Pay Equity // Gender Wage Gap

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  • 1. Gender Wage Gap Pay Equity in Ontario Natasha C Dunn, Jessica Lee, Chantelina Phillips
  • 2. issue // topic // purpose • Pay equity: equal pay for equal value work performed. • The wage gap between a man and a woman’s income is still a relevant issue in Canadian society. • Affects all jobs, education levels, and demographics
  • 3. Quick Facts • Women take home an average of 29% less than men doing the same job. (71 cents to every dollar!) • Racial minority 36% less • Aboriginal 54% less • 2/3 minimum wage earners = women
  • 4. issue // topic // purpose • Pay Equity is THE LAW. • This is an issue of Human Rights. • This is an issue of discrimination.
  • 5. Background • The Women’s Movement, 1971 • Negotiation of salaries • Women’s work viewed as unnecessary • Canadian Human Rights Act, section 11 /Equal Wages Guideline, 1986 • Employment Standards Act, 2000 Gloria Steinem and Dorothy Pitman Hughes, circa 1970
  • 6. Background 20th • Pay Equity Act [1988] anniversa ry • gap = 36% • Pay Equity Commission • Pay Equity Office (PEO) • Pay Equity Hearings Tribunal (PEHT) • Equal Pay Coalition
  • 7. Average Earnings 1997-2006 earnings by sex and work pattern All earners All earners Year Women Men $ constant 2006 1997 24,300 39,300 1998 25,400 40,400 1999 25,800 41,200 2000 26,300 42,500 2001 26,400 42,400 2002 26,700 42,500 2003 26,400 41,900 2004 26,700 42,100 2005 27,300 42,700 2006 27,700 42,900 Note: Data before 1996 are drawn from Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF) and data since 1996 are taken from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID). The surveys use different definitions, and as a result the number of people working full-year full-time in the SLID is smaller than in the SCF. Source: Statistics Canada, CANSIM, table 202-0102. Last modified: 2008-08-25.
  • 8. Current Status • Glass Ceiling - invisible barrier that prevents individuals from achieving elevated job positions in the workforce due to gender, race, or ethnicity. • According to “The U.S. Bureau of Labour Statistics” from a 2004 study, women’s median weekly earnings are on average 80% of a male’s earnings. • “A New Psychology of Women: Gender, Culture and Ethnicity” (H.M.Lips) • “Higher levels of education increase women’s earnings, just as they do for men...However, there is no evidence that the gender gap in wages closes at higher levels of education. If anything, the reverse is true: at the very highest levels of education, the gap is at its largest.”
  • 9. Current Status • 2007, Legislative Assembly of Ontario Bill passed to amend the Human Rights Code for respecting gender identity. • Bill protects gender discrepancy against goods and services, accommodations, contracting, employment, and membership but leaves out wages. • Statistics Canada: On average men and women’s wages have increased at the same rate & still shows gap. • 2008: of 7,389.3 men: avg. wage/hour = $23.47 • 2008: of 7,225.9 women: avg. wage/hour = $19.78
  • 10. Avg. hourly wages of employee by selected characteristics and profession, unadjusted data, by province (monthly) October 2007 October 2008 Oct ‘07-’08 # of average # of average % change Canada employees hourly employees hourly in hourly (000’s) wage ($) (000’s) wage ($) wage Men 7,287.9 $22.49 7,389.3 $23.47 4.4 Women 7,122.8 $18.95 7,225.9 $19.78 4.4 Full-Time 11,775.2 $22.14 11,902.3 $23.13 4.5 Part-Time 2,635.5 $14.52 2,712.9 $15.11 4.1
  • 11. Current Status • Standard of Living is increasing • Demands both partners into the workforce • The fight for Women’s Rights continues... • prohibition of discrimination in employment policies (gender/ marital status), • affirmative action, • equal pay for work of equal value, • parental leave & benefits, • adequate day care facilities, • health & safety, • protection against sexual harassment in the workplace
  • 12. Current Status • 61% of 2-parent families both work full-time (1992) • cost of living, children, maintain home • wage discrepancy had not been equalized • MAJOR CHANGES TO SOCIETY NEEDED • (labour force = men’s work // home = women’s work)
  • 13. Example: Pay equity comparison between female & male job classes of comparable value Secretary Value & Job Rate Shipper/Receiver Value & Job Rate Skill 25 Skill 18 Effort 13 Effort 15 Responsibility 32 Responsibility 25 Working Conditions 5 Working Conditions 15 Job Value 75 Job Value 73 Job Rate Before P.E. $13.75 / hr Job Rate $15.00 / hr Job Rate After P.E. $15.00 / hr
  • 14. Key Considerations • Knowledge of gap • Changes: • Women-headed households • Gap closing: 36% to 29% (single-parent) • International Women’s Day • Part-time, Minimum Wage (March 8) • Labour trends: maternity, child • Family Day care, care for elderly • Parental leave • International agenda: UN Millennium Goals
  • 15. Options • Enforce Pay Equity Act (equal pay for work of equal value) • particularly in non-unionized sector • Minimum Wage increase to $10.00 • Gender-neutral job evaluation • Government funding to Pay Equity Organizations • Government funding for pay equity adjustments, women’s research
  • 16. Conclusions • In the past 20 years gap has closed from 36% to 29% • Women in poverty • Minimum wage increase • Elimination of the glass ceiling • Re-visit Pay Equity Act • Government funding for women’s issues and research
  • 17. Thank You
  • 18. Discussion • knowledge about this issue? • union vs. non-union? • government responsible? What you can do research how you vote, write the government, contribute to organizations, demand equal pay. men: be allies for the women in your life