Urban block MODEL OF CITY DEVELOPMENT PLANNING 2008 Odessa
URBAN STUDIO Tel-Aviv MASTER PLAN ODESSA MODEL OF CITY DEVELOPMENT PLANNING
URBAN STUDIO Tel-Aviv-Odessa DEFINITION OF UNITS OF URBAN-hearted STRUCTURE OF THE CITY I… I AND MY SPACE … I AND MY CITY…
FORMS OF THE TYPOLOGY Ancient house Mansion house Modern house House in Jaffa Classical house
FORMS OF THE TYPOLOGY House in Jaffa Urban fabric Elevation Section Implantation This typology is grouped and implanted in an urban environment. Use/associated activity Dating Orientation Ground surface covered Surface area of housing Number of floors Number of homes Number of families Average number of members per family Walls Bearing walls of Kurkar stone. Framework Stone arches were used, as well as regular or groined vaults. Stone and plaster domes are not very common. Roof Usually f lat roofs. ±0 Ancient house FORMS OF THE TYPOLOGY
FORMS OF THE TYPOLOGY House in Jaffa Rendering Unworked stone walls were plastered with thick, coarse lime. Today , parts of the stone walls have been exposed. Kurkar stone is only rarely decorated with engravings, etc. The structures have been restored in various periods, so several types of lime can be found on them, including lime with pigmentation, with a pattern and, more recently , “splashed”. Sometimes bricks or clay bottles were used to make a decorative railing around the roof . Openings and projections in the facade The facade is plain and flat, with small, randomly distributed rectangular openings of various sizes. Originally these openings simply had wooden shutters and no glass panes. More advanced versions included the rectangular window with bars and shutters made of slatted wood. Wooden balconies and “arcades” are suspended on the stone structure. Traditional systems of air-conditioning Ancient house FORMS OF THE TYPOLOGY
FORMS OF THE TYPOLOGY House in Jaffa Urban fabric Elevation Section Implantation This typology is grouped and implanted in an urban environment. Use/associated activity Dating It first appeared in the late 19th century, with the growth of prosperity and building outside the city walls. Orientation Ground surface covered Surface area of housing Number of floors GF or GF+1. Number of homes Number of families Average number of members per family Walls The bearing walls are of Kurkar ashlars. ±0 Classical house FORMS OF THE TYPOLOGY
FORMS OF THE TYPOLOGY House in Jaffa Framework Continuous support beams of unworked Kurkar stone. The ceilings are of metal or wood, coated with plaster. The slate roof has a pyramidal timber construction. Decorated marble columns are used f or interior ornamentation. Roof Pyramidal slate roof . Rendering Smooth clay -coloured plaster. Entrances are emphasised with white plaster, and the foundations and walls are decorated with plaster to look like stone. Stone gateways are decorated with cornices and arches. Balustrades are made of handcrafted metal. The floors are laid with white marble and ceramic tiles arranged in traditional patterns. The ceilings are made of patterned and painted wood, with cornices of plaster and wood. Openings and projections in the facade Flat facades, without any protrusions apart from the balcony in the center of the facade overlooking the street. The balcony has 3 long windows; the central one is also a double door leading out to the balcony , which overlooks the courtyard. The division between the storeys is emphasised by a protruding horizontal line. The openings are of a set size and proportion and are laid out symmetrically . Classical house FORMS OF THE TYPOLOGY
FORMS OF THE TYPOLOGY House in Jaffa The openings are of a set size and proportion and are laid out symmetrically . The windows are casements and open inwards, with slatted wooden shutters opening outwards. The ground floor windows have bars of metal and wood. The facades are decorated with small round windows of colored glass and handcrafted balustrades. Above the openings are stone or timber lintels. Traditional systems of air-conditioning Classical house FORMS OF THE TYPOLOGY
FORMS OF THE TYPOLOGY House in Jaffa Modern house FORMS OF THE TYPOLOGY Urban fabric Elevation Section ±0 Elevation Implantation This typology is grouped and implanted in an urban environment. The urban concept of apartment buildings constructed on pillars did not take root in (Mandatory ) Jaffa. The modern house is situated in the center of the unit, cut of from the street, like the mansion house and the decorated apartment building. Use/associated activity Dwelling. Dating The modernist revolution in architecture (International Sty le) affected Jaffa, and modern houses began appearing in the 1930s and 1940s. The Mandate rule and the houses of Tel Av iv helped promote this new trend. Orientation Ground surface covered Surface area of housing Number of floors Number of homes Number of families Average number of members per family Walls
FORMS OF THE TYPOLOGY House in Jaffa Modern house FORMS OF THE TYPOLOGY Framework Columns, beams and floors of reinforced concrete. Roof Flat roof . Rendering Coarse coloured plaster. Cants are emphasised with white plaster. Openings and projections in the facade Deep balconies overlooking the street. Windows with slatted wooden shutters, modern or Art Deco metal railings (round pipes, metal screens, flattened segments). Traditional systems of air-conditioning
Urban block FORMS OF THE TYPOLOGY A city block , urban block or simply block is a central element of urban planning and urban design . A city block is the smallest area that is surrounded by streets . City blocks are the space for buildings within the street pattern of a city, they form the basic unit of a city's urban fabric. City blocks may be subdivided into any number of smaller lots or parcels of land usually in private ownership, though in some cases, it may be other forms of tenure. City blocks are usually built-up to varying degrees and thus form the physical containers or 'streetwalls' of public space. Most cities are composed of a greater or lesser variety of sizes and shapes of urban block. For example, many pre-industrial cores of cities in Europe, Asia and the Middle-east tend to have irregularly shaped street patterns and urban blocks, while cities based on grids have much more regular arrangements. Theory
Urban block GRID PLAN In most cities of the world that were planned, rather than developing gradually over a long period of time, streets are typically laid out on a grid plan , so that city blocks are square or rectangular. Using the perimeter block development principle, city blocks are developed so that buildings are located along the perimeter of the block, with entrances facing the street , and semi-private courtyards in the rear of the buildings.  This arrangement is intended to provide good social interaction among people. Chicago in 1857 Odessa in 1853 Theory
Urban block SUPERBLOCK Superblocks were popular during the early and mid-20th century, arising from modernist ideas in architecture and urban planning. A superblock is much larger than a traditional city block, with greater setback for buildings, and is typically bounded by widely spaced, high-speed, arterial or circulating routes rather than by local streets. Superblocks are generally associated with suburbs , planned cities , and the urban renewal of the mid-20th century; that is, in areas in which a street hierarchy has replaced the traditional grid. In a residential area of a suburb, the interior of the superblock is typically served by cul-de-sac roads. Urban planner Clarence Perry argued for use of superblocks and related ideas in his "neighborhood unit" plan, which aimed to organize space in a way that is more pedestrian -friendly and provided open plazas and other space for residents to socialize.  In the 1930s, superblocks were often used in urban renewal public housing projects in American cities.  In using superblocks, housing projects aimed to eliminate back alleys , which were often associated with slum conditions.  Superblocks are also used when functional units such as rail yards or housing projects are too big to fit in one block. A well-known example of a superblock is the World Trade Center site in New York City , where several streets of Manhattan's downtown grid were removed to make room for the center. Theory
Sea cost as frontier , line of division natural and cultural environment Jaffa port Tel Aviv Mediterranean sea First Jewish families that came to Tel Aviv to divide it’s land Other side of the Mediterranean cultural space Odessa port Город расположен на северо-западном побережье Черного моря, на пересечении путей из Северной и Центральной Европы на Ближний Восток и в Азию.
Odessa - point on the line of Mediterranean sea contour Middle Asia Europe Главная архитектурно-градостроительная составляющая феномена Одессы – это регулярность и гуманный масштаб периметральной застройки в исторической части города, создающие у гуляющих по улицам людей неповторимое чувство уюта и комфорта. Каждый квартал и каждый дворик похож и в тоже время индивидуален и неповторим, а главное – масштабен человеку. Typical Greek -European grid Of city planning keeps its form till know days be course of stable cultural environment
Odessa nowadays keeps the same historical space structure Classical structure was not destroyed , we can read it clear, People preserve environment as a way of life , and projecting its modules to the every part of Every day life and to all scale of the city.
Tel Aviv-Jaffa as point on the line of Mediterranean sea contour Cultures that meet each other in this point were so different that usual sense of space from European part of sea was not suitable any more . Types of dwelling and surrounding can not be stand in front of the local mental world of the desert agricultural and moving every time changing as the dune of Sahara way of life .
3D grid and it’s transformation sea earth sea earth sky Children of Sahara curbing rigid structure and changing its genotype from 2 dimensional space to the new 3 dimensional environment with it’s low of dwelling Opening 2D space to the third dimension Stable , rigid , 2d based environment could not stayed unchangeable in front of new cultural intersection
FORMS OF THE TYPOLOGY Ancient house Mansion house Modern house House in Jaffa Classical house
FORMS OF THE TYPOLOGY between Jaffa and Tel Aviv Jaffa Tel Aviv
FORMS OF THE TYPOLOGY House in Jaffa Elevation Urban fabric Elevation Section Implantation This typology is grouped and implanted in an urban environment. ±0 Ancient house Arabs' housing based on creating living units around controlled source of light as family space.
FORMS OF THE TYPOLOGY – Europenian structure We live in the walls of urban cloister , we are guards of it’s inner space , We keep keys from its gates to the city living room.
FORMS OF THE TYPOLOGY – the way Live in the wall Keep the key from the gate Live inside of the burning light
FORMS OF THE TYPOLOGY – the way to create Live in the city as a partner Live in the city as a family
FORMS OF THE TYPOLOGY – the way to create new house Take wall , put in doors and let the light create space around it’s way to the ground ,thru the people everyday life. From the frontier of the desert From bottome to the light of bealife From the nature to the Common dwelling