Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
The faith of Christianity spread rapidly and transformed the Roman Empire. It was but one of many religions, but quickly became organized and popular among the wealthy and influential. The belief in the birth of Jesus Christ in Bethlehem, a district of Rome, begins the Roman Calendar as “year one,” though the actual date is disputed.
Week6 roman middleages_part2
Hellenistic Period <ul><li>323 BCE – 146 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Sculptures are far more realistic – rather than ideal – portraits assume greater importance </li></ul><ul><li>Drama and emotion – often appear theatrical, excessive </li></ul><ul><li>Brought large scale into architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Actively exported Greek culture: politics, law, literature, philosophy, religion, and art. </li></ul>
Alexander the Great <ul><li>In 334 BCE, at the age of 20, Alexander launches the war that would lead to the greatest territorial conquests in history </li></ul><ul><li>Spread Greek and Hellenistic ideas over Persia, Asia Minor (Turkey), Egypt, Syria, India, Afganistan </li></ul><ul><li>Died at 33. </li></ul>
Corinthian pilasters on a Buddhist stupa of green schist at Mingora, in the Upper Swat Valley, Pakistan. 2 nd Century CE Gandhara Buddha. 1st-2nd century CE. Herculean depiction of Vajrapani (right), as the protector of the Buddha, 2nd century CE Gandhara, British Museum.
Three goddesses (Hestia, Dione, and Aphrodite?), from the east pediment of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 438–432 BCE. Marble, greatest height approx. 4’ 5”. British Museum, London.
Dying Gaul. Roman marble copy after a bronze original from Pergamon, Turkey, ca. 230–220 BCE, approx. 3’ 1/2” high. Museo Capitolino, Rome.
Sleeping satyr (Barberini Faun), from Rome, Italy, ca. 230–200 BCE. Marble, approx. 7’ 1” high. Glyptothek, Munich.
Michelangelo Rebellious Slave 1513-16 Marble Height 215 cm (7 ft) Musée du Louvre, Paris
ANTONIO CANOVA, Pauline Borghese as Venus, 1808. Marble, life-size. Galleria Borghese, Rome.
Bronze statuette of a veiled and masked dancer , Greek, 3 rd -2 nd Century BC From Alexandria, Egypt
Auguste Rodin, 1902 “The Boxer,” Roman bronze copy of Greek sculpture by Apollonius the Athenian, 1st century BCE
Altar to Zeus in the Pergamon Museum, Berlin. – 2 nd Century BCE
The Nazi-era architect Albert Speer used the Pergamon Altar as the model for the Zeppelintribüne, 1934-37
Laocoön and his sons, from Rome, Italy, early first century CE Marble, approx. 7’ 10 1/2” high. Vatican Museums, Rome.
Portrait of Homer. Marble, Roman copy after a Greek Hellenistic original, 1st to 2nd century AD. From Baiae, Campania. Dimensions H. 57.5 cm (22 ½ in.)
The Winged Victory of Samothrace, also called the Nike of Samothrace, is a third century B.C. marble sculpture of the Greek goddess Nike (Victory).
Hermes and the Infant Dionysos , 4 th Century BC
The greek god Hermes (Mercurius for the Romans) in the Pio-Clementine Museum is a 1st century Roman copy of the Greek 4th century BCE original from the Praxiteles school.
Venus de Milo Parian marble, h 2.02 m (6 1/2 ft) Found at Milo 130-120 BC
Salvador Dali, 1936, Venus de Milo with Drawers
Greek to Roman <ul><li>Roman era beginning 510 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Hellenistic forms are displaced by realism that portrays children and the aging and ordinary citizens </li></ul>Relief portrait head of a man, c.1st Century bce, marble, 9 5/8" height. Double portrait, "Gratidia and Gratidius Libanus," c.1st Century bce, marble with traces of paint, 23 3/4" height.
<ul><li>Rome came of age during the Hellenistic Period. </li></ul><ul><li>The Romans were great admirers of Greek achievements in the arts. </li></ul><ul><li>Romans made realistic portrayals of individuals as opposed to idealized portrayals of generic people. </li></ul>
Roman Contributions to Art <ul><li>Architectural and Engineering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concrete </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Painting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Landscapes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illusionism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Realistic/individual portraits </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>“With the Greeks there’s always and aesthetic element. I prefer the virile realism of Rome which doesn’t embellish. The truthfulness of Roman art – it’s like their buildings, but all the more beautiful in their genuine simplicity.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pablo Picasso </li></ul></ul>
Portrait of Caracalla, ca. 211–217 CE. Marble, approx. 1’ 2” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
Head of a Patrician, Roman, Republic period - 1 st century BC
Statue of an old market woman, Early Imperial, Julio-Claudian, 1st century A.D. Roman
Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, 164-166 BCE, Bronze
"Nothing can last forever. Once the sun has shone brightly, it sets in the ocean. The moon wanes after it is full. Thus the ferocity of love often becomes a gentle breeze." ~written in Latin verse on the wall of a house in Pompeii
Fayum (or Fayoum) mummy portrait of a young woman with a gilded wreath Encaustic on wood Ancient Egypt, Roman Period A.D. 120-140
Roman statue of Aphrodite – washed up on the coast of Israel on December 14, 2010 after a storm – dating from between 1,700 and 2,000 years ago
Key Terms: Icon Isometric Perspective Mosaic Illumination Basilica Cross Plan Central Plan Key Movements: Byzantine Romanesque Gothic Chapter Fifteen Christianity and Formation of Europe
Christianity and the Formation of Europe <ul><li>Roman Empire was overextended, internally weakened and increasingly invaded – it would soon disintegrate </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity quickly becomes one of the most popular and well organized religions in the late Roman Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christianity under periods of persecution and later recognition (313) </li></ul></ul>
The Good Shepherd, the story of Jonah, and orants, painted ceiling of a cubiculum in the Catacomb of Saints Peter and Marcellinus, Rome, Italy, early fourth century.
Christ as Sol Invictus, detail of a vault mosaic in the Mausoleum of the Julii, Rome, Italy, late third century. Apollo / Helios, from a Roman floor mosaic. Borrowed iconography of the Greek and Roman gods Apollo and Dionysus
Calf Bearer (Moschophoros) , dedicated by Rhonbos on the Acropolis, Athens, ca. 560 B.C. Marble, restored height approx. 5' 5". Jesus as the Good Shepherd. Ceiling - S. Callisto catacomb. - mid 3rd century A.D.
Portraits of the four tetrarchs, from Constantinople, ca. 305 CE. Porphyry, approx. 4’ 3” high. Saint Mark’s, Venice.
Portrait of Constantine, from the Basilica Nova, Rome, Italy, ca. 315–330 CE. Marble, approx. 8’ 6” high. Palazzo dei Conservatori, Rome. A symbol of his continuing presence in Rome after moving the administration to Constantinople His features are exaggerated, especially the geometrical eyes, and his hair is abstracted. This is a precursor to Byzantine art.
Reconstruction drawing of the Basilica Nova (Basilica of Constantine), Rome, Italy, ca. 306–312 CE.
Aula Palatina, Trier, Germany, early fourth century CE (interior). <ul><li>While most Greek, Roman, and Egyptian temples were designed to be viewed from the exterior as dwelling places for the gods- Christianity emphasized congregational worship. </li></ul><ul><li>They adopted a Roman meeting-hall plan called a basilica , which is a long, rectangular structure. </li></ul>
Restored view (a), plan (b), and section (c) of Old Saint Peter’s, Rome, Italy, begun ca. 320. (The restoration of the forecourt is conjectural.) They added a transept , an elongated rectangle, to the apse as a focal point. This constructed the cross plan Demolished in 1506
Christ before Pilate, folio 8 verso of the Rossano Gospels, early sixth century. Tempera on purple vellum, approx. 11” X 10 1/4”. Diocesan Museum, Archepiscopal Palace, Rossano.
The Annunciation to the Shepherds, from the Lectionary of Henry II (1002-1014 CE), 17x13” <ul><li>Hierarchical scale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Angels, Humans, Animals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drapery falls at harsh, unnatural angles </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols in the scene take precedence over realism/truth </li></ul>
Byzantine Art <ul><li>Based on less naturalistic Eastern styles. </li></ul><ul><li>It centered on flattened, linear qualities and elaborate materials. </li></ul><ul><li>They emphasized the heavenly qualities as opposed to everyday qualities. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Figures appear weightless and area placed in undefined space </li></ul></ul>
Hagia Sophia – 532-537 – dome rises 183 feet above the floor Converted to a mosque in 15 th Century
Aerial view of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy, 526–547. Centrally planned, with a major vertical axis/emphasis
Plan of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy, 526–547 .
Christ as the Good Shepherd, mosaic from the entrance wall of the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, Italy, ca. 425.
Theodora and attendants, mosaic from the south wall of the apse, San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy, ca. 547.
Portrait of a husband and wife, wall painting from House VII,2,6, Pompeii, Italy, ca. 70–79 CE. Approx. 1’ 11” x 1’ 8 1/2”. Museo Nazionale, Naples.
Pantokrator, Theotokos and Child, angels, and saints, apse mosaic in the cathedral at Monreale, Italy, ca. 1180–1190. Note the position and authority of the deity Pantokrator = “Ruler of All” Emphasizes the divine, awe-inspiring majesty of Christ as opposed to his gentle, approachable incarnation as Jesus seen in catacomb murals
Interior of Saint Mark’s (view facing east), Venice, Italy, begun 1063. By de-emphasizing the roundness and weight of the human form – artists are expressing the otherworldliness or holiness of these figures floating in a Byzantine vision of heavenly splendor
The Middle Ages – 476-15 th Century <ul><li>Sack of Rome – 410 AD </li></ul><ul><li>Early Middle Ages Ca. 600-800 </li></ul><ul><li>Middle ages last roughly 5 th Century – 15 th Century </li></ul><ul><li>Roman Empire had broken down </li></ul><ul><li>Age of widespread violence, illiteracy, disease and superstition </li></ul><ul><li>Urban populations decline </li></ul><ul><li>The first crusade -1095 </li></ul><ul><li>1347-1350 – Black Plague kills 30-60% of Europe’s population </li></ul>
Purse cover, from the Sutton Hoo ship burial in Suffolk, England, ca. 625. Gold, glass, and enamel cloisonné with garnets and emeralds, 7 1/2” long. British Museum, London. Massive influx of Germanic peoples – mosrly nomadic tribes
Monks copied and illuminated/decorated pages of Scripture and other writings with infinite detail. X-P page From the Lindisfarne Gospel Book
Equestrian portrait of Charlemagne or Charles the Bald, from Metz, France, ninth century. Bronze, originally gilt, 9 1/2” high. Louvre, Paris. Holy Roman Emperor -crowned politically as well as spiritually
Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, from Rome, Italy, ca. 175 CE. Bronze, approx. 11’ 6” high. Musei Capitolini, Rome.
High Middle Ages <ul><li>Most of the great cathedrals of Europe were built during this time </li></ul><ul><li>Ca. 800-15 th Century (Renaissance) </li></ul><ul><li>The Crusades – 1095-1270 </li></ul><ul><li>The Magna Carta – 1215 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basis for English constitutional law </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Black Plague – 1348-1349 </li></ul>
Battle of Hastings, detail of the Bayeux Tapestry, from Bayeux Cathedral, Bayeux, France, ca. 1070–1080. Embroidered wool on linen, 1’ 8” high (entire length of fabric 229’ 8”). Centre Guillaume le Conquérant, Bayeux. This is one of 72 episodes depicting the Norman invasion. Note the abstracted flattening and use of isometric perspective. The entire piece is like a long picture book, 20 inches high and 231 feet long, that tells the story of the conquest of England by William of Normandy in 1066.
<ul><li>Feudalism </li></ul><ul><li>Drawn from ancient Roman styles. </li></ul><ul><li>Romanesque architecture is defined by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overall massiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thick stone walls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Round Arches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barrel-vaulted stone ceilings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crusades and Pilgrimages </li></ul>The Romanesque Period (1050 to 1200 C.E.)
Vezelay, exterior tympanum (Mission of the Apostles) <ul><li>Sculpture used to teach religion to people since most could not read. </li></ul><ul><li>Artists used other art rather than nature for models – figures appear to be dolls or marionettes </li></ul><ul><li>Realism is not the goal – conveying a spiritual message is </li></ul>
Nave elevations of four French Gothic cathedrals at the same scale (after Louis Grodecki): (a) Laon, (b) Paris, (c) Chartres, (d) Amiens.
Gothic Style <ul><li>The Gothic architectural style is an exaggerated form of Romanesque with ornate, linear, vertical elements. It is characterized by: </li></ul><ul><li>- Intricate decorative detail </li></ul><ul><li>- Higher and more pointed peaks </li></ul><ul><li>- Ribbed vaulting </li></ul><ul><li>- Flying buttresses </li></ul><ul><li>- Stained glass windows </li></ul><ul><li>Revival of Classicism </li></ul>
Aerial view of Chartres Cathedral (from the northwest), Chartres, France, begun 1134; rebuilt after 1194.
First tower built between 1134 and 1150 – Romanesque Second tower built between 1142 and 1160 - Gothic
Plan of Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, as rebuilt after 1194 (after Paul Frankl).
Denver’s Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception
Old Testament kings and queens, jamb statues, central doorway of Royal Portal, Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, ca. 1145–1155. Romanesque style can be seen in the elongated and flattened bodies of these figures created to embellish architecture
Chartres Cathedral, 13 th Century <ul><li>Gothic door jambs from the south transept on the right are naturalistic, imply movement, and were sculpted to show the anatomy underlying the fabric. </li></ul><ul><li>They are more in the round, almost appearing to be ready to step away from the column they are attached to. </li></ul>
Saints Martin, Jerome, and Gregory, jamb statues, Porch of the Confessors (right doorway), south transept, Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, ca. 1220–1230.
Visitation, jamb statues of central doorway, west facade, Reims Cathedral, Reims, France, ca. 1230. Contrapposto Drapery articulates the bodies underneath
Virgin and Child and angels (Notre Dame de la Belle Verrière), window in the choir of Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, ca. 1170, with 13th century side panels. Stained glass, 16’ X 7’ X 8”. Like the gold of Byzantine depictions the gemlike colors of stained glass represent a medieval vision of heavenly splendor
Rose window and lancets, north transept, Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, ca. 1220. Stained glass, rose window approx. 43’ in diameter.
Gerhard Richter 4096 Colours 1974 254 cm X 254 cm Enamel on canvas
Gerhard Richter, window for Cologne Cathedral in Germany – August 2007
Blanche of Castile, Louis IX, and two monks, dedication page (folio 8 recto) of a moralized Bible, from Paris, France, 1226–1234. Ink, tempera, and gold leaf on vellum, 1’ 3” X 10 1/2”. Pierpont Morgan Library, New York.
CIMABUE, Madonna Enthroned with Angels and Prophets, ca. 1280–1290. Tempera on wood, 12’ 7” x 7’ 4”. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence.
Duccio, Christ Entering Jerusalem , detail of Maesta Alter, 1308-11, Tempra on Panel, 40x21” By the early 1600’s we begin to see a break with the Middle Ages art styles in favor of: - Naturalistic spatial techniques - Realistic proportion - Depiction of movement Two artists very influential in making this transition, which is considered a precursor to the Renaissance style, are Duccio and Giotto.
Fresco wall painting in a cubiculum (bedroom) from the Villa of P. Fannius Synistor at Boscoreale , ca. 40–30 b.c.; Late Republican Roman
DUCCIO DI BUONINSEGNA, Betrayal of Jesus, detail from the back of the Maestà altarpiece, from the Siena Cathedral, Siena, Italy, 1309–1311. Tempera on wood, detail approx. 1’ 10 1/2” x 3’ 4”. Museo dell’Opera del Duomo, Siena.
GIOTTO DI BONDONE, Lamentation, Arena Chapel, Padua, Italy, ca. 1305. Fresco, 6’ 6 3/4” x 6’ 3/4”.
Towards the Renaissance <ul><li>From </li></ul><ul><li>Death </li></ul><ul><li>Famine/malnutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Plague/disease </li></ul><ul><li>Illiteracy, superstition </li></ul><ul><li>Limited choices </li></ul><ul><li>To </li></ul><ul><li>Longer life expectancy </li></ul><ul><li>Improved nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Better health/living conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy and education </li></ul><ul><li>Personal choice </li></ul>