Research Methods 101, by Elliott Hedman

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Research Methods 101, by Elliott Hedman

  1. 1. Research Methods 101 By Elliott Hedman Part of Festival of Learning
  2. 2. Findings before research methods
  3. 3. Findings After Research Methods
  4. 4. Outline  Am I doing Human Research?  Getting Started  Conducting  Evaluation  Practicals  Questions/Case Studies
  5. 5. Warnings  I am not Traditional, I am Media Lab  I care a lot about inspiring design.  I work a lot with companies.  You will not learn the things I am about to tell you in any class. In fact, many, many people will disagree with me.  There is not one right way. The wrong way would be not caring.
  6. 6. Am I doing research? Art Research
  7. 7. Am I doing Research Mechanical/Engineering Research
  8. 8. Am I doing Research? Product Design
  9. 9. Am I doing Research? Human Research
  10. 10. Mixing Them Up
  11. 11. Getting Started Grounded Theory Community A Way To Observe
  12. 12. Grounded Theory Read the literature Talk to Major Players Expand the Wheel
  13. 13. Community Live with them Get outside the lab Copy previously done research
  14. 14. Ways to Observe How will I learn?
  15. 15. How to do AWESOME Research The Right Question Start Early Prototype Participatory Design The Lots of Data Problem
  16. 16. Choosing the Right Question What’s the big vision? What do you love doing? Play.
  17. 17. Start Early Space Allows Creativity Technology Overload Problem
  18. 18. Prototype Fail Early, Fail Often Make a New Prototype Every Day Myth of Rigor
  19. 19. Participatory Design The final judge is the people who care Communities will inspire you
  20. 20. Too Much Data Lots of Data is not a band-aid Different than learning as you go.
  21. 21. Evaluation The Dangers of Machine Learning The Dangers of Quantitative Methods The Dangers of Qualitative Methods
  22. 22. Machine Learning Machine Learning shows whether you can separate two parts of data. You need to know a lot of statistics to appropriately use this in research.
  23. 23. Quantitative Methods  Sampling  http://onlinestatbook.com/2/introduction/s ampling_demo.html
  24. 24. Quantitative Methods  Variability  http://onlinestatbook.com/2/summarizing_ distributions/spread_sim.html
  25. 25. Quantitative Methods  Correlations  http://onlinestatbook.com/2/describing_biv ariate_data/pearson_demo.html
  26. 26. Quantitative Methods  T-Test  Do the Means Differ?  Are people more self-aware working with a robot?
  27. 27. Quantitative Methods  Regression Analysis or ANOVA  Do the Means Differ taking into account X, Y, and Z.  Are people more self-aware working with a robot taking into account gender, personality type, and financial income?
  28. 28. Quantitative Methods  Correlations  When X changes, does Y change as well  Does the larger the robot correlate to the more self-aware a person is?
  29. 29. Quantitative Methods Warning!  P<0.05 - the means may be different  Does not equate to the differences are large or interesting  Most people already have an answer before they ask their question  Does not allow for discovery.
  30. 30. Quantitative Methods Warning! Part 2  Normal Distribution  Hidden Variables  Independent Samples  Proper Sample Size  Number of Tests  Transformations  Within or Across
  31. 31. Qualitative Methods  Tell People What you Really Learned  Open Ended – Let the world come in  Descriptive  Flexible
  32. 32. Qualitative Methods  Short Interviews / Surveys  Did you feel more self-aware after working with the robots?  Create biases  Acceptable in journal?
  33. 33.  Long-Interviews  1 to 1.5 hours  Open-Ended  Interpretation Difficult and Long
  34. 34.  Observational Methods  Fly on the Wall  See what people naturally do
  35. 35. Grounded Theory Qualitative Methods require strong grounded theory
  36. 36. Warnings Traditional Ethnography is near impossible to do in the Media Lab Interviews are more difficult to conduct correctly and take a longer time than statistics Cannot answer questions about how frequent an event occurs. Will it get accepted?
  37. 37. Warnings Part 2 Grounded Theory 1. Transcribe all the important interviews 2. Write field-notes about each of your interviews. 3. Go through all the transcriptions and highlight every time a theme occurs. 4. Relate findings to previous established theory about that theme. 5. Go back through all the notes again.
  38. 38. It’s Great to Fail! You are here to learn and try! But make sure you try!
  39. 39. Resources to Check Out
  40. 40. Quantitative Books  Cohen & Lea (2004). Essentials of Statistics for the Social and Behavioral Sciences. New Jersey:  Wiley & Kline (2009). Becoming a Behavioral Science Researcher: A Guide to Producing Research That Matters. New York: Guilford Press.  Lane, D., Lu, J., Peres, C &. Zitek, E (2008). Online Statistics: An Interactive Multimedia Course ofStudy. http://onlinestatbook.com/
  41. 41. Qualitative Books  Luker, Kristin. (2008). Salsa Dancing into the Social Sciences: Research in an age of info-glut  Emerson, Robert (1995). Writing Ethnographic Field Notes.
  42. 42. People  Statistics: Benj. Mako Hill  Qualitative: Karen Brennan, Tiffany Tseng  Industrial/Design Research: Elliott Hedman
  43. 43. Quantitative Classes  ANOVA statistics with M.L. Cummings  Engineering Systems, MIT  Empirical Methods 1 and II (API-202A)  Make sure to do the A class  Kenedy School of Government, Harvard  Harvard School of Education  Lots of Good APPLIED classes  Do PhD Level
  44. 44. Qualitative Classes  21A.760J Qualitative Research Methods  Difficult to get into  Must have strong Grounded Theory  Harvard School of Education  MIT School of Architecture
  45. 45. Methods Class  21A.861 Methods for Graduate Research in the Social Sciences  Psychology 1901a - Methods of Behavioral Research  Harvard Psychology
  46. 46. Questions and Case Studies  Feel Free to Reach Out With Questions:  hedman@media.mit.edu

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