Marie’s time for nature

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Marie’s time for nature

  1. 1. Time for NatureBotany BlitzA wildlife ecologist‟s forayinto the unfamiliar world ofplantsby Marie Tremblay 1
  2. 2. Plants, you say?What would prompt a wildlife ecologist like myself to dedicateher Time For Nature to the study of plants? Long story short,I‟ve always been interested in plants but just haven‟t had muchtime to devote to them . . . until now.In that sense, my TFN was a total indulgence – an opportunity tospend time appreciating nature in a way I don‟t normally havetime for. And I certainly wasn‟t disappointed - over the courseof the week, I managed to identify (hopefully, correctly) 139species of vascular plants. That‟s about 120 more species than Iwas familiar with when I started out!But perhaps the most remarkable observation I made was justhow incredibly beautiful plants are when you examine them 2
  3. 3. carefully. Hence, my TFN felt more like a visit to a colourfuloutdoor art gallery than a natural history exercise. From theshowy to the subtle, I found each species I encountered hadits own unique cachet.My explorations took me to five NCC properties, all within athree-hour drive from Calgary, Alberta. These are describedbriefly at the beginning of this presentation, followed by theplant species I encountered during my adventure. Unlessotherwise noted, all photos were taken by myself on NCCproperties.Finally, despite my best efforts, I may have misidentifiedsome species. If you notice any errors, please bring them tomy attention. Also, there were several species that left mecompletely stumped. I have included these in the MysterySection, which starts on slide 185. Any clues that might helpin their identification would be most appreciated! 3
  4. 4. Lusicich property,Crowsnest Pass, SW corner of AB Date visited: July 3, 2012 Natural Region: Rocky Mountain Natural Subregion: Montane NCC Stats: 263 acres, fee simple, located in the Crowsnest Pass Natural Area. Notes: Day 1 was spent scrambling up and down well- used game trails with some of my AB colleagues. Special thanks to plant aficionado Kelly Eaton for helping get my botany blitz off to a blazing start with 61 species. 4
  5. 5. Kerfoot property, west of Calgary Date visited: July 4, 2012 Natural Region: Rocky Mountain Natural Subregion: Montane NCC Stats: 1280 acres, conservation agreement, located in the Bow Natural Area. Notes: Nestled in the Rocky Mountain Foothills, Kerfoot is a magical place right at Calgary‟s doorstep. The ridge topography provides not only breathtaking views but also a wide array of vegetation communities to explore. I managed to identify 83 different species in one afternoon. 5
  6. 6. Nodwell property, east of Calgary Date visited: July 5, 2012 Natural Region: Grasslands Natural Subregion: Northern Fescue NCC Stats: 320 acres, fee simple, located in the Badlands Natural Area. Notes: Prairie badlands are one of my favourite landscapes. On Nodwell I encountered 48 intriguing species, from Pricklypear Cactus on sunbaked slopes to Creamy Peavine tucked away in the cool understory of white spruce stands. 6
  7. 7. Beynon-Biggs property, east of Calgary Date visited: July 5, 2012 Natural Region: Grasslands Natural Subregion: NCC Stats: 445 acres, fee simple, located in the Badlands Natural Area. Notes: Rosebud Creek runs through this quiet and secluded piece of land. I didn‟t have much time here so will have to go back for a more thorough visit. 7
  8. 8. Connop propertynear Turner Valley, SW of Calgary Date visited: July 6, 2012 Natural Region: Rocky Mountain Natural Subregion: Montane NCC Stats: 320 acres, fee simple, located in the Bow Natural Area. Notes: Like a kid in a candy store, I was overwhelmed by the variety of wildflowers gracing the property‟s grasslands, aspen stands and wet meadows. I managed to document 51 species here, several of which I hadn‟t seen elsewhere. 8
  9. 9. Here we go . . . 9
  10. 10. Apiaceae Family (Carrot Family) 10
  11. 11. CarawayAlso called:Family: ApiaceaeScientific Name:Carum carviNCC Properties:Kerfoot, ConnopNotes:Introduced from Eurasia asa cultivated species. 11
  12. 12. Cow-parsnipAlso called:Family: ApiaceaeScientific Name:Heracleum maximumNCC Properties:Kerfoot, ConnopNotes:Important bear food. 12
  13. 13. Blunt-fruited Sweet-cicelyAlso called:Family: ApiaceaeScientific Name:OsmorhizadepauperataNCC Properties:Lusicich, ConnopNotes:The roots of thisplant were used bythe Blackfoot to makeflour. 13
  14. 14. Heart-leaved AlexandersAlso called: MeadowParsnipFamily: ApiaceaeScientific Name:Zizia apteraNCC Properties:Kerfoot, ConnopNotes:Considered potentiallypoisonous. 14
  15. 15. Asteraceae Family (Aster Family) 15
  16. 16. YarrowAlso called:Family: AsteraceaeScientific Name:Achillea millefoliumNCC Properties:Lusicish, Kerfoot, Nodwell,Beynon, ConnopNotes:This aromatic plant has been usedfor millenia as a medecine andinsecticide. Used externally totreat burns, boils, open sores,pimples, earaches, sore eyes andmosquito bites. As a tea, wasused internally to treat colds,diarrhea, fevers and diabetes. 16
  17. 17. Pale False-dandelionAlso called:Family: AsteraceaeScientific Name:Agoseris glaucaNCC Properties:KerfootNotes:Native. Grows in mountainmeadows, prairie grasslandsand open woodlands. 17
  18. 18. AlpinePussytoesAlso called:Family: AsteraceaeScientific Name:Antennaria alpinaNCC Properties:Lusicish, KerfootNotes:Grows in alpine meadows.The flowers resemble thepaws of a cat. 18
  19. 19. ShowyPussytoesAlso called:Family: AsteraceaeScientific Name:Antennaria pulcherrimaNCC Properties:ConnopNotes:Grows in moist sites in openwoods and meadows;foothills to subalpine. 19
  20. 20. RosyPussytoesAlso called:Family: AsteraceaeScientific Name:Antennaria roseaNCC Properties:LusicishNotes:Grows in dry, open areasand prairie grasslands. 20
  21. 21. Arrow-leavedBalsamrootAlso called:Family: AsteraceaeScientific Name:Balsamorhiza sagittataNCC Properties:LusicishNotes:A sticky substance isexuded by the root.Distribution in Alberta isrestricted to the far SWcorner of the province. 21
  22. 22. Golden AsterAlso called:Hairy Golden AsterFamily: AsteraceaeScientific Name:Heterotheca villaso/Chrysopsis villosaNCC Properties:KerfootNotes:Native. Increaser.Fair forage value. 22
  23. 23. Brown-eyedSusanAlso called:Blanketflower, GaillardiaFamily: AsteraceaeScientific Name:Gaillardia aristataNCC Properties:Lusicish, Kerfoot, Nodwell,ConnopNotes:The roots were used by theBlackfoot to treat stomachdisorders and eye and noseinfections. 23
  24. 24. CanadaGoldenrodAlso called:Family: AsteraceaeScientific Name:Solidago canadensisNCC Properties:Lusicish, Connop, NodwellNotes:The flowers make a brightyellow dye. The youngleaves can be eaten in asalad or cooked likespinach. 24
  25. 25. CanadaThistleAlso called:Creeping ThistleFamily: AsteraceaeScientific Name:Circium arvenseNCC Properties:Kerfoot, Connop, NodwellNotes:Eurasian weed. Commonand noxious. Invader. Poorforage value. Introducedfrom SE Asia to Canada incontaminated crop seed. 25
  26. 26. Common Dandelions are so ubiquitous,Dandelion I didn’t think of taking a photo . . .Also called:Family: AsteraceaeScientific Name:Taraxacum officinaleNCC Properties:Lusicish, Kerfoot,Nodwell, ConnopNotes:Introduced annual. 26
  27. 27. ChicoryAlso called:Family: AsteraceaeScientific Name:Chicorium intybusNCC Properties:NodwellNotes:Wild variety of Romainelettuce. Used as coffeesubstitute. 27
  28. 28. Cut-leavedFleabaneAlso called:Family: AsteraceaeScientific Name:Erigeron compositusNCC Properties:LusicishNotes: 28
  29. 29. TuftedFleabaneAlso called:Family: AsteraceaeScientific Name:Erigeron caespitosusNCC Properties:Kerfoot, Nodwell,ConnopNotes:Increaser. Native.Poor forage value. 29
  30. 30. GoatsbeardAlso called: WesternSalsifyFamily: AsteraceaeScientific Name:Tragopogon dubuisNCC Properties:Lusicish, Kerfoot, NodwellNotes:Introduced from Eurasia. 30
  31. 31. Hairy ArnicaAlso called:Family: AsteraceaeScientific Name:Arnica mollisNCC Properties:KerfootNotes: 31
  32. 32. PearlyEverlastingAlso called:Family: AsteraceaeScientific Name:Anaphalis margaritaceaeNCC Properties:Kerfoot,Notes: 32
  33. 33. SagebrushAlso called:Family: AsteraceaeScientific Name:Artemisia canaNCC Properties:NodwellNotes:Used by prong-hornedantelope. Very tolerant ofsalinity. Tends to invadegrazing ranges becausecattle don‟t eat it. 33
  34. 34. PastureSagewortAlso called:Family: AsteraceaeScientific Name:Artemisia frigidaNCC Properties:Kerfoot, Nodwell, BeynonNotes:Not grazed by cattle inAlberta but cattle in NewMexico will eat it. 34
  35. 35. PrairieSagewortAlso called:Family: AsteraceaeScientific Name:Artemisia ludovicianaNCC Properties:NodwellNotes: Used by Nativepeoples to treat stomachaches, sinusailments, headaches, rheumatism and colds. Increaserwith over-grazing. 35
  36. 36. Long-leavedSageAlso called:Family: AsteraceaeScientific Name:Artemisia longifoliaNCC Properties:NodwellNotes: Distribution inAlberta is restricted to theSE part of the province.Occurs on eroded slopes,shale outcrops and inbadlands. 36
  37. 37. Narrow-leavedHawkweedAlso called:Family: AsteraceaeScientific Name:Heiracium umbellatumNCC Properties:NodwellNotes:Might also beNarrow-leavedHawksbeard, anintroduced species? 37
  38. 38. Common AnnualSunflowerAlso called:Family: AsteraceaeScientific Name:Helianthus annusNCC Properties:NodwellNotes:Grows along roadsides anddry, sandy areas. 38
  39. 39. ColoradoRubber PlantAlso called:Family: AsteraceaeScientific Name:Hymenoxys richarsoniiNCC Properties:NodwellNotes:The roots contain arubbery substance that canbe used as chewing gum. 39
  40. 40. WoollyGroundselAlso called:Prairie Groundsel, SilveryGoundselFamily: AsteraceaeScientific Name:Senecio canus/Packera canaNCC Properties:Lusicish, Kerfoot, Nodwell,ConnopNotes:„Cana‟ means ash-coloured,which refers to the greyishsurface of the leaves andstems. 40
  41. 41. Berberidaceae Family (Barberry Family) 41
  42. 42. CreepingOregon-grapeAlso called:Family: BerberidaceaeScientific Name:Mahonia repensNCC Properties:LusicishNotes:This plant had manytraditional medecinal usesincluding as an antiseptic,for helping delivery the placentaand heal wounds, as acontraceptive, and to treatkidney and stomachtroubles, rheumatism, and loss ofappetite. 42
  43. 43. Betulaceae Family (Birch Family) 43
  44. 44. Bog BirchAlso called:Dwarf BirchFamily: BetulaceaeScientific Name:Betula nanaNCC Properties:ConnopNotes:Observed in a wetmeadow. 44
  45. 45. Boraginaceae Family (Borage Family) 45
  46. 46. BlueweedAlso called:Family: BoraginaceaeScientific Name:Echium vulgareNCC Properties:LusicishNotes:Introduced from NorthAfrica as an ornamental. 46
  47. 47. BlueburAlso called:Family: BoraginaceaeScientific Name:Lappula squarrosaNCC Properties:KerfootNotes:Introduced from Eurasia. 47
  48. 48. YellowPuccoonAlso called:Lemonweed,Woolly GromwellFamily: BoraginaceaeScientific Name:Lithospermum ruderaleNCC Properties:Lusicish, Kerfoot, ConnopNotes:Native peoples used anextract from this plant as aform of birth control. Theextract contains estrogen. 48
  49. 49. Tall BluebellsAlso called:Tall LungwortFamily: BoraginaceaeScientific Name:Mertensia paniculataNCC Properties:KerfootNotes:The fresh leaves areedible and can be used insoups or salads. 49
  50. 50. Brassicaceae Family (Mustard Family) 50
  51. 51. WormseedMustardAlso called:Family: BrassicaceaeScientific Name:Erysimum cheiranthoidesNCC Properties:KerfootNotes:Native. Grows in fieldsand disturbed areas. 51
  52. 52. StinkweedAlso called:Pennycress, FanflowerFamily: BrassicaceaeScientific Name:Thlapsi arvenseNCC Properties:KerfootNotes:Introduced from Eurasia.Affects the flavour ofmilk when cattle feed onthis plant. 52
  53. 53. Cactaceae Family (Cactus Family) 53
  54. 54. PlainsPricklypearAlso called:Family: CactaceaeScientific Name:Opuntia polycanthaNCC Properties:NodwellNotes:Common in the badlands. 54
  55. 55. Campanulaceae Family (Harebell Family) 55
  56. 56. HarebellAlso called:Family: CampanulaceaeScientific Name:Campanula rotundifoliaNCC Properties:Kerfoot, NodwellNotes:Native. Increaser. Poorforage value. 56
  57. 57. Caprifoliaceae Family (Honeysuckle Family) 57
  58. 58. BuckbrushAlso called:Family:CaprifoliaceaeScientific Name:SymphoricarposoccidentalisNCC Properties:Kerfoot, Nodwell,BeynonNotes:The stems were usedby the Blackfoot tomake arrow shafts. 58
  59. 59. Caryophyllaceae Family (Pink Family) 59
  60. 60. Long-stalkedChickweedAlso called: Long-stalkedStarwortFamily: CaryophyllaceaeScientific Name:Stellaria longpipesNCC Properties:Lusicich, Kerfoot, ConnopNotes:Grows in moist open areasand woodlands. 60
  61. 61. Mouse-earChickweedAlso called:Family: CaryophyllaceaeScientific Name:Cerastium arvenseNCC Properties:Lusicich, Kerfoot,ConnopNotes:Petals are notched,resembling mouse ears. 61
  62. 62. Cornaceae Family (Dogwood Family) 62
  63. 63. Red-osier DogwoodAlso called:Family: CornaceaeScientific Name:Cornus sericeaNCC Properties:NodwellNotes:Browsed by moose.Leaves cure on the groundand are very nutritious.Used as an ornamentaldue to red stems. 63
  64. 64. Crassulaceae Family (Stonecrop Family) 64
  65. 65. Lance-leaved StonecropAlso called:Family: CrassulaceaeScientific Name:Sedum lanceolatumNCC Properties:LusicichNotes:The plant is highlydrought-resistant due tothe fleshy leaves that actas water storage devices. 65
  66. 66. Cuppressaceae Family (Cedar Family) 66
  67. 67. CommonJuniperAlso called:Family: CupressaceaeScientific Name:Juniperis communisNCC Properties:Lusicich, Kerfoot,Nodwell, BeynonNotes:Very widespreadspecies. The wood wasused to repel insectsand deodorize. 67
  68. 68. CreepingJuniperAlso called:Family: CupressaceaeScientific Name:Juniperis horizontalisNCC Properties:Kerfoot, NodwellNotes:Widespread species.Typically found on dryrocky or sandy openslopes and forests. 68
  69. 69. Rocky Mountain JuniperAlso called:Family: CupressaceaeScientific Name:Juniperis scopularumNCC Properties:LusicichNotes:Long-lived species;typically 200-300 yearsbut sometimes up to 1,500years. 69
  70. 70. Cyperaceae Family (Sedge Family) 70
  71. 71. CreepingSpikerushAlso called:Family: CyperaceaeScientific Name:Eleocharis palustrisNCC Properties:ConnopNotes: Observed in awet meadow. 71
  72. 72. Elaeagnaceae Family (Oleaster Family) 72
  73. 73. WolfwillowAlso called: SilverberryFamily: ElaeagnaceaeScientific Name:Elaeagnus communtataNCC Properties:Kerfoot, NodwellNotes:Flowers give off a pungentsmell that is offensive tosome (including me). 73
  74. 74. BuffaloberryAlso called: SoopolalieFamily: ElaeagnaceaeScientific Name:Shepherdia canadensisNCC Properties:Lusicich, Kerfoot,NodwellNotes:Important bear food.A grizzly bear can eatup to 200,000 berriesin single day. 74
  75. 75. Equisetaceae Family (Horsetail Family) 75
  76. 76. Common HorsetailAlso called: FieldHorsetailFamily: EquisetaceaeScientific Name:Equisetum arvenseNCC Properties:Lusicich, KerfootNotes:Bears will eat this plant.One of the mostwidespread plant speciesin the world. 76
  77. 77. Ericaceae Family (Heath Family) 77
  78. 78. Common BearberryAlso called: KinnikinnickFamily: EricaceaeScientific Name:Arctostaphylos uva-ursiNCC Properties:LusicichNotes:Indicator of acid soils.Bears eat the fruit.Used as an ornamental. 78
  79. 79. Dwarf BlueberryAlso called:Family: EricaceaeScientific Name:Vaccinium caespitosumNCC Properties:KerfootNotes:Berries are juicy andsweet. They were widelyused by native peopleseither fresh or dried. 79
  80. 80. Fabaceae Family (Pea Family) 80
  81. 81. Field MilkvetchAlso called: PurpleMilkvetchFamily: FabaceaeScientific Name:Astragalus agrestisNCC Properties:Kerfoot, NodwellNotes: Members ofthe pea or legumefamily are importantecologically due to theirrole as nitrogen-fixers. 81
  82. 82. Indian MilkvetchAlso called: PurpleMilkvetchFamily: FabaceaeScientific Name:Astragalus australisNCC Properties:LusicichNotes: Grows inprairies and mountainmeadows. 82
  83. 83. Wild VetchAlso called:Family: FabaceaeScientific Name:Vicia americanaNCC Properties:Kerfoot, Nodwell,ConnopNotes:Might also be Few-Flowered Milkvetch. 83
  84. 84. Creamy PeavineAlso called: Cream-colouredVetchlingFamily: FabaceaeScientific Name:Lathyrus ochroleucusNCC Properties:Kerfoot, Nodwell, ConnopNotes: Native peoples atethe fruits of this plant.However, continued ingestionof the peas over several dayscan lead to serious healthissues like loss of musclecoordination and paralysis. 84
  85. 85. Alpine HedysarumAlso called:Family: FabaceaeScientific Name:Hedysarum alpinumNCC Properties:Keerfoot, ConnopNotes: 85
  86. 86. Yellow HedysarumAlso called: YellowSweet-vetchFamily: FabaceaeScientific Name:Hedysarum sulphurescensNCC Properties:Lusicich, KerfootNotes: Important foodfor grizzly bears, whichfeed off the roots inspring and fall. 86
  87. 87. Silky LupineAlso called: PerennialLupineFamily: FabaceaeScientific Name:Lupinus sericeusNCC Properties:Lusicich, ConnopNotes: In Alberta,restricted to RockyMountains. Grows ingrasslands and openwoods. 87
  88. 88. Yellow SweetcloverAlso called:Family: FabaceaeScientific Name:Melilotus officinaleNCC Properties:NodwellNotes: Introduced fromEurope as a forage plant. 88
  89. 89. White SweetcloverAlso called:Family: FabaceaeScientific Name:Melilotus albaNCC Properties:NodwellNotes: Introduced fromEurope as a forage plant.Invader. Good foragevalue. Commonly used inreclamation as part ofreseeding mixes. 89
  90. 90. Late Yellow LocoweedAlso called:Family: FabaceaeScientific Name:Oxytropis monticolaNCC Properties:Lusicich, KerfootNotes:Native. Toxic; causeshorse to go crazy andphotosensitivity in cattle.Increaser withovergrazing. 90
  91. 91. Showy LocoweedAlso called:Family: FabaceaeScientific Name:Oxytropis splendensNCC Properties:Lusicich, KerfootNotes:Found in prairiegrasslands and openwoods. Very striking. 91
  92. 92. Golden BeanAlso called:Family: FabaceaeScientific Name:Thermopsis rhombifoliaNCC Properties:Kerfoot, Nodwell, ConnopNotes:Poisonous; ingestion willcause respiratoryparalysis. Native peoplesused the flowers to makeyellow dye. 92
  93. 93. Red CloverAlso called:Family: FabaceaeScientific Name:Trifolium pratenseNCC Properties:KerfootNotes: Introducedfrom Europe as a forageplant. Grows indisturbed sites and onlawns. 93
  94. 94. White CloverAlso called:Family: FabaceaeScientific Name:Trifolium repensNCC Properties:Kerfoot, ConnopNotes:Introduced fromEurope. Grows inlawns and wasteareas. 94
  95. 95. Geraniaceae Family (Geranium Family) 95
  96. 96. White GeraniumAlso called:Family: GeraniaceaeScientific Name:Geranium richardsoniiNCC Properties:Lusicich, Kerfoot, ConnopNotes:Grows in open aspen andspruce forest. The leavesare edible. 96
  97. 97. Sticky Purple GeraniumAlso called:Family: GeraniaceaeScientific Name:Geranium viscosissimumNCC Properties:Lusicich, Kerfoot, ConnopNotes:Grows in open grasslands,foothills and coulees. 97
  98. 98. Grossulariaceae Family (Currant Family) 98
  99. 99. Northern GooseberryAlso called:Family: GrossulariaceaeScientific Name:Ribes oxyacanthoidesNCC Properties:Lusicich, Kerfoot,Nodwell, ConnopNotes:Thorny. The fruit makesa good jelly. 99
  100. 100. Hydrophyllaceae Family (Waterleaf Family) 100
  101. 101. Silver-leaved ScorpionweedAlso called:Family: HydrophyllaceaeScientific Name:Phacelia hastataNCC Properties:LusicichNotes:Grows in dry, open sitesin southern BC andAlberta. 101
  102. 102. Silky ScorpionweedAlso called:Family: HydrophyllaceaeScientific Name:Phacelai sericiaNCC Properties:LusicichNotes:In Alberta, only found inthe Rocky Mountains, inopen woods and onsubalpine slopes. 102
  103. 103. Iridaceae Family (Iris Family) 103
  104. 104. Blue-eyed GrassAlso called:Family: IridaceaeScientific Name:Sisyrinchium montanumNCC Properties:Kerfoot, ConnopNotes: 104
  105. 105. Liliaceae Family (Lily Family) 105
  106. 106. Wild ChivesAlso called:Family: LiliaceaeScientific Name:Allium schoenoprasumNCC Properties:ConnopNotes:Used by native peoplesto flavour food andtreat colds or coughs. 106
  107. 107. Mariposa LilyAlso called:Family: LiliaceaeScientific Name:Calochortus apiculatusNCC Properties:LusicichNotes:In Alberta, only found inextreme SW corner ofthe province. TheBlackfoot ate the bulbs ofthis plant. 107
  108. 108. Western Wood LilyAlso called:Family: LiliaceaeScientific Name:Lilium philadelphicumNCC Properties:Kerfoot, NodwellNotes:Floral emblem ofSaskatchewan. Flowersare large and incrediblyshowy. 108
  109. 109. False Solomon’s-sealAlso called:Family: LiliaceaeScientific Name:Maianthemum racemosum/Smilacina racemosaNCC Properties:LusicichNotes:The young shoots areedible. Leaf margins arewavy, in contrast to Star-flowered Solomon‟s-seal. 109
  110. 110. Star-flowered Solomon’s-sealAlso called:Family: LiliaceaeScientific Name:Maianthemum stellatum /Smilacian stellataNCC Properties:Lusicich, Nodwell, ConnopNotes:Typically found on the edgesof woods. Roots were used byNative peoples to stopbleeding. Plant is highlyedible to livestock. 110
  111. 111. BronzebellsAlso called:Family: LiliaceaeScientific Name:Stenanthium occidentaleNCC Properties:LusicichNotes:In Alberta, only found inor near the RockyMountains. 111
  112. 112. White CamasAlso called:Family: LiliaceaeScientific Name:Zigadenus elegansNCC Properties:Lusicich, Kerfoot, ConnopNotes:Slightly poisonous tohumans and livestock,although eaten in largequantities could be deadly. 112
  113. 113. Death CamasAlso called:Family: LiliaceaeScientific Name:Zigadenus venenosusNCC Properties:LusicichNotes:Highly poisonous. 113
  114. 114. Linaceae Family (Flax Family) 114
  115. 115. Western Blue FlaxAlso called:Family: LinaceaeScientific Name:Lilum lewisiiNCC Properties:Lusicich, NodwellNotes:Native. Usedagriculturally to producelinseed oil. 115
  116. 116. Onagraceae Family(Evening-primrose Family) 116
  117. 117. FireweedAlso called: GreatWillowherbFamily: OnagraceaeScientific Name:Epilobium angustifoliumNCC Properties:Kerfoot, ConnopNotes: Is the floralemblem of the Yukon.Early successionalspecies; comes in afterfire. 117
  118. 118. Pinaceae Family (Pine Family) 118
  119. 119. White SpruceAlso called:Family: PinaceaeScientific Name:Picea glaucaNCC Properties:Nodwell, BeynonNotes:Wood is straight-grainedand used commercially forconstruction material andpulp. 119
  120. 120. Lodgepole PineAlso called:Family: PinaceaeScientific Name:Pinus contortaNCC Properties:Lusicich*Notes:Early successional species; heserotinous cones need fire toopen and drop seeds.Needles are twisted (hence„contorta‟) and in bunches of2. Used commercially forpulp. 70-year rotational time.*Photos taken in WatertonNational Park. 120
  121. 121. Limber PineAlso called:Family: PinaceaeScientific Name:Pinus flexilisNCC Properties:Lusicich, KerfootNotes:No commercial value.Branches are veryflexible. 121
  122. 122. Douglas-firAlso called:Family: PinaceaeScientific Name:Pseudo-tsuga menziesiiNCC Properties:Lusicich, KerfootNotes:Older trees have a cork-like bark that is highlyresistant to fire. One othe largest tree species inCanada. 122
  123. 123. Poaceae Family (Grass Family) 123
  124. 124. Short-awned FoxtailAlso called: LittleMeadow-foxtailFamily: PoaceaeScientific Name:Alopecurus aequalisNCC Properties:Kerfoot, ConnopNotes:Typically found inmarshes and ditches. 124
  125. 125. Crested WheatgrassAlso called:Family: PoaceaeScientific Name:Agropyron cristatumNCC Properties:NodwellNotes:Introduced; extremelyaggressive species. Highproducer for cattle feed.High evaporation rate makesit good fordraining/depressing thewater table. Was formerlyused extensively forreclamation but is no longerdue to invasiveness. 125
  126. 126. Slender WheatgrassAlso called: AwnedWheatgrassFamily: PoaceaeScientific Name:Agropyron trachycaulumNCC Properties:KerfootNotes:Native. Providesexcellent forage forsheet, cattle and wildlife.Vulnerable to overgrazing. 126
  127. 127. Smoothe BromeAlso called:Family: PoaceaeScientific Name:Bromus inermisNCC Properties:Kerfoot, Nodwell, Beynon,ConnopNotes:Introduced from Europe.Used for road revegetationsince the 1920s. Very hardyand aggressive. Encroacheson native grasslands. Makesgood hay. 127
  128. 128. Quack GrassAlso called:Family: PoaceaeScientific Name:Elymus repensNCC Properties:Lusicich, KerfootNotes:Introduced from Europe.Highly invasive and rhizomous.In severely infested fields,rhyzomes can weigh up to 7-9metric tons per acre. 128
  129. 129. Sweet GrassAlso called:Family: PoaceaeScientific Name:Hierochloe odorataNCC Properties:Kerfoot, ConnopNotes: 129
  130. 130. Mountain Rough FescueAlso called:Family: PoaceaeScientific Name:Festuca altaicaNCC Properties:NodwellNotes: Native. Acommon tufted grassof dry prairiegrasslands. 130
  131. 131. Foxtail BarleyAlso called:Family: PoaceaeScientific Name:Hordeum jubatumNCC Properties:NodwellNotes:Indicates moderate saltcontent in soils. Palatablein spring; after that awnscause mechanical damage.Poor forage value.Considered an invader. 131
  132. 132. Hairy Wild RyeAlso called:Family: PoaceaeScientific Name:Leymus innovatusNCC Properties:KerfootNotes:I‟m not entirely sureabout speciesidentification on thisone. 132
  133. 133. June GrassAlso called:Family: PoaceaeScientific Name:Koeleriacristata/macranthaNCC Properties:KerfootNotes:Native. Preferred bycattle. Good forage value.Highly nutritious. 133
  134. 134. Kentucky BluegrassAlso called:Family: PoaceaeScientific Name:Poa praatenseNCC Properties:KerfootNotes: Introduced.Used for lawns. 134
  135. 135. TimothyAlso called:Family: PoaceaeScientific Name:Phleum pratenseNCC Properties:Kerfoot, Nodwell, ConnopNotes:Introduced forage crop fromEurope. Commonly grown forhay. Can germinate directlyon horse manure. Goodforage value. Considered aninvader. Used forreclamation, improvedpasture. 135
  136. 136. Polygonaceae Family (Buckwheat Family) 136
  137. 137. Yellow UmbrellaplantAlso called:Family: PolygonaceaeScientific Name:Eriogonum flavumNCC Properties:KerfootNotes:Native peoples mashedthe roots of this plant forearplugs. Found on dryplains and gravelly orrocky slopes. 137
  138. 138. Primulaceae Family (Primrose Family) 138
  139. 139. Saline ShootingstarAlso called:Family: PrimulaceaeScientific Name:Dodecatheon pulchellumNCC Properties:ConnopNotes: Observed in a wetmeadow. Could also beDodecatheon conjugens,which looks very similar andhas an overlappingdistribution. 139
  140. 140. Ranunculaceae Family(Crowfoot or Buttercup Family) 140
  141. 141. Canada AnemoneAlso called:Family: RanunculaceaeScientific Name:Anemone canadensisNCC Properties:Kerfoot, ConnopNotes: I struggled toidentify this plant... 141
  142. 142. WindflowerAlso called: Cut-leavedAnemoneFamily: RanunculaceaeScientific Name:Anemone multifidaNCC Properties:Lusicich, Kerfoot,ConnopNotes: Top photo showsplant before bloom. 142
  143. 143. Prairie CrocusAlso called:PasqueflowerFamily: RanunculaceaeScientific Name:Anemone patensNCC Properties:Lusicich, KerfootNotes: Blooms in earlyspring. Forms a hairyseedhead as shown inphoto. 143
  144. 144. Yellow ColumbineAlso called:Family: RanunculaceaeScientific Name:Aquilegia flavescensNCC Properties:LusicichNotes:Observed on open forestfloor. The young leavesand flowers are edible. 144
  145. 145. Meadow ButtercupAlso called: TallButtercupFamily: RanunculaceaeScientific Name:Ranunculus acrisNCC Properties:KerfootNotes: Introduced fromEurope. Often found inovergrazed pastures; isunpalatable to cattle. 145
  146. 146. Western MeadowrueAlso called:Family: RanunculaceaeScientific Name:ThalictrumoccidentaleNCC Properties:Lusicich, Kerfoot,Beynon, ConnopNotes: Grows in aspenforests and moistmeadows. 146
  147. 147. Rosaceae Family (Rose Family) 147
  148. 148. SaskatoonAlso called:Family: RosaceaeScientific Name:Amelanchier alnifoliaNCC Properties:Lusicich, Kerfoot,Nodwell, BeynonNotes:Heavily browsed by deer.Fruits are delicious. 148
  149. 149. Wild StrawberryAlso called:Family: RosaceaeScientific Name:Fragariavesca/virginianaNCC Properties:Lusicich, Kerfoot,Nodwell, ConnopNotes:Edible. 149
  150. 150. Yellow AvensAlso called:Family: RosaceaeScientific Name:Geum aleppicumNCC Properties:ConnopNotes: At first glance, Ithought this was acinquefoil. I now believethis to be an avens but amnot entirely sure. Doesthis seem right? 150
  151. 151. Old Man’s WhiskersAlso called:Family: RosaceaeScientific Name:Geum triflorumNCC Properties:Kerfoot, Nodwell, ConnopNotes: Native increaser.Poor forage value. 151
  152. 152. Shrubby CinquefoilAlso called:Family: RosaceaeScientific Name:Potentilla fruticosa /PentaphylloidesfloribundaNCC Properties:Lusicich, Kerfoot, ConnopNotes:Native increaser.Abundance indicatesovergrazing.Poor forage value. 152
  153. 153. White CinquefoilAlso called:Family: RosaceaeScientific Name:Potentilla argutaNCC Properties:KerfootNotes:Grows in moist prairiegrasslands. 153
  154. 154. Early CinquefoilAlso called:Family: RosaceaeScientific Name:Potentilla concinnaNCC Properties:Kerfoot, ConnopNotes:Grows in dry open prairie. 154
  155. 155. Diverse-leaved CinquefoilAlso called:Blue-leaved CinquefoilScientific Name:Potentilla diversifoliaNCC Properties:KerfootNotes:Could this also beSilver Potentilla(Potentilla argentea),which is considered aweed? 155
  156. 156. Rough CinquefoilAlso called:Family: RosaceaeScientific Name:Potentilla norvegicaNCC Properties:KerfootNotes:Species is foundthroughout theNorthern Hemisphere.Flowers are smallerthan other cinquefoils. 156
  157. 157. Wild RoseAlso called:Family: RosaceaeScientific Name:Rosa acicularisNCC Properties:Lusicich, Kerfoot,Nodwell, Beynon, ConnopNotes:Emblem of Alberta. 157
  158. 158. ChokecherryAlso called:Family: RosaceaeScientific Name:Prunus virginianaNCC Properties:Nodwell, BeynonNotes:The fruit is sour butmakes good jams andjellies. The Blackfootdried the fruit intocakes, which they used astrail food. 158
  159. 159. Wild RaspberryAlso called:Family: RosaceaeScientific Name:Rubus ideausNCC Properties:Kerfoot, Nodwell,ConnopNotes:Berries are edible. 159
  160. 160. ThimbleberryAlso called:Family: RosaceaeScientific Name:Rubus parviflorusNCC Properties:LusicichNotes:Berries are edible. 160
  161. 161. Rubiaceae Family (Bedstraw Family) 161
  162. 162. Northern BedstrawAlso called:Family: RubiaceaeScientific Name:Galium borealeNCC Properties:Lusicich, Kerfoot,Nodwell, ConnopNotes:Used as an ornamental, asa type of “baby‟s breath”. 162
  163. 163. Salicaceae Family (Willow Family) 163
  164. 164. Balsam PoplarAlso called:Family: SalicaceaeScientific Name:Populus balsamiferaNCC Properties:Kerfoot, Beynon, ConnopNotes:Browsed by moose. Whenleaves fall they cure andare very nutritious. Woodused to make plywood.Warps when wet. 164
  165. 165. Trembling AspenAlso called:Family: SalicaceaeScientific Name:Populus tremuloidesNCC Properties:Kerfoot, ConnopNotes:Early successional species.Reproduces by suckering,which produces clones.Commercially low-qualitywood used for pulp,chopsticks and cheap trailercupboards. 165
  166. 166. WillowAlso called:Family: SalicaceaeScientific Name:Salix sp?NCC Properties:Kerfoot, Nodwell, Beynon,ConnopNotes:I encountered manymembers of the willowfamily but lacked thetools to identify individualspecies. 166
  167. 167. Santalaceae Family (Sandalwood Family) 167
  168. 168. Bastard ToadflaxAlso called: PaleComandraFamily: SantalaceaeScientific Name:Comandraumbellata/pallidaNCC Properties:Lusicich, KerfootNotes:Parasitic plant that getits food from roots ofother plants. 168
  169. 169. Saxifragaceae Family (Saxifrage Family) 169
  170. 170. Round-leaved AlumrootAlso called: Sticky AlumrootFamily: SaxifragaceaeScientific Name:Heuchera cylindricaNCC Properties:LusicishNotes:Inhabits rocky and gravellyslopes. In Alberta,restricted to SW corner ofthe province. 170
  171. 171. AlumrootAlso called:Family: SaxifragaceaeScientific Name:Heuchera richardsoniiNCC Properties:KerfootNotes:Looks similar to Round-leaved Alumroot but widerdistribution in Albertaand inhabits moist sites inprairie grasslands. 171
  172. 172. Scrophulariaceae Family (Figwort Family) 172
  173. 173. Scarlett PaintbrushAlso called:Common Red PaintbrushFamily: ScrophulariaceaeScientific Name:Castilleja miniataNCC Properties:Lusicich, KerfootNotes: Believed to besemi-parasitic due to thepaucity of root hairs,which generally serve toabsorb water andnutrients from the soil. 173
  174. 174. Yellow PaintbrushAlso called:Family:ScrophulariaceaeScientific Name:Castilleja occidentalisNCC Properties:LusicichNotes: 174
  175. 175. Elephant- headAlso called:Little Red ElephantFamily: ScrophulariaceaeScientific Name:Pedicularis groenlandicaNCC Properties:ConnopNotes: Found in a wetmeadow, which isexpected for this plant. 175
  176. 176. Yellow BeardtongueAlso called:Family: ScrophulariaceaeScientific Name:Penstemon confertusNCC Properties:LusicichNotes:Inhabits meadows andopen woods. The hairy,sterile stamen resemblesa tongue, hence the name. 176
  177. 177. Crested BeardtongueAlso called:Family:ScrophulariaceaeScientific Name:Penstemon eriantherusNCC Properties:LusicichNotes: 177
  178. 178. Srubby BeardtongueAlso called:Family: ScrophulariaceaeScientific Name:Penstemon fruticosusNCC Properties:LusicichNotes:Found on dry rockysubalpine and alpineslopes. 178
  179. 179. Smoothe Blue BeardtongueAlso called:Family: ScrophulariaceaeScientific Name:Penstemon nitidusNCC Properties:LusicichNotes:Leaves are fleshy,opposite and relativelywide. 179
  180. 180. Common MulleinAlso called:Family: ScrophulariaceaeScientific Name:Verbascum thapsusNCC Properties:LusicichNotes:Introduced from Greece as amedicinal plant and fishintoxicant. Biennial plant.First year only a basalrosette is produced (seeinset). 180
  181. 181. Urticaceae Family(Stinging Nettle Family) 181
  182. 182. Common Stinging NettleAlso called:Family: UrticaceaaScientific Name:Urtica dioicaNCC Properties:KerfootNotes:Hairs on stem and leavescause skin rash andinflammation. 182
  183. 183. Violaceae Family (Violet Family) 183
  184. 184. Canada VioletAlso called:Family: VioloaceaeScientific Name:Viola canadensisNCC Properties:Lusicich, KerfootNotes: 184
  185. 185. The Mystery SectionCan you help me put names to the following photos? 185
  186. 186. Very fine , silky feelingseedhead.Observed on Kerfootproperty. 186
  187. 187. Observed on Kerfootproperty. 187
  188. 188. Observed on Kerfootproperty. 188
  189. 189. Observed on Kerfootproperty. 189
  190. 190. Observed on Kerfootproperty. 190
  191. 191. Observed on Kerfootproperty. 191
  192. 192. Observed on Kerfootproperty. 192
  193. 193. Observed on Kerfootproperty. 193
  194. 194. Weedyspeciesobserved onKerfootproperty. 194
  195. 195. Observed onKerfoot property. 195
  196. 196. Observed on Connopproperty, in moistmeadow. 196
  197. 197. Observed on Connopproperty, in moistmeadow. 197
  198. 198. Observed on Connopproperty, in moistmeadow. 198

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