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Research Methods 101, by Elliott Hedman

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  • 1. ResearchMethods 101By Elliott HedmanPart of Festival of Learning
  • 2. Findings before researchmethods
  • 3. Findings After ResearchMethods
  • 4. Outline Am I doing Human Research? Getting Started Conducting Evaluation Practicals Questions/Case Studies
  • 5. WarningsI am not Traditional, I am Media Lab I care a lot about inspiring design. I work a lot with companies. You will not learn the things I am about to tell you in any class. In fact, many, many people will disagree with me. There is not one right way. The wrong way would be not caring.
  • 6. Am I doingresearch?Art Research
  • 7. Am I doingResearchMechanical/EngineeringResearch
  • 8. Am I doingResearch?Product Design
  • 9. Am I doingResearch?Human Research
  • 10. Mixing Them Up
  • 11. Getting StartedGrounded TheoryCommunityA Way To Observe
  • 12. Grounded TheoryRead the literatureTalk to Major PlayersExpand the Wheel
  • 13. CommunityLive with themGet outside the labCopy previously done research
  • 14. Ways to ObserveHow will I learn?
  • 15. How to do AWESOMEResearchThe Right QuestionStart EarlyPrototypeParticipatory DesignThe Lots of Data Problem
  • 16. Choosing theRight QuestionWhat’s the big vision?What do you love doing?Play.
  • 17. Start EarlySpace Allows CreativityTechnology Overload Problem
  • 18. PrototypeFail Early, Fail OftenMake a New Prototype Every DayMyth of Rigor
  • 19. ParticipatoryDesignThe final judge is the peoplewho careCommunities will inspire you
  • 20. Too Much DataLots of Data is not a band-aidDifferent than learning as yougo.
  • 21. EvaluationThe Dangers of Machine LearningThe Dangers of Quantitative MethodsThe Dangers of Qualitative Methods
  • 22. MachineLearningMachine Learning shows whetheryou can separate two parts ofdata.You need to know a lot ofstatistics to appropriately use thisin research.
  • 23. Quantitative Methods Sampling  http://onlinestatbook.com/2/introduction/s ampling_demo.html
  • 24. Quantitative Methods Variability  http://onlinestatbook.com/2/summarizing_ distributions/spread_sim.html
  • 25. Quantitative Methods Correlations  http://onlinestatbook.com/2/describing_biv ariate_data/pearson_demo.html
  • 26. Quantitative Methods T-Test  Do the Means Differ? Are people more self-aware working with a robot?
  • 27. Quantitative Methods Regression Analysis or ANOVA  Do the Means Differ taking into account X, Y, and Z. Arepeople more self-aware working with a robot taking into account gender, personality type, and financial income?
  • 28. Quantitative Methods Correlations  When X changes, does Y change as well Doesthe larger the robot correlate to the more self-aware a person is?
  • 29. Quantitative MethodsWarning! P<0.05 - the means may be different  Does not equate to the differences are large or interesting Most people already have an answer before they ask their question Does not allow for discovery.
  • 30. Quantitative MethodsWarning! Part 2 Normal Distribution Hidden Variables Independent Samples Proper Sample Size Number of Tests Transformations Within or Across
  • 31. Qualitative Methods TellPeople What you Really Learned Open Ended – Let the world come in Descriptive Flexible
  • 32. Qualitative Methods Short Interviews / Surveys  Did you feel more self-aware after working with the robots? Createbiases Acceptable in journal?
  • 33.  Long-Interviews  1 to 1.5 hours Open-Ended Interpretation Difficult and Long
  • 34.  Observational Methods Fly on the Wall See what people naturally do
  • 35. Grounded TheoryQualitative Methods requirestrong grounded theory
  • 36. WarningsTraditional Ethnography is nearimpossible to do in the MediaLabInterviews are more difficult toconduct correctly and take alonger time than statisticsCannot answer questionsabout how frequent an eventoccurs.Will it get accepted?
  • 37. Warnings Part 2Grounded Theory1. Transcribe all the important interviews2. Write field-notes about each of your interviews.3. Go through all the transcriptions and highlight every time a theme occurs.4. Relate findings to previous established theory about that theme.5. Go back through all the notes again.
  • 38. It’s Great to Fail!You are here to learn and try!But make sure you try!
  • 39. Resources to Check Out
  • 40. Quantitative Books Cohen & Lea (2004). Essentials of Statistics for the Social and Behavioral Sciences. New Jersey: Wiley & Kline (2009). Becoming a Behavioral Science Researcher: A Guide to Producing Research That Matters. New York: Guilford Press. Lane, D., Lu, J., Peres, C &. Zitek, E (2008). Online Statistics: An Interactive Multimedia Course ofStudy. http://onlinestatbook.com/
  • 41. Qualitative Books Luker, Kristin. (2008). Salsa Dancing into the Social Sciences: Research in an age of info-glut Emerson, Robert (1995). Writing Ethnographic Field Notes.
  • 42. People Statistics:Benj. Mako Hill Qualitative: Karen Brennan, Tiffany Tseng Industrial/Design Research: Elliott Hedman
  • 43. Quantitative Classes ANOVA statistics with M.L. Cummings  Engineering Systems, MIT Empirical Methods 1 and II (API-202A)  Make sure to do the A class  Kenedy School of Government, Harvard Harvard School of Education  Lots of Good APPLIED classes  Do PhD Level
  • 44. Qualitative Classes 21A.760J Qualitative Research Methods  Difficult to get into  Must have strong Grounded Theory Harvard School of Education MIT School of Architecture
  • 45. Methods Class 21A.861 Methods for Graduate Research in the Social Sciences Psychology 1901a - Methods of Behavioral Research  Harvard Psychology
  • 46. Questions and Case Studies Feel Free to Reach Out With Questions:  hedman@media.mit.edu