Dada: <ul><li>circa 1915-1922. </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by a spirit of anarchic revolt against traditional values – often called “Anti-Art” </li></ul><ul><li>Many Dadaists believed that the 'reason' and 'logic' of bourgeois capitalist society had led people into war. </li></ul><ul><li>Arose from a mood of disillusionment brought on by World War I </li></ul><ul><li>Influential in questioning traditional concepts and methods, setting the stage for future artistic experimentation. </li></ul><ul><li>The movement influenced later styles and groups including Surrealism, Pop Art, and Punk. </li></ul>
Hugo Ball 1886-1927 <ul><li>It is necessary for me to drop all respect for tradition, opinion, and judgment. It is necessary for me to erase the rambling text that others have written. </li></ul><ul><li>Nature is neither beautiful nor ugly, neither good nor bad. It is fantastic, monstrous, and infinitely unrestrained. It knows no reason, but it listens to reason when it meets with resistance. Nature wants to exist and develop, that is all. Being in harmony with nature is the same as being in harmony with madness. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ neither good nor bad” - pluralism </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Group of Dadaist form around the Cafe Voltaire in Zurich. Basically a gathering of people who disdained war. </li></ul><ul><li>As a movement Dada protested war and senseless slaughter. </li></ul><ul><li>In Tristan Tzara’s manifesto he called for the destruction of good manners, an end to logic, and equates confusion with enlightenment </li></ul>
JEAN ARP, Collage Arranged According to the Laws of Chance, 1916–1917. Torn and pasted paper, 1’ 7 1/8” x 1’ 1 5/8”.
DADA <ul><li>“ Dada wished to destroy the hoaxes of reason and to discover an unreasoned order.” Jean Arp </li></ul><ul><li>“ The beginnings of Dada were not the beinnings of art, but of disgust” – Tristan Tzara </li></ul>
3 Standard Stoppages (3 stoppages étalon), one at a time from a height of 1 meter, he dropped three 1-meter lengths of thread onto a prepared canvases. They landed in three random undulating positions. He varnished them into place on the blue-black canvas strips and attached them to glass. Then he cut three wood slats into the shapes of the curved strings, and put all the pieces into a croquet box.
Mark Tansey, Triumph of the New York School, 1984 European vs New York Modern Art Picasso, Matisse, DuChamp vs Pollock, Rothko and Greenberg
Marcel DuChamp “ I was interested in ideas – not merely in visual products”
Readymades <ul><li>To break rules and standards of artistic tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Discards fundamental values of beauty and craftsmanship </li></ul>
MARCEL DUCHAMP, Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2, 1912. Oil on canvas, approx. 4’ 10 “x 2’ 11”. Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia
MARCEL DUCHAMP, Fountain, (second version), 1950 (original version produced 1917). Ready-made glazed sanitary china with black paint, 12” high.
<ul><li>Pierre Pinoncelli </li></ul><ul><li>The man who smashed "The Fountain" by Marcel Duchamp, twice. </li></ul><ul><li>1993: French artist Pierre Pinoncelli urinates into one of these replicas before cracking it with a hammer. </li></ul><ul><li>Again in 2006 at the Pompidou in Paris. </li></ul><ul><li>For him, in reissuing and reproducing Fountain —in merchandising and franchising it—Duchamp had betrayed it. (Rembrandt as an ironing board) </li></ul>
Paul McCarthy's sculpture "Complex Shit" (2008) Susan Robb, "DIGESTER," Her "DIGESTER" is six 55-gallon drums designed to extract methane from human waste to make energy. The waste in question is Lawrimore's. William Delvoye, Cloaca Machines, 2004
Maurizio Cattelan <ul><li>Invited in 1996 to participate in the group show ‘Crap Shoot’ in De Appel, Amsterdam, Cattelan stole the entire contents of the nearby Galerie Bloom, packed the art works, fax machines and filing cabinets in plastic bags and cardboard boxes and then exhibited them as his own work under the title Another Fucking Ready-made. </li></ul>
<ul><li>In 1979 in Sherrie Levine rephotographed Walker Evans' photographs from the exhibition catalog "First and Last." Her post-modern assertion that one could rephotograph an image and create something new in the process, critiques the modernist notion of originality </li></ul>
Bicycle Wheel was the first of a class of objects that Duchamp called his "readymades." He created twenty-one of them, all between 1915 and 1923. The readymades are a varied collection of items, but there are several ideas that unite them. The readymades are experiments in provocation, the products of a conscious effort to break every rule of the artistic tradition. in order to create a new kind of art -- one that engages the mind instead of the eye, in ways that provoke the observer to participate and think. Picasso Bull’s Head 1943
In 1913, Marcel Duchamp took found objects from the streets and placed them in museums. 96 years later, if Duchamp were alive, he may want to do the very opposite. Ji Lee, 2009
Marcel Duchamp explains how to make a readymade: Take a Rembrandt. Iron on it.
MAN RAY, Cadeau (Gift), ca. 1958 (replica of 1921 original). Painted flatiron with row of 13 tacks with heads glued to the bottom, 6 1/8” high, 3 5/8” wide, 4 1/2” deep.
Marcel DuChamp, “L.H.O.O.Q.”, 1919 The title when pronounced in French, puns the frase "Elle a chaud au cul", translating colloquially into "She has a hot ass".
Rrose Sélavy (Marcel Duchamp). 1921. Photograph by Man Ray. Francesco Vezzoli’s GREED exhibition at the Gagosian Gallery in Rome
The Monte Carlo Bond, 1924 (issued as a limited edition of thirty copies) was to be sold at five hundred francs with a guarantee of twenty percent interest redeemable in three years. Wanted/ $2000 Reward (1923) the criminal in question is guilty of gambling by going through the motions of commercial transactions without actually engaging in them.
HANNAH HÖCH, Cut with the Kitchen Knife Dada through the Last Weimar Beer Belly Cultural Epoch of Germany, 1919–1920. Photomontage, 3’ 9” x 2’ 11 1/2”. Neue Nationalgalerie, Staatliche Museen, Berlin.
Raoul Hausmann 1886-1971 : The Art Critic Der Kunstkritiker 1919-1920 Photomontage and collage 12 3/8 x 9 7/8 in. Tate Gallery, London
KURT SCHWITTERS, Merz 19, 1920. Paper collage, approx. 7 1/4” x 5 7/8”. Yale University Art Gallery
RICHARD HAMILTON, Just What Is It That Makes Today’s Homes So Different, So Appealing?, 1956. Collage, 10 1/4” x 9 3/4”. Kunsthalle Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
Robert Rauschenberg Revolver, 1967 Layers of media images, mostly found in the press, are expanded with the concept of movement and rotation. The work consists of prints on five round sheets of plexiglass in a metal case, set in motion by electric motors and a control unit that allows to address each single circle of images.
Chocolate Grinder #2 1914 Mixed media, oil on canvas
MARCEL DUCHAMP, The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even (The Large Glass), 1915-23. Oil, lead, wire, foil, dust, and varnish on glass, 9’ 1 1/2” x 5’ 9 1/8”.
Large Glass <ul><li>1915-1923 </li></ul><ul><li>“ a mechanistic and cynical interpretation of the phenomenon of love” </li></ul><ul><li>Man Ray, “Dust Breeding”, 1920 </li></ul>
Marcel Duchamp (French, 1887–1968) Tu m' , 1918 Oil on canvas, with bottle brush, three safety pins, and one bolt, 27 1/2 x 119 5/16 in. (69.8 x 303 cm)
Marcel Duchamp, Sixteen Miles of String , 1942 (part of his installation for the First Papers of Surrealism exhibition, NY) Eva Hesse's "Untitled (Rope Piece)" (1970)
Surrealism <ul><li>Surrealists goal of self-knowledge – through automatism and dream interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Great interest in psychological theories and analysis – Freud (subconscious) and Jung (archetypes) </li></ul><ul><li>Two main strains of Surrealism –the realistic style of Dali and Magritte and more abstract style of Miro and Klee </li></ul>
Surrealism Timeline <ul><li>1924 – Surrealist Movement begins </li></ul><ul><li>1924 – Breton writes the first Surrealist Manifesto </li></ul><ul><li>1925 – First issue of the Surrealist newspaper, La Révolution Surréaliste, is published </li></ul><ul><li>1925 – Ernst’s first Surrealist paintings were exhibited in Paris </li></ul><ul><li>1926 – Magritte painted his first Surrealist work “Le Jockey Perdu” </li></ul><ul><li>1929 – Dali made first Surrealist film Un Chien Andalou </li></ul><ul><li>1929 – Breton writes the second Surrealist Manifesto </li></ul><ul><li>1938 – International Exhibition of Surrealism is held in Paris </li></ul><ul><li>1941 – Surrealist Movement ends </li></ul>
Francis Picabia, Machine Turn Quickly, 1916, Tempera on Paper, 49x32 cm
Francis Picabia, Hera , c. 1929, oil on cardboard, 105 × 75 cm
Francis Picabia 'Femmes au Bull-Dog' 1940-1942.
SALVADOR DALÍ, The Persistence of Memory, 1931. Oil on canvas, 9 1/2” x 1’ 1”.