A mark-making process used to produce a line-based composition
Pencil Metalpoint Charcoal Chalk and Crayon
Pen and Ink Brush and Ink
Hall of the Bulls (left wall), Lascaux, Dordogne, France, ca. 15,000–13,000 BCE. Largest bull approx. 11’ 6” long.
Spotted horses and negative hand imprints, wall painting in the cave at Pech-Merle, Lot, France, ca. 22,000 BCE. Approx. 11’ 2” long.
paintings made by Tehuelches natives. 13,000 to 9,500 Years ago Cueva de las Manos
Maarten Vanden Eynde Contemporary Cavedrawings, Los Angeles, 2007
(AD 1 to AD 1275)
Ute Rock Art, carved by Native Americans around 1650 to 1850 AD
Banksy, “early man venturing towards the out-of-town hunting grounds”
Leonardo Da Vinci Study of horses c. 1490 Silverpoint on prepared paper, 250 x 187 mm Royal Library, Windsor
Leonardo da Vinci Angel for the Madonaa of the Rocks 1483-85, Metalpoint with white chalk
Glexis Novoa, Safe and Quiet, 2002, Graphite on Wall and Canvas
Matthew Ritchie, Eschaton , 2002, Vinyl decal on wall, approx. 38x72 feet
Vik Muniz, Cathedral de Leon , from the series, “Pictures of Chocolate”, 2003, Cibachrome Photograph, 40x30” Vik Muniz, from the series “Pictures of Earthworks”, 2002, Toned Gelatin Silver Print, 40x50”
Robin Rhode, He Got Game , 2001
Nature has always been recorded by artists, from pre-historic cave paintings to 20th century landscape photography. I too wanted to make nature the subject of my work, but in new ways. I started working outside using natural materials like grass and water, and this evolved into the idea of making a sculpture by walking.
Richard Long, A Line Made by Walking England, 1967
ENCAUSTIC FRESCO TEMPERA OIL WATERCOLOR GOUACHE ACRYLIC BLURRING THE BOUNDARIES
Wax + Pigment
Wet Plaster + Pigment
Oil + Pigment
Transparent Layers of Paint
Encaustic Fayum (or Fayoum) mummy portrait of a young woman with a gilded wreath Encaustic on wood Ancient Egypt, Roman Period A.D. 120-140
Tony Scherman, Kurt C, series: The Junkies , encaustic on canvas , 60" x 72" , 2007-08
Fresco secco – dry fresco – requires binder
Buon fresco – paint made of pigment and water is appliet to wet lime plaster.
Fowling scene, from the tomb of Nebamun, Thebes, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII, ca. 1400–1350 BCE. Fresco on dry plaster, approx. 2’ 8” high. British Museum, London.
LEONARDO DA VINCI, Last Supper (uncleaned), ca. 1495–1498. Fresco (oil and tempera on plaster), 29’ 10” x 13’ 9”. Refectory, Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan.
Interior of the Sistine Chapel (view facing east), Vatican City, Rome, Italy, built 1473.
MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1508–1512. Fresco, approx. 128’ x 45’.
DIEGO RIVERA, Ancient Mexico, from the History of Mexico fresco murals, National Palace, Mexico City, 1929–1935. Fresco.
GIOTTO DI BONDONE, Madonna Enthroned, ca. 1310. Tempera on wood, 10’ 8” x 6’ 8”. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence.
Methods of Applying Paint
Grisaille – (gree-Zye) “gray” –colored glazes over a monochrome under-painting (similar to hand coloring a black and white photo)
Glazing – thin, transparent layers of paint
Alla Prima – “all in one go” – one sitting
Impasto – thick paint (“paste”)
John Singer Sargent, Claude Monet Painting in a Garden Near Giverny , 1885, Oil on canvas 21 1/4 x 25 1/2 in.
ALBRECHT DÜRER, The Great Piece of Turf, 1503. Watercolor, approx. 1’ 4” x 1’ 1/2”. Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna.
Walton Ford, “Falling Bough”, 2002 Watercolor, gouache, ink and pencil on paper, 60 3/4 x 119 1/2" Courtesy Paul Kasmin Gallery, New York
Relief Intaglio Lithography Screen Print/Stencil
THE COMPUTER AND PRINTMAKING
ALBRECHT DÜRER, The Fall of Man (Adam and Eve), 1504. Engraving, approx. 9 7/8” x 7 5/8”. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
REMBRANDT VAN RIJN, Christ with the Sick around Him, Receiving the Children (Hundred Guilder Print), ca. 1649. Etching, approx. 11” x 1’ 3 1/4”. Pierpont Morgan Library, New York.
FRANCISCO GOYA, The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters, from Los Caprichos, ca. 1798. Etching and aquatint, 8 1/2” x 6”. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (gift of M. Knoedler & Co., 1918).
Jake and Dinos CHAPMAN “Great Deeds Against the Dead” 1994 Mixed media 277 x 244 x 152.5 cm
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec La Goulue , 1891.
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Ambassadeurs: Aristide Bruant 1892.
Jasper Johns Two Maps II , 1966 Lithograph printed on white Japan, laid down on black Fabriano 25 3/8 x 20 1/4 inches Signed, dated, annotated and numbered in white crayon Edition 30
Andy Warhol, "Green Car Crash (Green Car Burning 1)" 1963, synthetic polymer, silkscreen ink and acrylic on linen
Andy Warhol Orange Disaster , 1963 silkscreen 30 1/6" x 30 1/8"
The Still Camera and Its Beginnings
Photography and Art
The Origins of Motion Pictures
Artists and Film
Camera Obscuras by Abelardo Morell
Johannes Vermeer, Woman with a Lute near a Window Year: early 1660s 51.4 x 45.7 cm
Joseph Nicéphore Niépce , 1826
Louis Daguerre View of the Boulevard du Temple, 1839
LOUIS-JACQUES-MANDÉ DAGUERRE, Still Life in Studio, 1837. Daguerreotype.
JOSIAH JOHNSON HAWES and ALBERT SANDS SOUTHWORTH, Early Operation under Ether, Massachusetts General Hospital, ca. 1847. Daguerreotype.
Daguerreotype of Emily Dickinson, c. 1846-47
Chuck Close, Kate, 2003 ,Daguerrotype, 8 1/2 x 6 1/2 in.
Daguerreotype = positive image
Calotype = paper negative
Collodian – Glass Negative
1888 – Eastman (Kodak)
Photo exposure times decrease through photo history.
Tintypes - a very underexposed image is produced on a collodion photographic emulsion on a dark metal backing; thus viewed the image appears as a positive.
1842, Cyanotype Process
EADWEARD MUYBRIDGE, Horse Galloping, 1878. Collotype print. George Eastman House, Rochester, New York.
EUGÈNE DURIEU and EUGÈNE DELACROIX, Draped Model (back view), ca. 1854. Albumen print, 7 5/ 16” x 5 1/8”. J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles.
JULIA MARGARET CAMERON, Ophelia, Study no. 2, 1867. Albumen print, 1' 11" x 10 2/3". George Eastman House, Rochester, New York.
TIMOTHY O’SULLIVAN, A Harvest of Death, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 1863. Negative by Timothy O’Sullivan. Original print by ALEXANDER GARDNER, 6 3/8" x 8 3/4". The New York Public Library
Terminal, 1892. Alfred Stieglitz .
"The Steerage" 1907 photograph by Alfred Stieglitz.
Edward Steichen, 1905
Edward Steichen, 1904
Ansel Adams, “Aspens, Dawn, Autumn, Dolores River Canyon, Colorado”, 1937
Farm Security Administration (FSA) - 1935-1944
Internet and Conceptual Art Mike Parr's Aussie, Aussie, Aussie, Oi, Oi, Oi , 2003. “ democratic torture”
METHODS AND MATERIALS OF SCULPTURE
Modeling Casting Carving Assembling
Expanded Field - Installation
Warrior Vase, from Mycenae, Greece, ca. 1200 BCE. Approx. 1’ 4” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
Involves a mold of some kind – into which liquid or semi-liquid material is poured and allowed to harden
Rachel Whitread, House, 1993. Whiteread sprayed concrete on the inside of all the walls of a Victorian era house in a block that was to be torn down to make space for a public park. The walls were then removed, leaving just the shell of the house, or the shell of the negative space formerly created by the walls.
Marc Quinn Self 82" by 25" by 25" blood/stainless steel, Perspex, refrigeration equipment 1991
“Good art is an object or a situation that allows you to feel or think something new.” - Marc Quinn
Processional frieze (detail) on the terrace of the royal audience hall (apadana), Persepolis, Iran, ca. 521–465 BCE.
GIOVANNI PISANO, The Annunciation and the Nativity, detail of the pulpit of Sant’Andrea, Pistoia, Italy, 1297–1301. Marble relief, approx. 2’ 10” x 3’ 4”.
ANTONIO CANOVA, Pauline Borghese as Venus, 1808. Marble, life-size. Galleria Borghese, Rome.
Janine Antoni. Gnaw (detail) , 1992.
Giuseppe Penone Versailles Cedar, 2002-03, Cedar Wood, 600x170 cm
Individual pieces or segments or objects are brought together to form a sculpture
David Smith, Cubi XIX, 1964. Stainless steel.
Damien Hirst, For the Love of God , 2008
Sculpture and the Expanded Field
Lick and Lather«, 1993 by Janine Antoni. 14 portrait busts, cast of a model of the artist herself and mounted on look-a-like ancient classical pedestals. Seven statues were cast in white soap, and the other seven in brown chocolate, and then reshaped by the rather subjective acts which engaged her tongue passing over, and the frothing up of bubbles, fizz, effervesce…
Downscaled and Overthrown«, 2008 by Shahryar Nashat. "Public Figures" 1998-1999 Installation view at Metrotech Center Commons, Brooklyn, New York Fiberglass/resin, steel pipes, pipe fittings, 10 x 7 x 9 feet
Unpainted Sculpture Charles Ray 1997 fiberglass, paint
Damián Ortega, 2002
Do-Ho Suh"Seoul Home/L.A. Home/New York Home/Baltimore Home/London Home/Seattle Home“, 1999, Silk, 149 x 240 x 240 inches
Katharina Grosse, 2008
RICHARD SERRA, Tilted Arc, 1981. Cor-Ten steel, 12’ x 120’ x 2 1/2”. Installed Federal Plaza, New York City by the General Services Administration, Washington D.C. Removed by the U.S. Government 1989.