002 Census, 142.6 million people speak Russian, followed by Tatar with 5.3 million and Ukrainian with 1.8 million speakers. Russian is the only official state language, but the Constitution gives the individual republics the right to make their native language co-official next to Russian
  8. 8. Religion OrthodoxChristianity, Islam, Judaism and Buddhism are Russia’s traditional religions, and are all legally a part of Russia's "historical heritage”. The Russian Orthodox Church was the country's state religion prior to the Revolution and remains the largest religious body in the country. Estimates of believers widely fluctuate among sources. Easter is the most popular religious festival in Russia, celebrated by more than 90% of all Russian citizens, including large numbers of non-religious.
  9. 9. Politics The 1993 constitution declares Russia a democratic, federative, law-based state with a republican form of government. State power is divided among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches.
  10. 10. Politics Diversity of ideologies and religions is sanctioned, and a state or compulsory ideology may not be adopted. The right to a multiparty political system is upheld. The content of laws must be made public before they take effect, and they must be formulated in accordance with international law and principles. Russian is proclaimed the state language, although the republics of the federation are allowed to establish their own state.
  11. 11. Federal Subjects The Russian Federation comprises 83 federal subjects. These subjects have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council. However, they differ in the degree of autonomy they enjoy .
  12. 12. Federal Subjects •46 oblasts (provinces): most common type of federal subjects, with locally elected governor and legislature. •21 republics: nominally autonomous; each has its own constitution, direct-elected head of republic or a similar post, and parliament. Republics are allowed to establish their own official language alongside Russian but are represented by the federal government in international affairs. Republics are meant to be home to specific ethnic minorities. •9 krais (territories): essentially the same as oblasts. The "territory" designation is historic, originally given to frontier regions and later also to the administrative divisions that comprised autonomous okrugs or autonomous oblasts.
  13. 13. Federal Subjects •4 autonomous okrugs (autonomous districts): originally autonomous entities within oblasts and krais created for ethnic minorities, their status was elevated to that of federal subjects in the 1990s. With the exception of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, all autonomous okrugs are still administratively subordinated to a krai or an oblast of which they are a part. •1 autonomous oblast (the Jewish Autonomous Oblast): historically, autonomous oblasts were administrative units subordinated to krais. In 1990, all of them except for the Jewish AO were elevated in status to that of a republic. •2 federal cities (Moscow and St. Petersburg): major cities that function as separate regions.
  14. 14. Political Divisions
  15. 15. Federal Districts Federal subjects are grouped into eight federal districts, each administered by an envoy appointed by the President of Russia. Unlike the federal subjects, the federal districts are not a subnational level of government, but are a level of administration of the federal government. Federal districts' envoys serve as liaisons between the federal subjects and the federal government and are primarily responsible for overseeing the compliance of the federal subjects with the federal laws.
  17. 17. Executive Branch The 1993 constitution created a dual executive consisting of a president and prime minister, but the president is the dominant figure. The constitution spells out many prerogatives specifically, but some powers enjoyed by Yeltsin were developed in an ad hoc manner.
  18. 18. Executive Branch Office Name Party Since President Vladimir Putin United Russia 7 May 2012 Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev United Russia 8 May 2012 PUTIN Medvedev
  19. 19. Executive Branch •Ministry of the Interior of the Russian Federation •Ministry of Civil Defence, Emergencies and Disaster Relief of the Russian Federation •Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation •Federal Agency for the Commonwealth of Independent States, Compatriots Living Abroad, and International Cultural Cooperation •Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation •Federal Service for Military- Technical Cooperation •Federal Service for Technical and Export Control of the Russian Federation •Federal Agency for Special Construction •Federal Agency for the Procurement of Armaments, Military and Special Equipment, and Logistical Resources (Rosoboronpostavka) •Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation •Federal Penitentiary Service •Federal Bailiff Service PRESIDENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
  20. 20. Presidential Powers •Determines the basic direction of Russia's domestic and foreign policy and represents the Russian state within the country and in foreign affairs. •Appoints and recalls Russia's ambassadors upon consultation with the legislature •Accepts the credentials and letters of recall of foreign representatives •conducts international talks, and •signs international treaties.
  21. 21. Presidential Powers •empowered to appoint the prime minister to chair the Government (called the cabinet or the council of ministers in other countries), with the consent of the State Duma. • chairs meetings of the Government, which he also may dismiss in its entirety. Upon the advice of the prime minister, the president can appoint or remove Government members, including the deputy prime ministers.
  22. 22. Presidential Powers •submits candidates to the State Duma for the post of chairman of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation (RCB) and may propose that the State Duma dismiss the chairman. • submits candidates to the Federation Council for appointment as justices of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, and the Superior Court of Arbitration, as well as candidates for the office of procurator general, Russia's chief law enforcement officer. •also appoints justices of federal district courts.
  23. 23. Presidential Powers Several prescribed powers put the president in a superior position vis-à-vis the legislature. The president has broad authority to issue decrees and directives that have the force of law without legislative review, although the constitution notes that they must not contravene that document or other laws. Under certain conditions, the president may dissolve the State Duma, the lower house of parliament, the Federal Assembly. The president has the prerogatives of scheduling referendums (a power previously reserved to the parliament), submitting draft laws to the State Duma, and promulgating federal laws.
  24. 24. Presidential Powers Under the 1993 constitution, if the president commits "grave crimes" or treason, the State Duma may file impeachment charges with the parliament's upper house, the Federation Council. These charges must be confirmed by a ruling of the Supreme Court that the president's actions constitute a crime and by a ruling of the Constitutional Court that proper procedures in filing charges have been followed. The charges then must be adopted by a special commission of the State Duma and confirmed by at least two-thirds of State Duma deputies. A two-thirds vote of the Federation Council is required for removal of the president.
  25. 25. Presidential Powers If the Federation Council does not act within three months, the charges are dropped. If the president is removed from office or becomes unable to exercise power because of serious illness, the prime minister is to temporarily assume the president's duties; a presidential election then must be held within three months. The constitution does not provide for a vice president, and there is no specific procedure for determining whether the president is able to carry out his duties.
  26. 26. Informal powers and power centers Many of the president's powers are related to the incumbent's undisputed leeway in forming an administration and hiring staff. The presidential administration is composed of several competing, overlapping, and vaguely delineated hierarchies that historically have resisted efforts at consolidation. This structure is similar to, but several times larger than, the top-level apparatus of the Soviet- era Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU).
  27. 27. Informal powers and power centers Another center of power in the presidential administration is the Security Council, which was created by statute in mid- 1992. The 1993 constitution describes the council as formed and headed by the president and governed by statute. Since its formation, it apparently has gradually lost influence in competition with other power centers in the presidential administration. The decree's description of the Security Council's consultative functions was especially vague and wide- ranging, although it positioned the head of the Security Council directly subordinate to the president. As had been the case previously, the Security Council was required to hold meetings at least once a month.
  28. 28. Informal powers and power centers Other presidential support services include the Control Directorate (in charge of investigating official corruption), the Administrative Affairs Directorate, the Presidential Press Service, and the Protocol Directorate. The Administrative Affairs Directorate controls state dachas, sanatoriums, automobiles, office buildings, and other perquisites of high office for the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government, a function that includes management of more than 200 state industries with about 50,000 employees.
  29. 29. Informal powers and power centers The president also has extensive powers over military policy. As the Supreme Commander- in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation of the armed forces, the president approves defense doctrine, appoints and removes the high command of the armed forces, and confers higher military ranks and awards.
  30. 30. Informal powers and power centers The president is empowered to declare national or regional states of martial law, as well as state of emergency. In both cases, both houses of the parliament must be notified immediately.
  31. 31. Presidential Elections The constitution sets few requirements for presidential elections, deferring in many matters to other provisions established by law. The presidential term is set at six years, and the president may only serve two consecutive terms.
  32. 32. Presidential Elections A candidate for president must be a citizen of Russia at least 35 years of age, and a resident of the country for at least ten years. If a president becomes unable to continue in office because of health problems, resignation, impeachment, or death, a presidential election is to be held not more than three months later. In such a situation, the Federation Council is empowered to set the election date..
  33. 33. Government of Russia Exercises executive power in the Russian Federation. The members of the government are the: •Prime Minister of Russia (Chairman of the Government), •the deputy prime ministers, and •the federal ministers. It has its legal basis in the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the federal constitutional law "On the Government of the Russian Federation"
  34. 34. Government of Russia After the fall of the Soviet Union, the Russian Council of Ministers had become the main executive body. At some points it contained over 65 state committees, 16–17 ministers, 5 federal services, and over 30 governmental agencies. After the 2004 reform, government duties were split between 17 ministries, 5 federal services, and over 30 governmental agencies. The prime minister is appointed by the president of the Russian Federation and confirmed by the State Duma. He or she succeeds to the presidency if the current president dies, is incapacitated, or resigns.
  35. 35. Government of Russia The body was preceded by Government of the Soviet Union. Since the Russian Federation emerged in 1991, the government's structure has undergone several major changes. In the initial years, government bodies, primarily the different ministries, underwent massive reorganization as the old Soviet governing networks were adapted to the new state. Many reshuffles and renamings occurred.
  36. 36. Government of Russia On 28 November 1991 President of the RSFSR Boris Yeltsin signed presidential decree №242 "On reorganization of the government bodies of the RSFSR" The most recent change took place on May 21, 2012 when President Vladimir Putin signed presidential decree on forming Dmitry Medvedev's Cabinet.
  37. 37. Responsibilities and Power The government is the subject of the 6th chapter of the Constitution of the Russian Federation. According to the constitution, the government of the Russian Federation must:
  38. 38. Responsibilities and Power •draft and submit the federal budget to the State Duma; ensure the implementation of the budget and report on its implementation to the State Duma; •ensure the implementation of a uniform financial, credit and monetary policy in the Russian Federation ; •ensure the implementation of a uniform state policy in the areas of culture, science, education, health protection, social security and ecology;
  39. 39. Responsibilities and Power •manage federal property; •adopt measures to ensure the country's defence, state security, and the implementation of the foreign policy of the Russian Federation; •implement measures to ensure the rule of law, human rights and freedoms, the protection of property and public order, and crime control; •exercise any other powers vested in it by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, federal laws and presidential decrees.
  40. 40. Responsibilities and Power The government issues its acts in the way of decisions and orders. These must not contradict the constitution, federal constitutional laws, federal laws, and Presidential decrees, and are signed by the Prime Minister.
  41. 41. Structure The 2012 Russian government is made up of the prime minister, a first deputy prime minister, six deputy prime ministers and 21 other ministers. There are a total of 29 members of the cabinet.
  42. 42. Structure Most ministries and federal services report directly to the prime minister, who then reports to the president. A small number of bodies responsible for security and foreign policy are, however, directly under the president's authority. Informally they are collectively referred to as the "presidential bloc.“ This consists of the Interior Ministry, the Foreign Ministry, the Emergencies Ministry, the Defence Ministry, the Justice Ministry and seven federal agencies and services.
  43. 43. Legislative Branch- PARLIAMENT The 616-member parliament, termed the Federal Assembly, consists of two houses, the 450- member State Duma (the lower house) and the 166- member Federation Council (the upper house). Russia's legislative body was established by the constitution approved in the December 1993 referendum. The first elections to the Federal Assembly were held at the same .
  44. 44. Legislative Branch- PARLIAMENT The Federal Assembly is prescribed as a permanently functioning body, meaning that it is in continuous session except for a regular break between the spring and fall sessions. The new constitution also directs that the two houses meet separately in sessions open to the public, although joint meetings are held for important speeches by the president or foreign leaders.
  45. 45. Structure of Federal Assembly The composition of the Federation Council was a matter of debate until shortly before the 2000 elections. The legislation that emerged in December 1995 over Federation Council objections clarified the constitution's language on the subject by providing ex officio council seats to the heads of local legislatures and administrations in each of the eighty-nine subnational jurisdictions, hence a total of 178 seats.
  46. 46. Structure of Federal Assembly As composed in 1996, the Federation Council included about fifty chief executives of subnational jurisdictions who had been appointed to their posts by Yeltsin during 1991-92, then won popular election directly to the body in December 1993. But the law of 1995 provided for popular elections of chief executives in all subnational jurisdictions, including those still governed by presidential appointees. The individuals chosen in those elections then would assume ex officio seats in the Federation Council.
  47. 47. Structure of Federal Assembly Each house elects a chairman to control the internal procedures of the house. The houses also form Parliamentary committees and commissions to deal with particular types of issues. Unlike committees and commissions in previous Russian and Soviet parliaments, those operating under the 1993 constitution have significant responsibilities in devising legislation and conducting oversight.
  48. 48. Structure of Federal Assembly Committee positions are allocated when new parliaments are seated. The general policy calls for allocation of committee chairmanships and memberships among parties and factions roughly in proportion to the size of their representation.
  49. 49. Legislative Powers The two chambers of the Federal Assembly possess different powers and responsibilities, with the State Duma the more powerful. The Federation Council, as its name and composition implies, deals primarily with issues of concern to the subnational jurisdictions, such as adjustments to internal borders and decrees of the president establishing martial law or states of emergency.
  50. 50. Legislative Powers As the upper chamber, it also has responsibilities in confirming and removing the procurator general and confirming justices of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, and the Superior Court of Arbitration, upon the recommendation of the president. The Federation Council also is entrusted with the final decision if the State Duma recommends removing the president from office.
  51. 51. Legislative Powers The constitution also directs that the Federation Council examine bills passed by the lower chamber dealing with budgetary, tax, and other fiscal measures, as well as issues dealing with war and peace and with treaty ratification.
  52. 52. Legislative Powers In the consideration and disposition of most legislative matters, however, the Federation Council has less power than the State Duma. All bills, even those proposed by the Federation Council, must first be considered by the State Duma. If the Federation Council rejects a bill passed by the State Duma, the two chambers may form a conciliation commission to work out a compromise version of the legislation.
  53. 53. Legislative Powers The State Duma then votes on the compromise bill. If the State Duma objects to the proposals of the upper chamber in the conciliation process, it may vote by a two-thirds majority to send its version to the president for signature. The part-time character of the Federation Council's work, its less developed committee structure, and its lesser powers vis-à-vis the State Duma make it more a consultative and reviewing body than a law- making chamber.
  54. 54. Legislative Powers The State Duma confirms the appointment of the prime minister, although it does not have the power to confirm Government ministers. The power to confirm or reject the prime minister is severely limited. According to the 1993 constitution, the State Duma must decide within one week to confirm or reject a candidate once the president has placed that person's name in nomination. If it rejects three candidates, the president is empowered to appoint a prime minister, dissolve the parliament, and schedule new legislative elections.
  55. 55. Legislative Powers The State Duma's power to force the resignation of the Government also is severely limited. It may express a vote of no-confidence in the Government by a majority vote of all members of the State Duma, but the president is allowed to disregard this vote.
  56. 56. Legislative Powers If, however, the State Duma repeats the no-confidence vote within three months, the president may dismiss the Government. But the likelihood of a second no- confidence vote is virtually precluded by the constitutional provision allowing the president to dissolve the State Duma rather than the Government in such a situation.
  57. 57. Legislative Powers The Government's position is further buttressed by another constitutional provision that allows the Government at any time to demand a vote of confidence from the State Duma; refusal is grounds for the president to dissolve the Duma.
  58. 58. The legislative process The legislative process in Russia includes three hearings in the State Duma, then approvals by the Federation Council, the upper house and sign into law by the President.
  59. 59. The legislative process Draft laws may originate in either legislative chamber, or they may be submitted by the president, the Government, local legislatures and the Supreme Court, the Constitutional Court, or the Superior Court of Arbitration within their respective competences.
  60. 60. The legislative process Draft laws are first considered in the State Duma. Upon adoption by a majority of the full State Duma membership, a draft law is considered by the Federation Council, which has fourteen days to place the bill on its calendar. Conciliation commissions are the prescribed procedure to work out differences in bills considered by both chambers.
  61. 61. The legislative process Constitutional provision dictating that draft laws dealing with revenues and expenditures may be considered "only when the Government's findings are known" substantially limits the Federal Assembly's control of state finances.
  62. 62. The legislative process The legislature may alter finance legislation submitted by the Government at a later time, a power that provides a degree of traditional legislative control over the purse. The two chambers of the legislature also have the power to override a presidential veto of legislation. The constitution requires at least a two-thirds vote of the total number of members of both chambers.
  63. 63. The legislative process The legislature may alter finance legislation submitted by the Government at a later time, a power that provides a degree of traditional legislative control over the purse. The two chambers of the legislature also have the power to override a presidential veto of legislation. The constitution requires at least a two-thirds vote of the total number of members of both chambers.
  64. 64. Judicial branch The Ministry of Justice administers Russia's judicial system. The ministry's responsibilities include the establishment of courts and the appointment of judges at levels below the federal district courts. The ministry also gathers forensic statistics and conducts sociological research and educational programs applicable to crime prevention.
  65. 65. Judicial branch The Russian judiciary is divided into three branches: The courts of general jurisdiction (including military courts); subordinated to the Supreme Court; the arbitration (commercial) court system under the High Court of Arbitration; and the Constitutional Court (as well as constitutional courts in a number of administrative entities of the Russian Federation).
  66. 66. Judicial branch Civil and criminal cases are tried in courts of primary jurisdiction, courts of appeals, and higher courts. The general court system's lowest level is the municipal court, which serves each city or rural district and hears more than 90% of all civil and criminal cases. The next level of courts of general jurisdiction is the regional courts.
  67. 67. Judicial branch At the highest level is the Supreme Court. Decisions of the lower trial courts can be appealed only to the immediately superior court unless a constitutional issue is involved. The arbitration court system consists of city or regional courts as well as appellate circuit courts subordinated to the High Court of Arbitration. Arbitration courts hear cases involving business disputes between legal entities and between legal entities and the state.
  68. 68. Judicial branch Judges are approved by the President after being nominated by the qualifying collegia, which are assemblies of judges. These collegia also have the authority to remove judges for misbehavior, and to approve procurator's requests to prosecute judges. For court infrastructure and financial support, judges must depend on the Ministry of Justice, and for housing they must depend on local authorities in the jurisdiction where they sit
  69. 69. Judicial branch The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation is a court of limited subject matter jurisdiction. The 1993 constitution empowers the Constitutional Court to arbitrate disputes between the executive and legislative branches and between Moscow and the regional and local governments.
  70. 70. Judicial branch The court also is authorized to rule on violations of constitutional rights, to examine appeals from various bodies, and to participate in impeachment proceedings against the president. The July 1994 Law on the Constitutional Court prohibits the court from examining cases on its own initiative and limits the scope of issues the court can hear.
  71. 71. Judicial branch The system of general jurisdiction courts includes the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, regional level courts, district level courts and justices of the peace.
  72. 72. Local and Regional Government The Russian Federation has made few changes in the Soviet pattern of regional jurisdictions. The 1993 constitution establishes a federal government and enumerates eighty-nine subnational jurisdictions, including twenty-one ethnic enclaves with the status of republics. There are ten autonomous regions, or okruga (sing., okrug ), and the Jewish Autonomous Oblast (Yevreyskaya avtonomnaya oblast', also known as Birobidzhan).
  73. 73. Local and Regional Government Besides the ethnically identified jurisdictions, there are six territories (kraya ; sing., kray ) and forty-nine oblasts (provinces). The cities of Moscow and St. Petersburg are independent of surrounding jurisdictions; termed "cities of federal significance," they have the same status as the oblasts. The ten autonomous regions and Birobidzhan are part of larger jurisdictions, either an oblast or a territory.
  74. 74. Local and Regional Government As the power and influence of the central government have become diluted, governors and mayors have become the only relevant government authorities in many jurisdictions.
  75. 75. Local jurisdictions under the constitution Under the 1993 constitution, the republics, territories, oblasts, autonomous oblast, autonomous regions, and cities of federal designation are held to be "equal in their relations with the federal agencies of state power"; this language represents an attempt to end the complaints of the nonrepublic jurisdictions about their inferior status.
  76. 76. Local jurisdictions under the constitution Equal representation in the Federation Council for all eighty-nine jurisdictions furthers the equalization process by providing them meaningful input into legislative activities, particularly those of special local concern. However, Federation Council officials have criticized the State Duma for failing to represent regional interests adequately.
  77. 77. Power sharing Flexibility is a goal of the constitutional provision allowing bilateral treaties or charters between the central government and the regions on power sharing. For instance, in the bilateral treaty signed with the Russian government in February 1994, the Republic of Tatarstan gave up its claim to sovereignty and accepted Russia's taxing authority, in return for Russia's acceptance of Tatar control over oil and other resources and the republic's right to sign economic agreements with other countries.
  78. 78. Presidential power in the Regions The president retains the power to appoint and remove presidential representatives, who act as direct emissaries to the jurisdictions in overseeing local administrations' implementation of presidential policies.
  79. 79. Presidential power in the Regions The governments of the republics include a president or prime minister (or both) and a regional council or legislature. The chief executives of lower jurisdictions are called governors or administrative heads. Generally, in jurisdictions other than republics the executive branches have been more sympathetic to the central government, and the legislatures.