Napoleon, Congress Of Vienna, Nationalism

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  • 1. I know, it’s a lot.
  • 2. Directory
    • Robespierre get chopped (1794)
    • Directory of 5 takes over – more conservative
    • Ruled with an assembly
  • 3. Women’s Rights after Revolution
    • Olympe de Gouges: Declaration of Rights of Women & Female Citizen (1791)
      • Sliced during Reign of Terror
    • Gain some rights: public schooling, land/family rights
    • Mary Wollstonecraft, English: fought for equal education rights
    • “ Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social distinctions may be based only on common utility.”
    • “ Woman is born free and remains equal to man in rights. Social distinctions may only be based on common utility”.
  • 4. Age of Napoleon
    • Born in Corsica (off Italy) 1769
    • Rose through the ranks fast
      • 1792: captain
      • 1794: brigadier general
      • 1795: saved National Convention from angry mob
      • 1796: commander of French army in Italy
      • 1797: defeat Austrians, national hero
      • 1798-99: attacks British through Egypt..doesn’t go well. Finds Rosetta Stone. Retreats.
  • 5. Naps.
    • Coup in 1799 brings a new Republic to France.
    • Three consuls…Napoleon one of them
      • Naps big influence
        • Legislature
        • Bureaucracy
        • Army
        • Foreign affairs
    • 1802: named consul for life
    • 1804: crowns self Emperor…
    • … back to monarchy in France.
  • 6. What’s it all about?
    • Why did the revolution happen in the first place?
      • Limit arbitrary government
    • How did it end?
      • Far more autocratic gov’t
      • As time progresses, Nap’s regime more dictatorial
  • 7. Napoleon’s Domestic Policy
    • Concordat:
      • Reestablishes Catholic church
      • Pope acknowledge Revolution
      • Not state religion, but religion of majority
      • Clergy paid by state (Protestants too)
  • 8. N’s.D.P.
    • Codified laws (before 300 different legal systems)
      • Just like who?
    • New:
      • Equality of citizens (except?  )
      • Choice of profession
      • Religious toleration
      • Abolition of serfdom/feudalism
      • Family law: more patriarchal
      • Women less equal than men
  • 9. Nap’s Military Strength
    • Hugely successful general, gained territory
    • Mistake: invades Russia 1812
      • (600,000 went in, only 40,000 came out)
    • 1814: exiled to Elba
    • 1815: comes back to France
    • 1815: Loss to British (Duke of Wellington) at Waterloo
    • 1815: Exile to Saint Helena
    • 1821: Dies
  • 10. Nap’s Empire
  • 11. Europe after Congress of Vienna
  • 12. Congress of Vienna
    • European powers meet (1815)
      • Led by Austrian, Metternich
      • Purpose: restore order after fall of Napoleonic France and create balance of power
      • Monarchy restored: Louis XVIII
      • Territory gained by Nap, given back
      • Ushers in an era of [relative] peace in Europe for 100 years.
  • 13. Nationalism
    • Right to have an independent political rule based on shared history and common future
    • What do people have in common?
      • Language, customs, traditions, values, religion
  • 14. Types of Nationalism
    • Cultural: shared culture… not necessarily voluntary
    • Political: seek independence to protect community
    • Ethnic: shared ethnicity brings a group together regardless of political border
    • Religious: shared religion…(same as above)
    • Diaspora: ethnic/religious group based on shared identity. Separated from historical homeland, but share a common ethnicity or religion
      • Example?
  • 15. Other Revolutions
    • Mexico: Fr. Hidalgo leads. Assassinated, 1811. “Father of Mexico”
    • Haiti: only slave state. Rich French colony. L’Ouverture leads.
    • South America: fight Spain, gain independence. Simon Bolivar. Venezuela, Columbia, Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia