Advanced PC Maintenance and Troubleshooting
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In this Document, hands-on exercises provide you with the knowledge and experience to take apart and reassemble computer components, and use specific techniques for identifying the source of hardware ...

In this Document, hands-on exercises provide you with the knowledge and experience to take apart and reassemble computer components, and use specific techniques for identifying the source of hardware and software problems. Generally, in this handout students will install, upgrade, repair, configure, optimize, troubleshoot, and perform preventative maintenance on basic personal computer hardware and operating systems.

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Advanced PC Maintenance and Troubleshooting Document Transcript

  • 1. SHEBA UNIVERSITY COLLEGE COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance andPC Maintenance andPC Maintenance andPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingTroubleshootingTroubleshootingTroubleshooting Compiled by: August, 2011 Mekelle, Ethiopia natan-ict@live.com
  • 2. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 2 1.1.1.1. Chapter I: Preventive MaintenanceChapter I: Preventive MaintenanceChapter I: Preventive MaintenanceChapter I: Preventive Maintenance 2.2.2.2. Chapter II: PC ComponentsChapter II: PC ComponentsChapter II: PC ComponentsChapter II: PC Components 3.3.3.3. Chapter III: PCChapter III: PCChapter III: PCChapter III: PC Assembling and DisassemblingAssembling and DisassemblingAssembling and DisassemblingAssembling and Disassembling 4.4.4.4. Chapter IV : Software TroubleshootingChapter IV : Software TroubleshootingChapter IV : Software TroubleshootingChapter IV : Software Troubleshooting 5.5.5.5. Chapter V:Chapter V:Chapter V:Chapter V: Common Hardware Problems and TroubleshootingCommon Hardware Problems and TroubleshootingCommon Hardware Problems and TroubleshootingCommon Hardware Problems and Troubleshooting 6.6.6.6. Chapter VI: Printer maintenance and TroubleshootingChapter VI: Printer maintenance and TroubleshootingChapter VI: Printer maintenance and TroubleshootingChapter VI: Printer maintenance and Troubleshooting
  • 3. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 3 ChapterChapterChapterChapter IIII:::: Preventive MaintenancePreventive MaintenancePreventive MaintenancePreventive Maintenance Preventive maintenance definition Goals of preventive maintenance Advantage of preventive maintenance Activities preformed during preventive maintenance Cleaning pc components What materials are needed for cleaning How often you should clean pc What you can clean Dust and Dirty environment problem Disk clean up Disk cleanup Using disk cleanup Removing unneeded files Recycle Bin Overview Disk Defragmentation Disk Defragmenter overview Why volumes become fragmented Analyze a volume defragment a volume Virus scan File and folder compression Facts about electrical power and Automatic Voltage Regulator
  • 4. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 4 Preventive MPreventive MPreventive MPreventive Maintenanceaintenanceaintenanceaintenance Preventive maintenance is predetermined work performed to a schedule with the aim of preventing the wear and tear or sudden failure of equipment components. It is a schedule of planned maintenance actions aimed at the prevention of break downs and failures. Preventive maintenance often abbreviated as PM which refers to performing proactive maintenance in order to prevent to system problems. It is a service given for the purpose of maintaining equipments and facilities in satisfactory operating conditions by providing systematic inspection detection and correction of failures either before they occur or before they develop into major defects Goals of preventive maintenaGoals of preventive maintenaGoals of preventive maintenaGoals of preventive maintenancencencence Is conducted to keep working and /or extending the life of the equipment Conducted to get equipment working again sometimes called repairing To prevent the failure of equipment before it occurs. Preserve and enhance equipment reliability by replacing worm components before they actually fail. Advantage of preventive maintenanceAdvantage of preventive maintenanceAdvantage of preventive maintenanceAdvantage of preventive maintenance Preventive maintenance has the following long term benefits: Protect assets and prolong the useful life of production equipment Improve system reliability Decrease cost of replacement Decreases system downtime Reduce injury
  • 5. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 5 Cleaning of PC components: It is important that you clean your computer periodically to ensure that it will function properly and have a long life. When you clean your computer you not only improve the physical appearance, but you prolong the life of the computer. How often Generally you should try to clean your computer every 3-6 months. If you use your computer often and if it's in a very dusty environment then you should clean it sooner (every 3-4 months) if you use your computer sparingly in a fairly dust free environment you don't need to clean it as often (every 5-6 months What you need: Screwdriver (to open up the computer case) Can of Compressed air (to blow away dust inside the computer) Cleaning Liquid: Rubbing alcohol or mild cleaning agent (dish detergent mixed with water...). Cotton swabs (Q-tips) Paper towel or cotton cloth o Make sure your computer is turned off before you begin the cleaning process! o A computer on the ground attracts more dust than one elevated on a platform. o 2. Static attracts dust. Wiping down your computer with a solution of one and half vinegar and one and half water will minimize static. What you can clean? • Computer Case cleaning • Computer Mouse Cleaning • keyboard • DVD or CD-Rom Drive • Floppy drive head • Hard drive • Monitor-Screen (LCD, flat panel) • Cleaning the Monitor Casing • Cleaning the Inside of The Computer • Cleaning printer
  • 6. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 6 Dust and Dirty environment problem It increases the overheating problem and mostly affect:- • The Motherboard. • The Processor and Power Supply fan. • The CD-drive's Lens and Floppy drive's head. • The Add-in card connection. • The cable connection. • The mouse and keyboard. • NOTE: - Don't use any fluid to clean the inside part of the Pc. Unplug the system from the power supply and use compressed air to clean dusts from the inside part . Cleaning the Computer Case Benefits: Improves the overall appearance of your computer. Steps: • Turn off the system. • Unplug the system unit power connector from the wall outlet (power supply). • Spray a Gentle cleaner (Alcohol) on hair free cloth. • Then clean it slowly. • Note: Don't put too much liquid on the cloth where it might drip through any openings and into the inside of the computer Clean the mouse [mechanical mouse]: Benefits: • For a mechanical mouse cleaning it will make the mouse run smoother and for all mousses in general cleaning it will improve it's appearance and give it a feeling of cleanliness. • The mouse may hang up or may not move in the correct way due to dust. It may not work properly. Steps: 1. Shutdown the PC. 2. Remove the mouse cable from its connection at the back of your PC. 3. Turn the mouse upside-down and remove the securing screws from the mouse case. 4. Remove the mouse ball from the cavity. 5. Clean the cavity and the mouse ball with proper available materials. [ use dry cloth]
  • 7. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 7 6. Replace the ball carefully into the cavity. 7. Twist the plate to tighten it into position. 8. Reconnect the cable to the computer. 9. Turn ON the PC and see that if it is activated. Cleaning the keyboard Benefits: Cleaning your computer keyboard will not only result in sticky-free keys but also ensure that your keyboard will continue to function properly by removing dirt, dust and other particles that can damage the keyboard's circuits. Steps: While working on my PC, something (liquid) Spilled into the keyboard. 1. Remove the keyboard cable from its connection at the back of the PC. Do not wait!! You need to cut power to the device in order to avoid a possible short circuit. 2. Shutdown the PC using the mouse [start>turn off computer ...]. 3. Tip the keyboard upside down and drain out as much of the liquid as you can. 4. Try to dry the inside part of the keyboard properly by using blow dryer or direct sunlight. 5. Reconnect the keyboard cable to the computer. 6. Power up the computer and manipulate the keyboard to assure proper functioning. Note: Purchasing a keyboard cover or protector will protect your keyboard from dust and any unexpected spills that may occur. Cleaning a DVD or CD-Rom Drive Benefits: Prevents disc read errors. Steps: 1. Take a clean cotton cloth and dampen it with warm water. 2. Wipe the disc from the center towards the edge of the CD (wiping along the track of the disc can cause scratches). 3. Prepare the CD cleaner kit. 4. The CD cleaning DISC has two soft brushes: dry and wet. 5. Turn over the disc and drop one of the cleaning fluids on the brush. 6. Insert the cleaning DISC into CD-drive like you would insert an ordinary disc. 7. Try to open the CD Drive from "My Compute: and allow the CD to operate. 8. The cleaning Disc will automatically clean the CD heads with the picture displaying.
  • 8. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 8 Cleaning the Floppy drive head 1. Prepare the diskette cleaner and fluid. 2. Drop one of the cleaning fluids on the brush surface of the diskette. 3. While the Windows is working, place the cleaning diskette in your floppy drive. 4. Try to open the floppy Drive from "My Computer" and the cleaning diskette will automatically clean the read write heads. 5. After cleaning, put the cleaning diskette back to its special box. Hard Drive Cleaning Benefits: It takes a skilled technician to physically open up and clean a hard drive, but your computer's performance can be optimized by doing such things as clearing out unnecessary files on your hard drive. Steps • Uninstall any programs that are outdated or unnecessary (if you aren't sure if you need the program for your computer to run it's best to just leave the program as is) and go through your folders and delete any files (pictures, mp3's, text documents...) that you don't have a need for. • Empty your "Recycle Bin". • Run ScanDisk which checks and repairs disk errors. • Run Disk Cleanup which automatically deletes temporary files stored on your computer. • Run Disk Defragmenter which optimizes your hard drive by rearranging programs, files, and unused space which results in files opening quicker and programs running faster. Cleaning Monitor-Screen (LCD, flat panel) Benefits: A clean screen on your monitor gives you a clearer view of the items displayed on your computer. Cleaning the Screen Steps: • Turn off the monitor • Dampen a clean soft cotton cloth with water and gently wipe the screen starting from the top of the screen to bottom wiping in a downward motion.
  • 9. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 9 Note o For LCD (laptop and flat panel) screens be careful not to press too hard or else you may damage the screen. o Using a paper towel or dirty cloth can scratch the screen. o using methyl chloride, acetone, ethyl acid, ethyl alcohol or ammonia-based cleaners can damage the screen, o LCD monitors are especially sensitive to these agents.) Cleaning the Monitor Casing: Benefits: Improves the overall appearance of your computer. Steps: • Turn off the monitor • Dampen a cloth or paper towel with a mild cleaning agent and wipe down the casing, especially the top as this is where most of the dust tends to be. Don't put too much liquid on the cloth where it might drip through the holes and into the computer monitor. • Use a can of air and blow in the holes to get the any dust that may be in there out (Alternatively you can use a vacuum cleaner and suck the dust out). Clean Computer Inside: Benefits: The inside of the computer is the most important part of the computer that needs to be cleaned. Removing dust from the computer vents increases the internal air circulation. If you don't remove the dust the circuit boards it can slow down or interfere with the connections running through the circuit boards. Dusting the inside of your computer also prevents it from overheating. Steps: 1. Turn off and unplug the computer. 2. Remove the casing of the computer (directions should be in your computer manual). It is recommended that you bring the computer outside at this point because in the next step there'll be a lot of dust coming out of your computer. 3. Use the can of air to clean out the dust from the vents and the fan in the back of the computer. 4. Use a can of air to blow the dust out of the computer going in one direction while using short bursts of air (you want to clean all the circuit boards, underneath the motherboard, the bottom of the case, get rid of dust on any of your drives and blow air into the power supply box). You want to try to get as much dust out of the computer as you can, if there is dust on the inside of the case you should try to get that out of there as well. Try to avoid any direct physical contact with any circuits in the computer. 5. Put the case back on.
  • 10. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 10 Cleaning a Printer Benefits: When your print job isn’t up to par, you can get rid of smudges, white lines and reduce paper jams by simply cleaning your printer. Of course, the real benefit of cleaning is that it saves you money by prolonging the life of your printer! Your first step in cleaning a printer is always to check your manufacturer’s documentation. If you don’t have a written manual, most manufacturers provide tips on what not to do and provide support for even older printer models on their web sites. Use only the cleaners that your manufacturer recommends and clean only recommended areas of your printer. Tip: Search for terms like printer maintenance, printer cleaning, and troubleshooting. Cleaning the Outside of Your Printer Steps: 1. Turn your printer off before cleaning. 2. Clean the outside of your printer with a moist, lint-free cloth. Flour sacking or 100% cotton white t-shirt material works well. 3. Usually a solution of one part vinegar and one part water is safe to use, but when moistening a cloth, be sure to wring out all the excess. Distilled or RO (reverse osmosis) water minimizes mineral residues. If you do use a prepared cleaner, make sure it is safe for both electronics and plastics. 4. Always moisten the cloth. Never spray an aerosol directly onto your printer. Disk Defragmenter overviewDisk Defragmenter overviewDisk Defragmenter overviewDisk Defragmenter overview The process of consolidating fragmented files and folders is called defragmentation. Disk Defragmenter analyzes local volumes and consolidates fragmented files and folders so that each occupies a single, contiguous space on the volume. Consolidates your files and folders Consolidates a volume's free space, making it less likely that new files will be fragmented The amount of time that defragmentation takes depends on several factors. The size of the volume The number and size of files on the volume The amount of fragmentation The available local system resources You can find all of the fragmented files and folders before defragmenting them by analyzing the volume first. You can then see how fragmented the volume is and decide whether you would benefit from defragmenting the volume. This method is called analyzing. It is important to
  • 11. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 11 analyze the volume before defragmenting if not the process of defragmenting will continue its process whether the volume has fragmented files, folders or not. You should analyze volumes before defragmenting them. This tells you whether you need to take the time to defragment them. A volume must have at least 15% free space for Disk Defragmenter to completely and adequately defragment it. Disk Defragmenter uses this space as a sorting area for file fragments. If a volume has less than 15% free space, Disk Defragmenter will only partially defragment it. To increase the free space on a volume, delete unneeded files or move them to another disk. You cannot defragment volumes that the file system has marked as dirty, which indicates possible corruption. You must run chkdsk on a dirty volume before you can defragment it. You can determine if a volume is dirty by using the fsutil dirty query command. For more information about chkdsk and fsutil dirty You can defragment only local file system volumes, and you can run only one instance of Disk Defragmenter at a time. To interrupt or temporarily stop defragmenting a volume, click Stop or Pause, respectively. Why volumes become fragmented? Volumes become fragmented as users: Create and delete files and folders Install new software Download files from the Internet. Computers typically save files in the first contiguous free space that is large enough for the file If a large enough free space is not available, the computer saves as much of the file as possible in the largest available space After a large portion of a volume has been used for file and folder storage, most of the new files are saved in pieces across the volume. When you delete files, the empty spaces left behind fill in randomly as you store new ones. The more fragmented the volume is, the slower the computer's file input/output performance will be. Color Description Red Most of the clusters are part of a fragmented file. Blue Most of the clusters are contiguous files with clusters in the group that contain only free space and contiguous clusters. Green Most of the clusters are part of a file that cannot be moved from its current location. White Most of the clusters are free space and contiguous clusters.
  • 12. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 12 To analyze a volume We can analyze a volume in to two ways Using windows interface To open Disk Defragmenter, click Start, point to All Programs, point to Accessories, point to System Tools, and then click Disk Defragmenter. Click the volume that you want to check for fragmented files and folders, and then click Analyze. When Disk Defragmenter finishes analyzing the volume, it displays its analysis of the volume in the Analysis display. It also displays a dialog box that tells you whether you need to defragment the volume. Note: You must be logged on as an administrator or a member of the Administrators group in order to complete this procedure • Using command prompt • To open command prompt , click Start, point to Run press Enter or • click Start, point to All Programs, point to Accessories, and then click Command Prompt • Note: To view the complete syntax for this command, type defrag /? • Type defrag volume [/a] [/v] on the command prompt Argument Description volume The drive letter or a mount point of the volume to be analyzed. /a Analyzes the volume and displays a summary of the analysis report. /v Displays the complete analysis report. Defragment a volume: Using windows interface • To open Disk Defragmenter, click Start, point to All Programs, point to Accessories, point to System Tools, and then click Disk Defragmenter. • Click the volume that you want to defragment, and then click Defragment • After the defragmentation is complete, Disk Defragmenter displays the results in the Defragmentation display. • Click View Report to view the Defragmentation Report, which displays detailed
  • 13. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 13 Using command prompt • To open a command prompt, click Start, point to All Programs, point to Accessories, and then click Command Prompt • Type defrag volume [/v] on the command prompt • To view the complete syntax for this command, type defrag /? Using Disk Cleanup Disk Cleanup helps free up space on your hard drive. Disk Cleanup searches your drive, and then shows you temporary files, Internet cache files, and unnecessary program files that you can safely delete. You can direct Disk Cleanup to delete some or all of those files. To open Disk Cleanup, click Start, point to All Programs, point to Accessories, point to System Tools, and then click Disk Cleanup. Removing unneeded files When running an operating system as complex as Windows, you may not always know the significance of all the files on your computer. Sometimes Windows uses files for a specific purpose and then retains them in a folder designated for temporary files. Alternatively, you may have previously installed Windows components that you are no longer using. For a variety of reasons, including running out of space on your hard drive, you may want to reduce the number of files on your disk, or create more free space, if it can be done without harming any of your programs. Use the Windows Disk Cleanup Wizard to perform all of the following tasks to clear space on your hard disk: • Remove temporary Internet files. • Remove any downloaded program files (ActiveX controls and Java applets downloaded from the Internet). • Empty the Recycle Bin. • Remove Windows temporary files. • Remove Windows components that you are not using. • Remove installed programs that you no longer use. Argument Description volume The drive letter or a mount point of the volume to be defragmented. /v Displays the complete analysis and defragmentation reports.
  • 14. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 14 Recycle Bin overviewRecycle Bin overviewRecycle Bin overviewRecycle Bin overview • The Recycle Bin provides a safety net when deleting files or folders. • When you delete any of these items from your hard disk, Windows places it in the Recycle Bin and the Recycle Bin icon changes from empty to full. • Items deleted from a floppy disk or network drives are permanently deleted and are not sent to the Recycle Bin. • Items in the Recycle Bin remain there until you decide to permanently delete them from your computer. • These items still take up hard disk space and can be undeleted or restored back to their original location. • When it fills up, Windows automatically cleans out enough space in the Recycle Bin to accommodate the most recently deleted files and folders. • If you're running low on hard disk space, always remember to empty the Recycle Bin. You can also restrict the size of the Recycle Bin to limit the amount of hard disk space it takes up. • Windows allocates one Recycle Bin for each partition or hard disk. • If your hard disk is partitioned, or if you have more than one hard disk in your computer, you can specify a different size for each Recycle Bin. Note: To change the storage capacity of the Recycle Bin • On the desktop, right-click Recycle Bin, and then click Properties. • Move the slider to increase or decrease the amount of disk space that is reserved for storing deleted items. Important: • A deleted item that is larger than the storage capacity of the Recycle Bin will not be saved. It will be permanently deleted. To empty the Recycle Bin 1. On the desktop, double-click Recycle Bin. 2. On the File menu, click Empty Recycle Bin. Important • Emptying the Recycle Bin permanently deletes all items. To remove items permanently when you delete them 1. On the desktop, right-click Recycle Bin, and then click Properties.
  • 15. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 15 2. Select the Do not move files to the Recycle Bin check box. Important • If it does not move files to the Recycle Bin check box is selected, you will not be able to recover any items that you delete. Notes • You can also remove an item permanently by holding down SHIFT+DELETE while deleting the file To prevent delete confirmation messages from appearing 1. On the desktop, right-click Recycle Bin, and then click Properties. 2. Clear the Display delete confirmation dialog check box. Notes • This setting only applies when you move items to the Recycle Bin. This setting does not apply when you move items from it. • This setting is unavailable if the Do not move files to the Recycle Bin check box is selected To delete or restore files in the Recycle Bin 1. On the desktop, double-click Recycle Bin. 2. Do one of the following: o To restore an item, right-click it, and then click Restore. o To restore all of the items, on the Edit menu, click Select All, and then on the File menu, click Restore. o To delete an item, right-click it, and then click Delete. o To delete all of the items, on the File menu, click Empty Recycle Bin. Notes • Deleting an item from the Recycle Bin permanently removes it from your computer. Items deleted from the Recycle Bin cannot be restored. • Restoring an item in the Recycle Bin returns that item to its original location. • If you restore a file that was originally located in a deleted folder, the folder is recreated in its original location, and then the file is restored in that folder. • The following items are not stored in the Recycle Bin and cannot be restored: o Items deleted from network locations. o Items deleted from removable media (such as 3.5-inch disks). o Items that are larger than the storage capacity of the Recycle Bin.
  • 16. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 16 FACTS ABOUT ELECTRICALFACTS ABOUT ELECTRICALFACTS ABOUT ELECTRICALFACTS ABOUT ELECTRICAL POWER AND SURGE SUPPRESSORSPOWER AND SURGE SUPPRESSORSPOWER AND SURGE SUPPRESSORSPOWER AND SURGE SUPPRESSORS The voltage you get from the wall socket is NOT always what you expect... There are periodic fluctuations in voltage from devices going on and off in your building, problems in the transmission line, Electrical storms, bad or faulty transformers, etc. Sometimes these fluctuations in voltage may exceed several thousand volts. When this happens, bad things can happen to good computers (or any other kinds of electrical devices). Automatic VoltageAutomatic VoltageAutomatic VoltageAutomatic Voltage RegulatorRegulatorRegulatorRegulator (Surge Suppressor)(Surge Suppressor)(Surge Suppressor)(Surge Suppressor) A surge suppressor or Automatic Voltage Regulator provides a way to deal with voltage spikes (but not loss of voltage). The surge suppressor has a metal-oxide varisstor (MOV) that will shunt excess voltages to ground, thereby saving your PC. A surge suppressor (sometimes optimistically called a "surge protector") is a device inserted in the alternating current (AC) utility line to prevent damage to electronic equipment from voltage "spikes" called transients. A more accurate term for this type of device is "transient suppressor." A typical surge suppressor is a small box with several utility outlets, a power switch, and a 3- wire cord for plugging into a wall outlet. Uninterruptible Power SupplyUninterruptible Power SupplyUninterruptible Power SupplyUninterruptible Power Supply (UPS(UPS(UPS(UPS)))) An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) will have this same technology, but it contains a battery in it as well. The battery in the UPS will allow your PC to continue to operate if power has been cut off to your building. HOWEVER, it will only last for a few minutes (5 - 30 minutes). An UPS allows you to shut off your PC in a normal fashion in the event of a power failure. If you have intermittent voltage failures in your area (i.e., the power frequently cuts off for only a second), consider getting a low-end surge suppressor. It will save you immense amounts of grief when using your PC, since all the information stored in RAM is wiped out when power is cut off.
  • 17. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 17 Chapter IIChapter IIChapter IIChapter II.... PCPCPCPC HardwareHardwareHardwareHardware ComponentsComponentsComponentsComponents Motherboard Drives Expansion cards Power supply Enclosures (case or chassis) Peripherals Computer Definition A computer is a general purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a finite set of arithmetic or logical operations. Since a sequence of operations can be readily changed, the computer can solve more than one kind of problem. Conventionally, a computer consists of at least one processing element, typically a central processing unit (CPU) and some form of memory. The processing element carries out arithmetic and logic operations, and a sequencing and control unit that can change the order of operations based on stored information. Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source, and the result of operations saved and retrieved. • Is an electronic device That accepts information, processes it, and produces output • Is not very intelligent device but, handles instructions flawlessly and fast • Accurate, suited for repetitive work • Can store large amount of data and performs complex calculations These are the important activities of computer The PC consists of a System unit (referred as Computer) and various peripherals The Computer is a box, which contains most of the working electronics. It is connected with cables to the peripherals. The following are the main components of PC Input Processes Out put
  • 18. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 18 Components of the System Unit (Computer) Motherboard CPU, RAM, Cache, ROM chips with BIOS, Chip sets, ports, buses and expansion slots Drives Hard disk drive Floppy disk drive CD-ROM drive Expansion cards Graphics card (video adapter) Network controller SCSI controller Sound card Internal Modem Power supply Enclosures (case or chassis) Peripherals Keyboard Mouse Joystick Monitor Scanner Speakers External drives External modem
  • 19. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 19
  • 20. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 20 1.1.1.1. Mother board Motherboard is the central circuit board that connects all expansion cards, drives and peripherals together. If the processor is the brain of the computer, then the motherboard is the central nervous system and circulatory system. The motherboard houses the processor and the memory of the computer, and contains the buses, the channels which pass data through the computer. All connections to and from the computer will pass either directly into the motherboard or through an expansion card such as a video-card plugged into the board. The motherboard provides the infrastructure of the computer. There are many, many available brands and models of motherboard, since each one is designed for a specific range of processors and memory. The chips and circuits that define a motherboard's capabilities are known as the chipset. Generally, Good understanding of motherboard is the most critical part of getting a good understanding of how PCs work in general. Motherboard is the base of the modern computer system. The importance of motherboard Organization: The way that the motherboard is designed and laid out dictates how the entire computer is going to be organized Control: The motherboard contains the chipset and BIOS program, which between them control most of the data flow within the computer Communication: Almost all communication between the PC and its peripherals, other PCs, and you, the user, goes through the motherboard. Processor Support: The motherboard dictates directly your choice of processor for use in the system. Peripheral Support: The motherboard determines, in large part, what types of peripherals you can use in your PC. For example, the type of video card your system will use (ISA, VLB, PCI) is dependent on what system buses your motherboard uses. Performance: The motherboard is a major determining factor in your system's performance, for two main reasons. First and foremost, the motherboard determines what types of processors, memory, system buses, and hard disk interface speed your system can have, and these components dictate directly your system's performance. Second, the quality of the motherboard circuitry and chipset themselves have an impact on performance. Upgradeability: The capabilities of your motherboard dictate to what extent you will be able to upgrade your machine. For example, there are some motherboards that will accept
  • 21. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 21 regular Pentiums of up to 133 MHz speed only, while others will go to 200 MHz. Obviously, the second one will give you more room to upgrade if you are starting with a P133. Types of Motherboard (Form Factors) The form factor determines the general layout, size, and feature placement on a motherboard. Different form factors usually require different style cases, it also specifies what type of case and power supply will be supported,. Differences between form factors can include, physical size and shape, mounting hole location, feature placement, power supply connectors, and others. The most two kinds of form factors are AT and ATX AT Motherboard AT stands for "Advanced Technology. AT motherboards were introduced in 1984 with size 12x13 inches
  • 22. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 22 AT type: -An old type of motherboard that has only an integrated keyboard port, and two small separated power connectors [p8 & P9]. It is advanced technology It is very huge(in size) More expansion slots The only integrated port on this (AT) motherboard is for the keyboard, all other devices connect to the motherboard via cards and expansion slots The Baby AT motherboard measures 8.5x13 inches and is laid out exactly same as AT AT power supply connect to AT or Baby AT with one P8 connector and one P9 connector ATX Motherboard ATX stands for "Advanced Technology Extended". Intel created ATX motherboard in 1996, with size 12x9.6 inches. The ATX form factor's positioning was redesigned to offer better access to the peripheral components on the inside of the computer. It has many integrated ports, including two serial ports, a parallel port, USB ports and mini DIN ports ATX type: -The modem type of motherboard while, has a small keyboard port and one big power connector [P1]. It is modern Less expansion slot Very compact PS/2 connectors provide one of the quickest visual ways to distinguish between ATX and AT motherboards ATX power supply connect to the motherboard via a single P1 connector ATX motherboards introduced support for power management controlled by the BIOS
  • 23. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 23
  • 24. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 24 The first "integrated component" is the motherboard board itself! Motherboards are multiple layer printed circuit boards, also sometimes called PCBs. The physical board that you see is actually a sandwich of several thinner layers, each containing some of the circuitry required to connect the various components on the board. At one time this was expensive, difficult-to- manufacture technology, but time and automation has reduced this complexity to the point where the board itself is a minor component of overall cost. Still, good motherboards are solid and well designed, while cheaper ones tend to be flimsy, and increase the chance of a (virtually impossible to diagnose) electrical problem on the board. In addition, better boards reduce interference problems because of their design, and reduce the chances of problems in assembling the PC. Thin boards are more subject to damage from flexing when inserting peripherals; the thicker the board, the better. Sockets or Slots Of course, the motherboard has one or more sockets or slots to hold the processor(s). Single- processor motherboards are by far the most common, but dual processor and even quad processor boards are not hard to find. (Quad boards often use special, proprietary designs employing riser cards.) The type of socket or slot used dictates the type of processor (and in some cases the speed) that can be used by the motherboard. Not surprisingly, the standards for processor sockets and slots have been generally defined by most modern motherboards that have a socket use the ZIF (zero insertion force) style socket that allows the processor to be inserted or removed from the motherboard by using a lever that tightens or loosens the processor's pins in the socket. This is a vast improvement over the older style sockets, which required you to exert considerable force on the surface of a delicate (and expensive) processor, just to get it into the motherboard.(Getting it out was of course even harder!) Memory Sockets Most motherboards today come with between 2 and 8 sockets for the insertion of memory. These are usually SIMMs (single inline memory modules) or DIMMs (dual inline memory modules) or the recent RIMMs (Ramous inline memory modules) these can come in different sizes. I/O Bus Slots All motherboards have one or more system I/O buses that are used to expand the computer's capabilities. The slots in the back of the machine are where expansion cards are placed (like your video card, sound card, network card, etc.). These slots allow you to expand the capabilities of your machine in many different ways, and the proliferation of both general purpose and very specific expansion cards is part of the success story of the PC platform.
  • 25. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 25 Most modern PCs have two different types of bus slots. The first is the standard ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) slot; most PCs have 3 or 4 of these. These slots have two connected sections and start about a half-inch from the back of the motherboard, extending to around its middle. This is the oldest (and slowest) bus type and is used for cards that don't require a lot of speed: for example, sound cards and modems. Older systems (generally made well before 1990) may have ISA slots with only a single connector piece on each; these are 8-bit ISA slots and will (of course) only support 8-bit ISA cards. Pentium systems and newer 486-class motherboards also have PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) bus slots, again, usually 3 or 4. They are distinguished from ISA slots in two ways. First, they are shorter, and second, they are offset from the back edge of the motherboard by about an inch. PCI is a high-speed bus used for devices like video cards, hard disk controllers, and high-speed network cards. Note: Newer PCI motherboards have the connectors for the hard disks coming directly from the motherboard. These connectors are part of the PCI bus, even though the hard disks aren't connected to a physical PCI slot. The newest PCs add another, new connector to the motherboard: an Accelerated Graphics Port slot. AGP is not really a bus, but is a single-device port used for high-performance graphics. The AGP slot looks similar to a PCI slot, except that it is offset further from the back edge of the motherboard. Some motherboards incorporate a so-called "shared" ISA and PCI slot. This name implies a single slot that can take either type of card, but that isn't possible because the two slot types are physically incompatible. In order to save space while maximizing the number of expansion slots, some designers put an ISA slot on the board right next to a PCI slot; you then have the choice to use either the ISA or the PCI slot, but not both. This design is possible because ISA cards mount on the left-hand side of a slot position, while PCI slots mount on the right-hand side. Power Connector(s) The motherboard has a socket to attach the power cables coming from the power supply. ATX form factor motherboards and power supplies use a single, keyed 20-wire motherboard power cable. All others use a pair of 6-wire cables. The cables are connected to the motherboard so that the black wires (grounds) are together in the middle. This connector is usually found near the back right-hand side of the motherboard, near the power supply.
  • 26. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 26 The main parts of the motherboard and its related devices System Chipset and Controllers: A chipset defines the processor type, type and capacity of RAM, and what internal and external devices the motherboard will support Serves as an electronic interface among the CPU, RAM, and input/output devices The chipset and other motherboard circuitry are the "smarts" of the motherboard. Their job is to direct traffic and control the flow of information inside the computer. These circuits control the processor's access to memory, the flow of data to and from peripheral devices and communications lines, and much more. The chipsets are the main component of a motherboard. Chipsets have a North-bridge and a South-bridge. They assist in the basic functions of the different components with which they communicate. The NorthBridge (also called the memory controller) is in charge of controlling transfers between the processor and the RAM, which is way it is located physically near the processor. It is sometimes called the GMCH, for Graphic and Memory Controller Hub. It communicates with the CPU, the PCI bus, and AGP, etc. The SouthBridge (also called the input/output controller or expansion controller) handles communications between peripheral devices. It is also called the ICH (I/O Controller Hub). It controls I/O functions like the IDE channels, audio, serial, etc. The South Bridge is the lower-speed component in the chipset. The chipset is a critical part of any computer, because it plays a big role in determining what sorts of features the computer can support. For example, which processors you can use, which types of memory, how fast you can run the machine, and what kind of system buses your PC can use, are all tied in to the type of chipset the motherboard uses. System Buses: The system buses are the electrical channels through which various parts of the computer communicate. The physical part of these buses, the part you see, is the set of slots in the back of the machine into which you put your video card, sound card and other cards. It is over the system buses that your video card gets information from the processor; the processor saves data to your hard disk, etc. The architecture chosen for each of the system buses has a great impact on the performance of your PC, as well as dictating your choices for video cards and other devices. BIOS: The system BIOS (which stands for Basic Input/output System) is a computer program that is built into the PC's hardware. It is the lowest-level program that runs on your computer. Its job is to act as an intermediary between your system hardware (the chipset, motherboard, processor and peripherals) and your system software (the operating system). The BIOS is what runs when you turn on your computer, and what loads your operating
  • 27. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 27 system (for example, DOS and Windows). The BIOS also allows you to set or change many different parameters that control how your computer will function. For example, you tell the BIOS what sort of hard drives you have so it knows how to access them. Cache: The system cache is a small, high-speed memory area that is placed between the processor and the system memory. The value of the cache is that it is much faster than normal system memory. Each time the processor requests a piece of data from the memory, the system first checks the cache to see if the information is there. If it is, then the value is read from cache instead of memory, and the processor can get back to work that much sooner. If it isn't, then the data is read from memory and given to the processor, but it is also placed into the cache in case the processor needs it again in the near future. System Resources: System resources are not actual physical devices; they are nothing you can reach into the machine and touch. But they are very important for two reasons. First, they dictate how your PC organizes its access to various memory areas and devices. Second, they are one of the most common areas where people have problems with the setup of their PCs: so-called resource conflicts. These are the four types of resources that various parts of your computer can sometimes decide to fight over: Interrupts (IRQs): Under traditional designs, each device has a different IRQ number. If two try to use the same one, a conflict can result. Newer technologies can allow multiple devices to share an IRQ channel. Direct Memory Access (DMA) Channels: Some devices have the ability to read and write directly from the system memory, instead of asking the processor to do it for them. Cutting the "middle man" out in this manner improves the efficiency of the system. Each device that does this needs its own DMA channel. Input/Output (I/O) Addresses: Devices exchange information with the system by putting data into certain specific memory addresses. For example, when we pressed the letter "M", the key press was stored in a certain memory address until it was time for the processor to deal with it. Any time information goes into or out of the machine, to your modem or hard drive or printer for example, it uses these I/O addresses. Again, each device needs its own memory area. Memory Addresses: Similar to I/O addresses, many devices use blocks of memory as part of their normal functioning. For example, they may map hardware programs (BIOS code) into memory, or use a memory area to hold temporary data they are using.
  • 28. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 28 2.2.2.2. PowerPowerPowerPower SSSSupplyupplyupplyupply Ports and ConnectorsPorts and ConnectorsPorts and ConnectorsPorts and Connectors 2.1.2.1.2.1.2.1. Power SupplyPower SupplyPower SupplyPower Supply Power Supply CPUs, RAM, chipsets-everything on the motherboard-need electrical power to run. Every power supply provides specialized connections to the motherboard to provide DC electricity in several voltages to feed the needs of the many devices. Different motherboard form factors require different connectors. A standard power supply draws power from a local, Alternating Current (AC) source (usually a wall outlet) and converts it to either 3.3, 5 and 12 volts direct current (DC), for on-board electronics, and hard drives Most PC power supplies also provide the system's cooling and processor fans that keep the machine from overheating Many newer supplies have a universal input that will accept either 110 VAC (volts alternating current), 60 Hz (U.S. standard power), or 220 VAC, 50 Hz (European/Asian/African standard) When replacing a power supply, there are three things to consider: physical size, wattage, and connectors. Power-Supply Sizes Power supplies are based on the types of case they will be used in and the types of motherboard connections they will support The older models are known as AT-style, and the newer ones are known as ATX
  • 29. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 29 Older Pentium-based computers and all 486-based and earlier PCs used AT supplies almost all Pentium II and later-based systems use ATX supplies Power-Supply Wattage Power supplies are rated according to the maximum sustained power (given in watts) that they can produce. A watt is a unit of electrical power equivalent to one volt-ampere A PC requires sufficient wattage for the machine to run properly Most general-use computers require 130 watts while running About 200-205 watts when booting, It is safe to buy 230-250 watt power supplies Power-Supply Connectors Power supplies use several types of connectors; all are easy to identify and use On the outside of the computer enclosure, a standard male AC plug and three- conductor wire (two power wires and a ground) draws current from a wall outlet, with a female connection entering the receptacle in the back of the power supply AT Power Connectors A pair of connectors-called P8 and P9 link the AT power supply to the AT motherboard. Each of these connectors has a row of teeth along one side and a small guide on the opposite side that help hold the connection in place. A standard P8 and P9 connection P8 and P9 connectors You might find that installing P8 and P9 requires a little bit of work, because of facing, keying, and figuring out which one goes where. P8 and P9 are faced (that is, they have a front and a back), so you cannot install them backwards. Sometimes the small keys on P8 and P9 require that you angle the connectors in before snapping them down all the way. Although you cannot plug P8 and P9 in backwards, you certainly can reverse them by putting P8 where P9 should go, and vice versa. When connecting P8 and P9 to the motherboard, keep the black ground wires next to each other. All AT motherboards and power supplies follow this rule. Be careful incorrectly inserting P8 and P9 can damage both the power supply and other components in the PC.
  • 30. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 30 ATX Power Connector ATX uses a single P1 power connector instead of the P8 and P9 commonly found on AT systems. The P1 connector requires its own special socket on the motherboard. P1 connectors include a 3.3-volt wire along with the standard 5-volt and 12-volt wires. The invariably white P1 socket stands out clearly on the motherboard. The P1 has a notched connector that allows you to insert it one way only-you cannot install the P1 connector incorrectly. P1 connector P1 Socket Properly Installed P1 connector Connections to Peripherals A power supply has two or three types of connectors that plug into components such as hard drives, floppy drives, CD-ROM drives, Zip drives, and fans. Let's take a look at each of these power connections. Both AT and ATX share these same types of connectors. Molex Connectors The most common type of connection is called the Molex. The Molex connector is used primarily for devices that need both 12 volts and 5 volts of power (Figure 3-15), such as hard drives and CD media drives. The Molex connector has chamfers (notches), which make for easy installation. These chamfers can be defeated if you push hard enough, so always inspect the Molex connection to ensure proper orientation before you install. Installing a Molex backward will almost certainly destroy the device into which the Molex is connected.
  • 31. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 31 Standard Molex connector Diagram of Molex connector and socket Mini Connectors Most systems also provide a mini connector. The mini is used primarily on 3.5-inch floppy drives, because floppy drive makers have adopted the mini connector for that use. It's very easy to install a mini connector incorrectly, which inevitably results in a smoked floppy drive. The mini connector installs with the 12 volt yellow wire on the left. Socket Standard mini connector Connector Diagram of mini connector and socket CAUTION The label on a power supply that says "Don't Open" means just that! Opening a power supply is dangerous. It is better to completely remove and replace a defective power supply as needed Do not connect power-carrying mini plugs to audio or data devices such as a sound card, because you might damage or destroy those devices Extenders and Splitters PCs can run out of power connections, and large cases can have drives beyond the reach of any plug on the supply. A quick solution on hand to both of these common problems: extenders and splitters Extenders are wire sets that have a Molex connector on each end; they are used to extend a power connection to a device beyond the reach of the power supply's, own wiring Splitters are similar to extenders, with the exception that they provide two power connections from a single power supply connector Power-Supply Problems Power-supply problems can come from both internal and external sources Failure of a power supply can be caused by failure of components within the computer (internal), but the most common failures come from the power source itself (external) Common power delivery problems are spikes, surges, sags, brownouts, and blackouts affect the stability and operation of the main power supply
  • 32. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 32 Power-Protection Devices Surge suppressors (Automatic Voltage Regulator) A device used to filter out the effects of voltage spikes and surges that are present in commercial power sources and smooth out power variations A good surge suppressor will protect your system from most problems Most power strips with surge protection have a red indicator light. If the light goes out, this means that the unit is not providing protection Most power strip/surge protectors should be replaced every year or so. If the light starts flashing before then, the power strip is failing and should be replaced Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) For complete protection from power fluctuations and outages, the uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is recommended A UPS is an inline battery backup. When properly installed between a computer and the wall outlet, a UPS device protects the computer from surges and acts as a battery when the power dips or fails Many models can also interact with the computer and initiate a safe shutdown in the event of a complete power failure They do this by means of software that runs in the background and is set in action by a signal through one of the computer's COM ports when the power goes down 2.2. Ports and Connectors2.2. Ports and Connectors2.2. Ports and Connectors2.2. Ports and Connectors Every cable used with PC has a connector at the end that ultimately plugs into a corresponding port on the PC Connectors and ports can be either male or female, defined as having pins or holes, respectively
  • 33. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 33 Common Peripheral Ports Serial Ports Serial ports transfer data 1 bit at a time and are used to connect mouse, external modems, UPS (for data), Switch It can be either 9-pin or 25-pin male port, but the latest models has only 9-pin serial port Most motherboards have at least one or two serial ports. COM1,COM2 with I/O address 3F8, 2F8 and IRQ4, IRQ3 respectively 9-Pin Serial port 25-Pin Serial port Parallel Ports Parallel communications transfer data 8 bits(1 byte) Examples include parallel ports for printers; game ports for joy sticks; keyboard buses for keyboards Parallel ports are 25-pin female DB ports on the back of PC Traditionally it gets I/O address 278 and IRQ7 25-Pin Parallel port Standard Connectors and Cabling Keyboard Keyboards range from simple, flat 104 key typewriter type to curved types with 20 extra keys for daily essentials( browsing, playing music, etc) Keyboards connect to the PC with one of three connectors A round five-pin DIN (Deutsch Industry Norm) [for AT-style connector] A round six-pin mini-DIN, also called as PS/2 A Universal Serial Bus (USB) connector
  • 34. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 34 Mouse Mouse connect to the computer with 9-pin DB or with a mini-DIN (PS/2) connector or with USB port Video Monitors connect the PC with DB video connector Older CGA (Color/Graphics Adapter) and EGA (Enhanced Graphics Adapter) uses 9-pin female DB connectors The new monitors VGA (Video Graphics Adapter) SVGA (Super VGA) or XGA (Extended Graphics Adapter) uses male DB connectors with 15-pin in three rows Audio All sound cards have integrated mini-audio ports Devices such as microphone and speakers connect to the audio to the audio ports using mini-audio connector MIDI/Joystick Many sound cards have a female DB-15 port to connect Joystick and Musical Instrument Digital Interface These devices connect to the port using a male DB connector with 15-pins in two rows Modems Modems connects the telephone line using RJ-11 connectors use two wires All modems have at least one RJ-11 port and many modems have two RJ-11 ports. Network Cards Network Interface Cards (NIC) enables a PC to be a part of network Most network cables have either RJ-45 or BNC Connector that connects to the NIC port RJ-45 connectors are twisted pair cables that transfer data using four or eight wires BNC connecter fits into the hole in the BNC port
  • 35. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 35 Printers Printers can use either a Centronics port, a USB port, or both Centronics ports are female with two metal clips to the lock the connector The 25-pin male connector at the other end of the cable to the 25-pin female port on the back of PC The square connector on the USB cable connects to the printer, and the rectangular connector on the USB cable to the port on the PC Enhanced Ports and Connectors USB-Universal Serial Bus USB ports transfer data at speed up to 12 Mbps Windows from 98 handles it very well It has two connectors, the rectangular type to USB port and the square shaped type to connect the device We can connect or disconnect at any time without powering down the PC USB technology allows to daisy chain up to 127 devices together using only one IRQ Keyboard, mouse, joystick, microphones, scanner, printers, modems and cameras connects with USB IEEE-1394 or FireWire It is an exciting technology created by Apple, texas and IEEE It transfers at speeds up to 400 Mbps, such incredible speeds make this technology perfect for digital video recorders, external hard drives and other real time devises It can be hot swapped Enables to have daisy chain up to 63 Firewire devices using single IRQ
  • 36. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 36 3. MicroprocessorMicroprocessorMicroprocessorMicroprocessor Microprocessor History A microprocessor -- also known as a CPU or central processing unit -- is a complete computation engine that is fabricated on a single chip. The first microprocessor was the Intel 4004, introduced in 1971. The 4004 was not very powerful -- all it could do was add and subtract, and it could only do that 4 bits at a time. But it was amazing that everything was on one chip. Prior to the 4004, engineers built computers either from collections of chips or from discrete components (transistors wired one at a time). The 4004 powered one of the first portable electronic calculators. The first microprocessor to make it into a home computer was the Intel 8080, a complete 8-bit computer on one chip, introduced in 1974. The first microprocessor to make a real splash in the market was the Intel 8088, introduced in 1979 and incorporated into the IBM PC (which first appeared around 1982). If you are familiar with the PC market and its history, you know that the PC market moved from the 8088 to the 80286 to the 80386 to the 80486 to the Pentium to the Pentium II to the Pentium III to the Pentium 4. All of these microprocessors are made by Intel and all of them are improvements on the basic design of the 8088. The Pentium 4 can execute any piece of code that ran on the original 8088, but it does it about 5,000 times faster! A chip is also called an integrated circuit. Generally it is a small, thin piece of silicon onto which the transistors making up the microprocessor have been etched. A chip might be as large as an inch on a side and can contain tens of millions of transistors. Simpler processors might consist of a few thousand transistors etched onto a chip just a few millimeters square. The following table helps you to understand the differences between the different processors that Intel has introduced over the years. Name Date Transistors Microns Clock speed Data width MIPS 8080 1974 6,000 6 2MHz 8 bits 0.64 8088 1979 29,000 3 5MHz 16 bits 8-bit bus 0.33 80286 1982 134,000 1.5 6MHz 16 bits 1 80386 1985 275,000 1.5 16MHz 32 bits 5 80486 1989 1,200,000 1 25MHz 32 bits 20 Pentium 1993 3,100,000 0.8 60MHz 32 bits 64-bit bus 100 Pentium II 1997 7,500,000 0.35 233MHz 32 bits64-bit bus 300 Pentium III 1999 9,500,000 0.25 450MHz 32 bits64-bit bus 510 Pentium 4 2000 42,000,000 0.18 1.5GHz 32 bits64-bit bus 1,700
  • 37. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 37 Information about this table: The date is the year that the processor was first introduced. Many processors are re- introduced at higher clock speeds for many years after the original release date. Transistors are the number of transistors on the chip. You can see that the number of transistors on a single chip has risen steadily over the years. Microns are the width, in microns, of the smallest wire on the chip. For comparison, a human hair is 100 microns thick. As the feature size on the chip goes down, the number of transistors rises. Clock speed is the maximum rate that the chip can be clocked at. Clock speed will make more sense in the next section. Data Width is the width of the ALU. An 8-bit ALU can add/subtract/multiply/etc. two 8- bit numbers, while a 32-bit ALU can manipulate 32-bit numbers. An 8-bit ALU would have to execute four instructions to add two 32-bit numbers, while a 32-bit ALU can do it in one instruction. In many cases, the external data bus is the same width as the ALU, but not always. The 8088 had a 16-bit ALU and an 8-bit bus, while the modern Pentiums fetch data 64 bits at a time for their 32-bit ALUs. MIPS stand for "millions of instructions per second" and is a rough measure of the performance of a CPU. Inside a Microprocessor A microprocessor executes a collection of machine instructions that tell the processor what to do. Based on the instructions, a microprocessor does three basic things: Using its ALU (Arithmetic/Logic Unit), a microprocessor can perform mathematical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Modern microprocessors contain complete floating-point processors that can perform extremely sophisticated operations on large floating-point numbers. A microprocessor can move data from one memory location to another. A microprocessor can make decisions and jump to a new set of instructions based on those decisions. Intel Pentium Processors Intel's first processor to break away from the x86 naming convention was the Pentium (586) released in 1993. Pentium processors had a Dual Independent Bus Architecture and, as a result, were capable of parallel processing (using two sets of instructions at the same time). Pentium processors came in such speeds as 60, 66, 75, 90,100,120,133,150, and 166 MHz. Pentium processors transmitted data 64-bits at a time, via the 64-bit data bus, located within the processor. The 32-bit address bus of the Pentium processor enabled it to address up to 4GB of memory. Pentium processors have 16K Level 1 (L1) cache memory, and can also access between 256K and 512K of Level 2 (L2) cache.
  • 38. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 38 Pentium 60 and 66 MHz Pentium 60 and 66 MHz processors connected to the motherboard via Socket 4. This processor had a 273-pin Pin Grid Array (PGA) and used 5 volts DC. (The term PGA is used to explain the pin orientation of a processor.) Pentium 75-200 MHz Pentium 75-200 MHz processors came in a 296-pin PGA format and connected the processor to the motherboard via Socket 7. These processors used 3.3 volts DC and could use an active or a passive heat sink. Intel Pentium Pro Processors Intel created the Pentium Pro in 1995 to compete in the high-end server market. The Pentium Pro wasn't meant to replace the Pentium in the company's mainstream market. This processor had a 387-pin SPGA format and connected to the motherboard via Socket 8. The extra pins on this processor generated a lot of heat and an onboard fan was necessary. The Pentium Pro had a 64- bit data bus and a 36-bit address bus. Intel released the Pentium Pro in speeds of 150,166,180, and 200 MHz. All speeds used 3.3 volts DC, except the 150 MHz version of the processor, which used 3.1 volts DC Pentium Pro processors could handle four pipelines simultaneously and, as a result, were capable of performing the equivalent of three simultaneous processes. Intel Pentium MMX Processors Intel created the Pentium MMX, which provided 57 more instructions for multimedia and communication capabilities. This processor had a 321-pin SPGA format and connected to the motherboard using Socket 7. Aside from markings on the chip, the MMX version looks the same as the earlier Pentiums. This processor was available in speeds of 166, 200, and 233 MHz and ran under two voltages. One voltage drove the processor and the other voltage provided the pins with power. Additionally, a 32K L1 cache was available onboard and this processor could support 256-512K L2 cache. Intel Pentium II Processors Intel first introduced the Pentium II processor in 1997. This processor, as shown in Figure blow, had a new package layout or form factor called Single Edge Contact (SEC) and used Slot 1 to connect to the motherboard. The Pentium II processor has a 64-bit wide data bus and a 36-bit wide address bus (effectively 32-bit RAM support). Intel shipped the Pentium II in speeds of 233, 266, 300, and 333 with a system bus speed of 66 MHz; and later shipped Pentium II processors that ran on a 100 MHz bus at core speeds of 350, 400, and 450 MHz. Regardless of the speed, and even running on only 3.3 volts DC, all Pentium II processors require special
  • 39. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 39 cooling fans. In addition, the Pentium II contains 32K of L1 cache and 512K L2 cache that runs at half the speed of the processor core. Intel Pentium III Processors Intel released the Pentium III processor in 1999 to replace the aging Pentium II. The Pentium III initially came out in a 242-pin SEC package, but Intel eventually released the 370-pin PGA form factor. The 242-pin SEC connected to the motherboard using Slot 1 and used 2 volts DC. The 370-pin PGA connected to the motherboard using the PG370 ZIF socket, often referred to as simply Socket 370. Figure blow shows an SEC Pentium III. Pentium III processors came out in a wide variety of core speeds and motherboard system speeds. Initially released at 450 MHz with a 100 MHz system speed, Intel kept cranking up the speeds until the P-III topped out at 1.3 GHz and a 133 MHz system speed. Other variations exist as well. The Pentium IIIB techs introduced onboard Advanced Transfer Cache (ATC). Usually both technologies were desired to greatly improve speed and performance. Intel Pentium IV Processors The Pentium 4 is a seventh-generation x86 architecture microprocessor produced by Intel and is their first all new CPU design, called the Net Burst architecture, since the Pentium Pro of 1995. The original Pentium 4, codenamed "Willamette", ran at 1.4 and 1.5 GHz and was released in November 2000 on the Socket 423 platform. Unlike the Pentium II, Pentium III, and various Celerons, the architecture owed little to the Pentium Pro design, and was new from the ground up. Notable with the introduction of the Pentium 4 was the very fast 400 MHz FSB; it was actually a 100 MHz Quad-pumped bus, but the theoretical bandwidth was 4x that of a normal bus, and so it was considered to run at 400 MHz- the fastest competition was running at 266 MHz (133 MHz Double-pumped).
  • 40. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 40 4.4.4.4. MemoryMemoryMemoryMemory The memory holds instructions, data that needs to be processed and the results. It is divided into two types; Primary memory is the main memory on the motherboard of the computer, and Secondary memory is the storage media used to store the program or data permanently. The primary memory is of two types: ROM and RAM ReaReaReaReadddd----Only Memory (ROM)Only Memory (ROM)Only Memory (ROM)Only Memory (ROM) ROM is a type of memory that normally can only be read, as opposed to RAM which can be both read and written. There are two main reasons that read-only memory is used for certain functions within the PC: The values stored in ROM are always there, whether the power is on or not. A ROM can be removed from the PC, stored for an indefinite period of time, and then replaced, and the data it contains will still be there. For this reason, it is called non-volatile storage. A hard disk is also non-volatile, for the same reason, but regular RAM is not. Read-only memory is most commonly used to store system-level programs that we want to have available to the PC at all times. The most common example is the system BIOS program, which is stored in a ROM called the system BIOS ROM. Having this in a permanent ROM means it is available when the power is turned on so that the PC can use it to boot up the system. The following are the different types of ROMs with a description of their relative modifiability: ROM: A regular ROM is constructed from hard-wired logic, encoded in the silicon itself, much the way that a processor is. It is designed to perform a specific function and cannot be changed. This is inflexible and so regular ROMs are only used generally for programs that are static (not changing often) and mass-produced. This product is analogous to a commercial software CD-ROM that you purchase in a store. Programmable ROM (PROM): This is a type of ROM that can be programmed using special equipment; it can be written to, but only once. This is useful for companies that make their own ROMs from software they write, because when they change their code they can create new PROMs without requiring expensive equipment. This is similar to the way a CD-ROM recorder works by letting you "burn" programs onto blanks once and then letting you read from them many times. In fact, programming a PROM is also called burning, just like burning a CD-R, and it is comparable in terms of its flexibility. Erasable Programmable ROM (EPROM): An EPROM is a ROM that can be erased and reprogrammed. A little glass window is installed in the top of the ROM package, through which you can actually see the chip that holds the memory. Ultraviolet light of a specific frequency can be shined through this window for a specified period of time, which will erase the EPROM and allow it to be reprogrammed again. Obviously this is much more useful than a regular PROM, but it does require the erasing light. Continuing the "CD" analogy, this technology is analogous to a reusable CD-RW.
  • 41. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 41 Electrically Erasable Programmable ROM (EEPROM): The next level of eras ability is the EEPROM, which can be erased under software control. This is the most flexible type of ROM, and is now commonly used for holding BIOS programs. When you hear reference to a "flash BIOS" or doing a BIOS upgrade by "flashing", this refers to reprogramming the BIOS EEPROM with a special software program. Here we are blurring the line a bit between what "read-only" really means, but remember that this rewriting is done maybe once a year or so, compared to real read-write memory (RAM) where rewriting is done often many times per second! Random Access Memory (RAM)Random Access Memory (RAM)Random Access Memory (RAM)Random Access Memory (RAM) The kind of memory used for holding programs and data being executed is called random access memory or RAM. RAM differs from read-only memory (ROM) in that it can be both read and written. It is considered volatile storage because unlike ROM, the contents of RAM are lost when the power is turned off. Obviously, RAM needs to be writeable in order for it to do its job of holding programs and data that you are working on. The volatility of RAM also means that you risk losing what you are working on unless you save it frequently. There are many different types of RAMs, including static RAM (SRAM) and many flavors of dynamic RAM (DRAM). Static RAM (SRAM) Static RAM is a type of RAM that holds its data without external refresh, for as long as power is supplied to the circuit. This is contrasted to dynamic RAM (DRAM), which must be refreshed many times per second in order to hold its data contents. SRAMs don't require external refresh circuitry or other work in order for them to keep their data intact and SRAM is faster than DRAM. SRAM is superior to DRAM, and we would use it exclusively if only we could do so economically. Unfortunately, 32 MB of SRAM would be prohibitively large and costly, which is why DRAM is used for system memory. SRAMs are used instead for level 1cache and level 2 cache memory, for which it is perfectly suited; cache memory needs to be very fast, and not very large. Dynamic RAM (DRAM) Dynamic RAM is a type of RAM that only holds its data if it is continuously accessed by special logic called a refresh circuit. Many hundreds of times each second, this circuitry reads the contents of each memory cell, whether the memory cell is being used at that time by the computer or not. Due to the way in which the cells are constructed, the reading action itself refreshes the contents of the memory. If this is not done regularly, then the DRAM will lose its contents, even if it continues to have power supplied to it. This refreshing action is why the memory is called dynamic. All PCs use DRAM for their main system memory, instead of SRAM, even though DRAMs are slower than SRAMs and require the overhead of the refresh circuitry.
  • 42. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 42 Generally Static RAM and Dynamic RAM summarized as follow: Static RAM It uses transistor to store data. Doesn't need refreshment because it is made mainly from transistor. It is the fastest memory. It is difficult to manufacture it in large capacity [size]. Therefore, you may not get it in the mad easily. It is used to build cache memory. Note: The cache memory is a small size memory, which found inside the CPU [and built-in motherboard]. If no cache memory, the CPU will be in a wait-state to talk to the other memory. Faster the speed of the cache memory, the better the performance of the CPU will be. Dynamic RAM It uses capacitor to store data. It needs a periodic refresh because 1t 1S 1 mainly from capacitors. It uses more power than SRAM. Easy to manufacture and used to build DRAM that most people call it RAM. RAM modules SIMM: - Single Inline Memory Module. It is a type memory stick found in 486 (old) and some Pentium systems. These RAM modules are available in either 30-pin or 72-pin layouts. 30-pin SIMMs put out 8 bits of data on the data bus at one time, which makes them 8-bits wide. They come in 1-16MB sticks. 72-pin SIMMs are 32-bits wide and are available in MB to 64MB sticks. 72-pin and 30-pin SIMMs DIMM: - stands for Dual Inline Memory Module. It is faster in speed and better in capacity for regular desktop PCs look similar to SIMMs, but are wider and longer. DIMMs have 168-pins, are 64-bits wide, and range in capacity from 8M B to 256MB sticks. The 144-pin SO DIMMs are also 64 bits wide and come in roughly the same capacities as regular DIMMs. The 72-pin SO DIMMs for laptop PCs, in contrast, are only 32-bits wide. 168-pin DIMMs
  • 43. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 43 RIMM: - stands for Rambus Inline Memory Module in RIMM, the open slot must be filled with a sp stick called CRIMM (Continuous RIMM). Sticks look like DIMMs, but have 184 pins and are 16-18-bits wide. Rambus memory modules can be purchased in 32, 48, 64, 96, 128, and 256MB sizes, and have 600, 700, and 800 MHz data transfer rates. RIMM Note: CRIMM is not a RAM; simply it is a terminator for open slot. Remember the four type of RAM: 30pin SIMMs=8bit in wide. 72pin SIMMs=32bit in wide. 168pin DIMMs = 64bitin wide. 72pin DIMMs = 32 bit in wide (for laptop). 5.5.5.5. ExpansionExpansionExpansionExpansion slotsslotsslotsslots It is an expansion bus slot, which is used to attach 3dapter cards to the motherboard. There are three main types of expansion standards: ISA-Industry Standard Architecture ISA slots are black in color, long, slow speed and old type architecture. 8-bit and 16-bit wide lSA are common types of architecture. The above two ISA slots and the three short PCI slots
  • 44. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 44 PCl- Peripheral Component Interconnect PCI slots are white in color, short, faster than lSA and modern type architecture. 32-bit [old type] and 64 bit wide PCl are common types of architecture. These days, every card plugs on PCl slots. AGP-Acce1erated Graphics Port AGP slots are brown in color, very short, faster speed and it is only designed for modern graphic [video] cards. 64-bit wide is a common AGP slot and it is only found in Pentium II system and above. Bus and bits A bus is the physical pathway on the motherboard through which a group of bits computer only knows two digits. i.e. 0’s and 1’[binary system]. Capacity units used in computer-language 1 Byte [B} ..............................8 - bits 1 Kilobyte [KB). .................1,024 [103] bytes 1 Megabyte [MB] ............... 1,024 kilo [106] bytes 1 Gigabyte [GB]. ...............1,024 mega [109]-bytes
  • 45. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 45 6.6.6.6. Drives areDrives areDrives areDrives are SSSStorage mediatorage mediatorage mediatorage media A drive is the name for several types of storage media. There are also storage media, which are not drives (RAM, Tape Streamers), but on these pages, we will discuss the drives. Common to drive medium is: A file system can be assigned to them. They are recognized by the operating system and they are assigned a drive letter. During start up, drives are typically recognized by the PC system software (ROM BIOS + operating system). Thus, the PC knows which drives are installed. At the end of this configuration, the appropriate drive letter is identified with each drive. If a drive is not "seen" during start up, it will not be accessible to the operating system. However, some external drives contain special soft-ware, allowing them to be connected during operation. Some examples of drives Storage media Drive letter Floppy disks A: B: Hard disk C: E: F: CDROM/DVD D: Storage principles Storage: Magnetic or optic. Data on any drive are digitized. That means that they are expressed as myriads of 0s and 1s. However, the storage of these bits is done in any of three principles: The physical drive principle Disk types Magnetic Floppy disks Hard disk Zip drive Optic CD-ROM DVD-ROM USB flash disk Interface Individual drives are connected to other PC components through an interface. The hard disk interface is IDE, SATA or SCSI, which in modern PCs is connected to the PCI bus. Certain drives can also be connected through a parallel port or the floppy controller:
  • 46. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 46 Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) has a history of gradual development. After going through much technological advancement, it has evolved into what is today known as PATA. The under laying standard for IDE is AT attachment and hence the name PATA. The name PATA has been the retronym for IDE since the introduction SATA. In IDE standard, the cable length is limited to 460mm. Because of this, most of the devices that use IDE are internal to the computer. Before the advent of SATA, IDE was the most inexpensive and widely available standard in market. But SATA, in recent times has gradually captured IDE market. IDE is a disk drive implementation that integrates the controller on the disk drive itself. ATA is used to connect hard disk drives, CD-ROM drives and similar peripherals and supports 8/16-bit interface that transfer up to 8.3MB/s for ATA-2 and up to 100MB/s (ATA-6). Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) If you think SATA is any different than SCSI or IDE, well their end result in functionality is pretty much the same. Just as SCSI is different from IDE, SATA also has some of its own characteristics. SATA is an acronym for Serial AT attachment. The work on SATA began with an aim of replacing the older IDE technology. The developers of SATA interface were successful in using the same commands that were used for IDE. As explained above, IDE is a parallel technology, while SATA is a serial technology. SATA also has an IDE emulation mode, which means that SATA interface can operate as IDE, if the computer motherboard is of old technology and does not support advanced host control interface. Serial ATA is a serial link - a single cable with a minimum of four wires creates a point-to-point connection between devices. Transfer rates for Serial ATA begin at 150MB/s. Small computer system interface (SCSI) SCSI is pronounced "skuzzy". Now that is out of the way, here is the technical explanation. Every computer needs to be connected with peripheral devices once in a while. Basically, peripheral devices are those devices that are connected externally to the computer. Now where does SCSI fit in over here? SCSI is set of standards that are used to communicate with the peripheral devices. These standards are also used while transferring the data between computer and external devices. SCSI is generally used for communicating with hard drives. It is also used for communicating with other peripheral devices such as USB flash drives, CD ROM, printers and many data storage devices. SCSI interfaces provide for data transmission rates (up to 80 megabytes per second). In addition, you can attach multiple devices to a single SCSI port, so that SCSI is really an I/O bus rather than simply an interface.
  • 47. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 47 Hard disks Hard disks consist of one or more magnetic disks contained in a box. They are used as storage media in the PC, where you store programs and other digital data. In the early years of PC development, the low cost floppy drives were the preferred storage media. But with IBM's XT in 1983-84, the hard disk became the preferred medium. The first hard disks were rather large units (5.25" diameter) and of poor quality. The modern hard disks are 3.5" diameter. A typical example is the Quantum Fireball, which you see above. The cover plate has been removed, so you can see the top arm with its read/write head. A hard disk uses round, flat disks called platters, coated on both sides with a special media material designed to store information in the form of magnetic patterns. The platters are mounted by cutting a hole in the center and stacking them onto a spindle. The platters rotate at high speed, driven by a special spindle motor connected to the spindle. Special electromagnetic read/write devices called heads are mounted onto sliders and used to either record information onto the disk or read information from it. The sliders are mounted onto arms, all of which are mechanically connected into a single assembly and positioned over the surface of the disk by a device called an actuator. A logic board controls the activity of the other components and communicates with the rest of the PC. Each platter has two heads, one on the top of the platter and one on the bottom, so a hard disk with three platters (normally) has six surfaces and six total heads.
  • 48. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 48 Each platter has its information recorded in concentric circles called tracks. Each track is further broken down into smaller pieces called sectors, each of which holds 512 bytes of information. Read/write heads All hard disks consist of thin platters with a magnetic coating. They rotate quite fast inside a metal container. Data are written and read by read/write heads, which are designed to ride on a microscopic cushion of air, without touching the platter. They register bits from the magnetic coating, which races past them. On the illustration below, you see a hard disk with three platters. It has 6 read/write heads, which move synchronously. The arms, which guide the movement of the read/write heads, move in and out. The read/write head consists of a tiny electromagnet. The shape of the head end acts like an air foil, lifting the read/write head slightly above the spinning disk below. When the disk rotates under the read/write head, it can either read existing data or write new ones: If a current is applied to the coil, the head will become magnetic. This magnetism will orient the micro magnets in the track. This is write mode. If the head moves along the track without current applied to the coil, it will sense the micro magnets in the track. This magnetism will induce a current in the coil. These flashes of current represent the data on the disk. This is read mode. Hard Disk Logical Structures and File Systems The file system is the general name given to the logical structures and software routines used to control access to the storage on a hard disk system. The nature of the logical structures on the hard disk has an important influence on the performance, reliability, expandability and compatibility of your storage subsystem. Master Boot Record (MBR) To ensure that the PC can always boot regardless of which BIOS is in the machine, chip makers and BIOS manufacturers arrange so that the processor, once turned on, always starts executing at the same place, FFFF0h. In a similar manner, every hard disk must have a consistent "starting point" where key information is stored about the disk, such as how many partitions it has, what sort of partitions they are, etc.
  • 49. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 49 The place where this information is stored is called the master boot record (MBR). It is also sometimes called the master boot sector or even just the boot sector. (Though the master boot sector should not be confused with volume boot sectors, which are different.) The master boot record is always located at cylinder 0, head 0, and sector 1, the first sector on the disk. This is the consistent "starting point" that the disk always uses. When the BIOS boots the machine, it will look here for instructions and information on how to boot the disk and load the operating system. The master boot record contains the following structures: Master Partition Table: This small table contains the descriptions of the partitions that are contained on the hard disk. There is only room in the master partition table for the information describing four partitions. Therefore, a hard disk can have only four true partitions, also called primary partitions. Any additional partitions are logical partitions that are linked to one of the primary partitions. One of the partitions is marked as active, indicating that it is the one that the computer should use for booting up. The following procedure outlines the installation of a hard disk. 1. Disconnect the power to the computer 2. Configure the appropriate master/slave settings or SCSI ID for the drive 3. Insert the drive into an available drive bay. If the drive is too small for the bay, you will need a mounting kit 4. Screw in the 4 screws - 2 on each side of the bay 5. If the drive is an IDE disk, connect the IDE cable to the drive. There should be a stripe along 1 edge of the cable. This stripe denotes pin 1. Pin 1 on the drive is usually closest to the power connector on the drive, however, you should consult the manufacturers documentation. Then connect the signal cable to the motherboard ID1 or ID2 interface making sure to note the pin 1 orientation there as well. If the drive is a SCSI drive, a SCSI cable would be connected from the drive to a SCSI controller card. 6. Connect one of the power supply's power connectors to the drive Hard disk maintenance Avoid rough handling Never move a disk when it is still spinning Never expose the internal housing to open air Perform regular data backups and disk maintenance tasks(Disk cleanup and Disk De-fragmentation)
  • 50. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 50 Floppy Disk Diskettes were developed as a low cost alternative to hard disks. In the 60s and 70s, when hard disk prices were excessive. The first diskettes were introduced in 1971. They were 8" diameter plastic disks with a magnetic coating, enclosed in a cardboard case. They had a capacity of one megabyte. The diskettes are placed in a drive, which has read and write heads. Conversely to hard disks, the heads actually touch the disk, like in a cassette or video player. This wears the media. Later, in 1976, 5.25" diskettes were introduced. They had far less capacity (only 160 KB to begin with). However, they were inexpensive and easy to work with. For many years, they were the standard in PCs. Like the 8" diskettes, the 5.25" were soft and flexible. Therefore, they were named floppy disks. In 1987 IBM's revolutionary PS/2 PCs were introduced and with them the 3½" hard diskettes we know today. These diskettes have a thinner magnetic coating, allowing more tracks on a smaller surface. The track density is measured in TPI (tracks per inch). The TPI has been increased from 48 to 96 and now 135 in the 3.5" diskettes. Diskette drives turn at 300 RPM. That results in an average search time (½ revolution) of 100 ms. Floppy Disk Drive Construction and Operation In terms of construction and operation, floppy drives are similar to hard disk drives, only simpler. Of course, unlike hard disks, floppy disk drives use removable floppy media instead of integrated storage platters. Read/Write Heads The read/write heads on the floppy disk are used to convert binary data to electromagnetic pulses, when writing to the disk, or the reverse, when reading. There are several important differences between floppy disk and hard disk read/write heads. One is that floppy disk heads are larger and much less precise than hard disk heads, because the track density of a floppy disk is much lower than that of a hard disk. Hard disks have a track density of thousands of tracks per inch, while floppy disks have a track density of 135 tracks per inch or less. The floppy drive, however, is a contact recording technology. This means that the heads directly contact the disk media, instead of using floating heads that skim over the surface the way hard disks do. Contact recording also makes the floppy disk system more sensitive to dirt-induced errors, cause by the media getting scratched or pitted. For this reason, floppy disks are much less reliable, overall, than hard disks. Head Actuator
  • 51. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 51 The head actuator is the device that physically positions the read/write heads over the correct track on the surface of the disk. Floppy disks generally contain 80 tracks per side. The actuator is driven by a stepper motor. Over time, however, a floppy disk can develop difficulties if the track positioning of the actuator drifts from what is normal. This is called a head alignment problem. When the heads become misaligned, you may notice that disks will work if formatted, written and then read in the same drive, but not if moved from one drive to another. This is because the formatting of the floppy is what defines where the data is placed. Misalignment can be solved by having the heads on the floppy disk realigned. The head actuators on a floppy disk are very slow, compared to hard disks, which makes their seek time much higher. While a hard disk's actuator can move from the innermost to outermost tracks in about 20 milliseconds, a floppy disk will typically take 10 times that amount of time or more. This is one reason why floppy disks are much slower than hard disks. Spindle Motor The spindle motor on the floppy is what spins the floppy disk when it is in the drive. When the disk is inserted, clamps come down on the middle of the disk to physically grasp it. These clamps are attached to the spindle motor, which turns the disk as it spins. The speed of the spindle motor depends on the type of floppy drive. 360 KB 5.25" 1.2 MB 5.25" 720 KB 3.5" 1.44 MB 3.5" 2.88 MB 3.5" Spindle Speed 300 RPM 360 RPM 300 RPM 300 RPM 300 RPM Logic Board The floppy disk contains an integrated logic board that acts as the drive controller. Like the rest of the floppy disk this is a relatively simple affair, containing the electronics that control the read/write heads, the spindle motor, head actuator and other components. The circuits on this board also talk to the floppy disk controller over the floppy interface. SCSI floppy disks of course include a SCSI interface chip on the logic board to talk over the SCSI interface. Low-Level and High-Level Formatting There are two steps involved in formatting magnetic media such as floppy disks and hard disks The first step involves the creation of the actual structures on the surface of the media that are used to hold the data. This means recording the tracks and marking the start of each sector on each track. This is called low-level formatting. The second formatting step is high-level formatting. This is the process of creating the disk's logical structures such as the file allocation table and root directory. The high-level format uses the structures created by the low-level format to prepare the disk to hold files using the chosen file system.
  • 52. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 52 For a hard disk, there is an intermediate task that is performed between the two formatting steps: partitioning. For this reason, combined with the incredible complexity of modern hard disks, they are low-level formatted by the manufacturer, and high-level formatting is done by the DOS FORMAT command (or equivalent). Floppy disks require no intermediate step, and due to their relative simplicity, they are both low-level and high-level formatted at the same time by default when you use the FORMAT command. Troubleshooting Floppy Disk Drives Getting a "Data error reading drive A:/B:" or "Sector not found" while trying to read a floppy disk Explanation: You are receiving errors trying to read the contents of a floppy disk. The contents of one of the sectors on the disk cannot be read. Diagnosis: Unfortunately, the most common cause of data error or sector not found messages is media failure; floppy disk media is just not that reliable and will eventually fail if used frequently. There are many different factors that can contribute to the failure of floppy disks, and with proper care, they can be made to last a reasonable amount of time, but they all fail if used any significant amount. Warning: Do not store original work on floppy disks, or use them as a primary storage area for your active files. The chances of failure are too great, and their performance is very low. Use the hard disk instead, and use floppies only for file transfer and backup (if you don't have better options like CDs and ZIP). Recommendation: Try ejecting and then reinserting the disk. You'd be surprised how often this fixes the problem. There may be dirt or dust on the surface of the disk. Sometimes tapping the edge of the disk on a hard surface a few times will loosen whatever is causing the problem and let you read the disk. I would recommend emptying its contents to a hard disk subdirectory and then discarding the floppy in favor of a new one. Clean the floppy drive read heads. Dirty heads can cause read errors, especially if this is occurring with more than one disk. Make sure the floppy drive types are properly set up in the system BIOS. Try the problem disk in a different PC, if available. Try other disks in this drive. Sometimes a disk will work fine in one floppy but not in another. If you find that one particular drive always has problems reading disks then it has a misaligned head. You can "repair" a damaged disk by using a disk utility such as Microsoft's Scandisk or Norton's Disk Doctor to mark the unreadable sectors as bad and allow the rest of the disk to be used. The data in the bad sector is tried to be recovered otherwise it will lost, but the rest of the file will be recoverable. I do not recommend reusing a floppy disk after it starts showing read errors.
  • 53. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 53 Have a floppy drive that is consistently giving read errors (data errors, sectors not found) Explanation: Your floppy disk drive is giving a large number of read errors, even when using different disks or different brands of disks. Diagnosis: This symptom usually means that the floppy drive needs to be replaced. In some cases the problem is that the drive has become misaligned. This can be fixed, but today it is more economical to just replace the drive. Recommendation: The first step to try is to clean the drive. Consistent errors can be caused by dirt or debris on the heads. Test to see if the drive is having problems reading all types of disks, or only disks that it did not format. If the drive will read disks that it formats consistently, but will not read disks formatted on other drives, this implies an alignment problem; the drive's tracks are not lined up with where they should be, but if this incorrect alignment is used when formatting then the alignment problem will be masked (until you take the disk to a different PC). You will probably want to replace the floppy drive. It is possible that the floppy disk cable has come loose or that there is another similar physical problem, which you may want to double-check. Try replacing the floppy disk drive with another and see if the problem goes away; it usually will. Floppy disk Maintenance tips Don’t expose the disk to magnets Never touch the exposed surface Clean the head using head cleaning diskettes and solutions. The Optic Media (CD-ROMs and DVD) CD-ROM and DVD are optic readable media, contrary to hard disks, floppy disks and tapes, which are magnetic. The optic storage media are read with a very thin and very precisely aimed laser beam. They have clear advantages in the areas of data density and stability: Data can be packed much more densely in optic media than in magnetic media. And they have much longer life span. It is presumed that magnetic media, such as a hard disk or DAT (digital audio tape) can maintain their data for a maximum of five years. The magnetism simply fades away in time. Conversely, the life span of optic media are counted in tens of years. The Compact Disk
  • 54. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 54 The compact disk (CD) was introduced by Philips and Sony in 1980 It is a small plastic disk with a reflecting metal coating, usually aluminum. Myriads of tiny indentations are burned into this coating. These indentations contain the music in millions of bits. The CD is organized in tracks. The CD-ROM The CD-ROM (Read Only Memory) came as an extension of the CD in 1984. In principle, the media and the drives are the same. The difference is in the data storage organization. In a CD ROM, the data are stored in sectors, which can be read independently - like from a hard disk. About Optic Data Storage The CD-ROM can be compared to a floppy drive, because the disks are removable. It can also be compared with a hard drive, because of similar data storage capacity. Actually, a CD-ROM disk can hold up to 700 MB of data. In the optic readable CD-ROM, the data storage consists of millions of indentations burnt into the lacquer coated, light reflecting silver surface. The burnt dents reflect less light than the shiny surface. A weak laser beam is sent to the disk through a two-way mirror and the sensor registers the difference in light reflection from the burnt and shiny areas as zeros and ones. Tracks Our data consist of bits, each of which is a burnt dent or a shiny spot on the CD-ROM disk. Music CDs are designed much in the same manner. The bits are not splashed across the disk, but arranged in a pattern along the track. Without that organization, you could not read the data. The platters in hard disks and floppies are organized in concentric tracks. There can be hundreds of those from center to periphery: The CD-ROM is designed differently. It has only one track, a spiral winding its way from the center to the outer edge: This 6 km long spiral track holds up to 700 MB data in about 5.5 billion dots (each is one bit). CD-Rom Technology CD-ROM store data as a series of 1s and 0s, just like a floppy or a hard disk drive. However, instead of using magnetic energy to read and write data, CD readers and writers user laser energy A CD platter is composed of a reflective layer of aluminum applied to a synthetic base that is composed of polymers. A layer of transparent polycarbonate covers the aluminum. A protective coating of lacquer is applied to the surface to protect it from dust, dirt and scratches. Data is written by creating pits and lands on the CD’s surface. A pit a depression on the surface, and a land is the height of the original surface. The transition from a land to a pit or a pit to a land represents a binary character 1. Lands and pits represent 0
  • 55. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 55 The reading of data is based on timing, the speed at which the CD is rotating and the reflection of light. The DVD media The DVD is a high-capacity optic media with capacity 4.7gb The DVD standard was developed in the mid 1990s by leading companies like Philips and Sony. DVD stands for Digital Versatile Disk. The DVD is an all-round disk, which probably will replace CD-ROM and laser disks. Some DVD drives can both read and write the disks. The drives are sold in many versions and with many incompatible sub-standards. The DVD is a flat disk of the same size as a CD. It holds a diameter of 4.7 inches (12 cm) and is .05 inches (1.2 mm) thick. Data are stored in a small indentation in a spiral track, just like in the CD, only the tracks are narrower. DVD disks are read by a laser beam of shorter wave-length than used by the CDROM drives. This allows for smaller indentations and increased storage capacity. DVD types DVD-ROM This is the most simple format made for data read-only. It is like a beefed-up CD-ROM. This medium is usable for distribution of software and other data for PC use. DVD Video disk This the most important standard. it is a highly sophisticated and very complex format mixing video, sound and data in a very special format. DVD-R The Recordable DVD are written once only like CD-R. This disk can hold 3.95 GB per side . DVD RAM/+RW There a at least three different and in-compatible formats of re-writable DVD. The disk can be written and read like a hard disk or perhaps more like a CD-RW. Troubleshooting CD-ROM The most common causes of optical disk problems are scratches dirt and other contamination It is possible to clean the bottom surface of the CD with soft cloth. The best technique is to wipe the disk in radial fashion, using strokes that start from the center of the disk and emanate towards the outer edge. This way the scratches will be perpendicular to the tracks rather than parallel to them minimizing the interference they might cause
  • 56. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 56 Read errors can also occur when dust accumulates on the read lens of the drive. It is possible to clean their drive by using canned air or standard cleaners. If CD not recognized at boot First make sure the cable is connected properly Check the master-slave jumpers, if both drivers are on the same cable Check device manager for status of the drive If “Not ready reading drive” Either you selected the CD too quickly after loading and the OS needs to catch up or the CD is dirty, clean with dry cloth. Use a soft clean dry cloth, never use a wet solution. 7.7.7.7. Video SystemVideo SystemVideo SystemVideo System Monitor Monitor is a display device that takes the electrical signals from the video card and forms an image using points of colored light on the screen. A monitor may use one of the several display technologies; CRT (Cathode Rays Tube), LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) Gas plasma displays. CAUTION Repairing the inside of monitors is a job more in the realm of a TV repairman than a computer technician. Monitors generally carry warnings that they contain no user-serviceable parts for good reason. It should not be taken as an invitation to probe inside them where the risk of serious electrical shock is high. The Cathode-Ray Tube (CRT) The cathode-ray tube (CRT) is the main component of a traditional monitor. The rear of the CRT holds a cylinder that contains one or more electron guns. Most color monitors have three guns in back—one for each of the colors red, green, and blue. This combination (referred to as RGB) allows the visual production of all colors. The wide end of the CRT is the display screen, which has a phosphor coating (a substance that can emit light when hit with radiation). When active, the guns beam a stream of charged electrons onto the phosphorus coating. When the coating is hit with the right amount of energy, light is produced in a pattern of very small dots. There is one dot for each primary color (RGB), and the dots are grouped in patterns close together. The name for a collection of all dots in a specific location is a pixel (which stands for picture element). Screen Resolution The term resolution refers to the degree of detail offered in the presentation of an image; computer-monitor manufacturers express resolution in pixels per inch. The greater the number of pixels per inch, the sharper the picture. In an ordinary screen, each pixel consists of three colors: Red, green and blue. Thus, there are actually three "sub dots" in each pixel. But they are so small that they "melt" together as one dot:
  • 57. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 57 Monitor resolution is usually expressed as "a" x "b" where "a" is the number of horizontal pixels, and "b" is the number of vertical pixels. For example, 640 x 480 means that the monitor resolution is 640 pixels horizontally by 480 pixels vertically. For example: 640 x 480 is the standard VGA resolution of 640 pixels per line, 480 lines deep. Power-Saving Features Because they are the highest consumers of electrical current in the average PC, most new monitors provide some level of power-saving technology. Consequently, VESA has established a standard set of power economy controls to reduce power use when the monitor is idle. These are collectively referred to as Display Power-Management Signaling (DPMS) modes. Monitor Status Video Signal Sent Monitor Activity Level Amount of Power Saved Recovery Time to Normal Display On Yes Active None N/A Standby No Inactive Fair Minimal Suspend Yes Inactive Good Long Off No Inactive Excellent Longest (Virtually the same as full power) Frequently turning a monitor on and off places stress on the components. DPMS reduces the need to use the mechanical switch to turn the device on or off. Monitor Maintenance Monitor care and troubleshooting are usually simple tasks. Here are some general guidelines to follow: Make sure the enclosure is properly ventilated. Covering the opening on the case can lead to overheating. Dust the unit at regular intervals. Clean the face of the CRT gently: Follow the instructions in the product manual. In most cases, this means dusting the glass with a clean soft cloth. Do not use window cleaners that contain solvents on the unit. Make sure that all driver settings are kept within the operating guidelines of the product. Never operate at higher resolutions or refresh rates than those specified by the vendor, and stay within the limits of the display adapter. Use any automatic energy-conservation features supported by the hardware and operating system. Employ a screen saver on older models that lack energy-saving features. If possible, do not turn the monitor on and off more than twice a day. When a monitor fails to operate or produces an improper image, check the following: Check all cables, including power and display. Check the front panel controls. Make any appropriate minor adjustments that are needed.
  • 58. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 58 Check and, if needed, reinstall the display drivers. Make sure all settings are within the required limits. Reinstall by returning to a plain 16-color, VGA display mode and adding resolution; then increase the refresh rate. Try another display adapter; then, if the problem is still unresolved, try another computer. If the monitor still shows problems, refer to a specialist for further tests. Liquid crystal display (LCD) A digital display technology that produces images on a flat surface by shining light through liquid crystals and colored filters. Takes up less space, consumes less power, and produces less heat than traditional cathode-ray tube monitors. Lack of flicker and low glare reduce eyestrain. Much more expensive than CRTs of comparable size. Available for years as the default display on laptops, sleek screens based on liquid crystal display technology are increasingly moving onto the desktop. LCDs have many advantages over cathode-ray tube monitors. They offer crisp text and no annoying flicker, which means they can help reduce eyestrain. Because they're usually less than ten inches thick, desktop LCD monitors take up much less space than their traditional CRT counterparts. The downside: The color quality of LCD displays typically can't compare with that of CRTs, and the high price tags of desktop LCDs mean they're still a luxury for most. Video Adaptor It converts the processor’s output information into a video signal that can be sent through a cable to the monitor. The display adapter has gone through several major evolutions as the nature of PC computing has changed from simple word processing and number crunching, to the graphics-intensive world of Windows and multimedia Advanced Display Systems The VGA card quickly became commonplace for a PC display system, and the race was on to produce cards with more colors, more resolution, and additional features. VESA (Video Electronics Standards Association) agreed on a standard list of display modes that extended VGA into the high-resolution world of color and high photographic quality we know today. The standard is known as SVGA (Super VGA). The SVGA sets specifications for resolution, refresh rates, and color depth for compatible adapters. On Pentium and later PCs, an SVGA adapter is the standard for display adapters. The minimum resolution needed for SVGA compatibility is 640 x 480 with 256 colors, and most modern adapters usually go far beyond that. Video Memory The amount of memory on a display adapter is a major factor in determining the screen resolution and color depth that the card can manage. Just as with system RAM, the video
  • 59. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 59 memory must be able to operate at a speed that can keep up with the processor, and the demands of the system clock. If the display adapter is too slow at updating the image on the monitor, the user is left waiting or is presented with jerky mouse movements and keystrokes that appear in delayed bursts rather than as typed Most video adapter cards have the following components. The Video BIOS: Is the programming in the BIOS chip that enables the system to display information on the monitor during the POST and boot sequences, before any other software drivers have been loaded from the disk The Video Processor: Is the heart of any video adapter and defines the card function and performance levels. The Video memory: Video imaged are stored while processing, the amount of memory on the adapter determines the maximum screen resolution and color depth that the device can support. The digital to analog converter: is responsible for converting the digital images produced by the computer to analog signal that the monitor could display. The Bus connector: The majority of adapters on the market use PCI bus, the recent bus AGP, a dedicated video bus deliver a maximum bandwidth four times larger than a comparable PCI bus. The Video driver: Generally supports the processor on the video adapter, they enable the software to communicate with the video adapter. The video driver also provides interface that can be used to configure the display produced by the adapter. Adapter and display troubleshooting A defective of dysfunctional adapter is replaced as a single unit rather than repaired If the display goes out swap with other monitor to confirm if that display is the problem. If the problem disappears then it almost certainly in the display or cable, if not the problem is in the video adapter or PC itself. The monitor cable can sometimes be the source of display problems. A bent pin in the connector that plugs into the video adapter can prevent the monitor from displaying images Use specialized diagnostic and testing programs like Display mate Display circuits can hold extremely high voltages for hours, days or even weeks after the power is shut off.
  • 60. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 60 Sound System What is a Sound? All sound starts as pressure variations traveling through the air. Sound can come from almost anywhere—a barking dog, a laughing child, a fire engine’s siren, a person speaking. The process of recording sound to a hard drive requires sound to be carried through several manipulations. First, sound must be translated from pressure variations in the air to analog electrical signals. This is accomplished by a microphone. These analog signals are amplified by the sound card, then digitized (converted to a series of representative digital words each taken at a fixed time interval). The resulting stream of data is processed and organized through the use of software, which places the data into a standard file format. The file is saved to the drive of choice (typically, a hard drive). The playback process is virtually the reverse of recording. A software application opens a sound file on the hard drive, and then passes the digital data back to the sound card. Data is translated back into equivalent analog levels— ideally, the reconstructed shape of the analog signal closely mimics the original digitized signal. The analog signal is amplified, and then passed to a speaker. If the sound was recorded in stereo, the data is divided into two channels that are separately converted back to analog signals, amplified, and sent to their corresponding speakers. Speakers convert the analog signal back into traveling pressure waves that you can hear. Troubleshooting a Sound Board Traditionally, sound boards use many of the same chipsets and basic components, but because each board is designed a bit differently, it is very difficult for commercial diagnostic products to identify failed IC functions. For the most part, commercial and shareware diagnostics can only identify whether a brand-compatible board is responding or not. As a result, this chapter will take the sub-assembly replacement approach. When a sound board is judged to be defective, it should be replaced outright. The following tips might help you nail down a sound problem most efficiently: Check to see that your speakers are connected, powered, and turned on. Check that the speaker volume and sound card master volume are turned up. Check to see that the mixer volume and master volume are set properly. Be sure that the music or sound file(s) are installed properly. Check that all sound card and multimedia drivers are installed. Be sure that the drivers are up to date. Check for resource conflicts between the sound card and other devices in the system. Be sure that the sound card is selected and configured properly (especially for DOS apps).
  • 61. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 61 The sound device should be enabled and configured under CMOS. When no sound : • set the adapter to default settings • check the speakers connection • when using powered speakers check supply General notes on audio hardware If there are several empty bus slots from which to choose, audio adapters should be installed in the slot that is as far away as possible from other cards in the computer. This reduces the possible EM interference; it reduces stray audio signals from one card that might affect the sound card. When using speakers rated less than four watts, the volume control on the soundcard should not be turned to maximum. The speakers may burn from overload. Better results can be found by plugging the sound card in to powered speakers The most common problem for audio adapters is that they conflict with other devices installed in the PC. Hardware conflicts are demonstrated by adapter malfunction, repetition of the same sound over and over or PC freezes It is always best to install an audio adapter by using the default settings whenever possible. If there is a conflict with another adapter, it is recommended to modify the settings of the other device rather then those of the audio adapter. Although most computer speakers are magnetically shielded, recorded tapes, credit cards, or floppy disks should not be left in front of speakers for a long time. 8.8.8.8. MMMModemodemodemodem A modem is a peripheral device that enables computers to communicate with each other over conventional telephone lines, ISDN cable lines, or even without wires. The word modem comes from combining the words MOdulator and DEModulator. It is the key that unlocks the world of the Internet and its World Wide Web, commercial online services, electronic mail (E-mail), and bulletin board systems (BBSes). It converts digital information to analog by MODulating it on the sending end and DEModulating the analog information into digital information at the receiving end. Modems are known as Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment (DCE) while the computer using the modem is often referred to as Data Terminal Equipment (DTE). Modems have different transmission modes as follows: Simplex - Simplex means that signals can be passed in one direction only which means that communication only happens in one direction. Half Duplex - Half duplex means that signals can be passed in either direction, but not in both simultaneously. Half-duplex modems can work in full-duplex mode.
  • 62. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 62 Full Duplex - Full duplex means that signals can be passed in either direction, simultaneously. Most modern modems are internal; however, they can be internal or external. External modems are connected to the back of the system board via a RS-232 serial connection. Internal modems are installed in one of the motherboard's PCI or ISA expansion slots depending on the modem. The modem contains an RJ-11 connection that is used to plug in the telephone line. Types of Modems Depending upon how your computer is configured and your preferences, you can have an external, internal (Built in and Modem card). All three types work the same way, but each has its advantages and disadvantages. External modem. This is the simplest type of modem to install because you don't have to open the computer. External modems have their own power supply and connect with a cable to a computer's serial port. The telephone line plugs into a socket on the rear panel of the modem. Because external modems have their own power supply, you can turn off the modem to break an online connection quickly without powering down the computer. Another advantage over an internal modem is that an external modem's separate power supply does not drain any power from the computer. You also can monitor your modem's connection activity by watching the status lights. Internal modem. Internal modems are more directly integrated into the computer system and, therefore, do not need any special attention. Internal modems are activated when you run a communications program and are turned off when you exit the program. This convenience is especially useful for novice users. Internal modems usually cost less than external modems, but the price difference is usually small. The major disadvantage with internal modems is their location: inside the computer. When you want to replace an internal modem you have to go inside the computer case to make the switch.
  • 63. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 63 How Modems Work Modems convert analog data transmitted over phone lines into digital data computers can read; they also convert digital data into analog data so it can be transmitted. This process involves modulating and demodulating the computer’s digital signals into analog signals that travel over the telephone lines. In other words, the modem translates computer data into the language used by telephones and then reverses the process to translate the responding data back into computer language. Modems can also be classified by their speed which was measured by the BAUD rate. One baud is one electronic state change per second. Since a single state change can involve more than a single bit of data, the Bits Per Second(BPS) unit of measurement has replaced it as a better expression of data transmission speed. Common modem speeds are V.34 at 28.8 kbps, V.34+ at 33.6 kbps and V.90 at 56 Kbps. Error correction is the method by which modems verify that the information sent to them has been undamaged during the transfer. Error-correcting modems break up information into small packets, called frames. The sending modem attaches a checksum to each of these frames. The receiving modem checks whether the checksum matches the information sent. If not, the entire frame is resent. Sometimes one modem in a connection is capable of sending data at a faster rate than the other can receive. Flow control allows the receiving modem to tell the other to pause while it catches up Common Problems Dialing Problems Make sure the modem is setup and configured correctly. Refer to Configuring Your Modem for details. Make sure the line you are using is working properly. Plug the modem’s phone line into a telephone to see if you can get a dial tone. If not, contact your telephone company for assistance with the line. Connection Problems For external modems, be sure to use a high quality cable to connect your PC to the modem and make sure the connection is secure. For internal modems make sure the modem is properly seated in the bus slot. Make sure the modem is properly configured and is not conflicting with other devices. See Configuring the Modem for further details.
  • 64. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 64 Try disabling Data Compression and Error Control. Check your modem documentation for instructions on how to do so via your init string. You can also refer to Configuring the Modem for instructions from within the Win95 modem control panel. Check the phone line for noise. Try plugging in a regular phone to your modem line and see if the line quality is good. Listen for hissing or static. You might even try turning off other electrical devices, such as the television, to see if they’re causing interference. Check the phone line for noise or static. If you detect any, contact your phone company for assistance. Modem driver If you have a modem that has a hardware controller: The modem doesn't need a driver to work - the "driver" that makes it a modem is in the modem and is known as flash firmware. To install the modem in Windows, the "driver" is an .inf file that defines the modem's command set and other responses for Windows- TAPI applications. Connectivity problems basically are unaffected by the "driver" – only a firmware flash can change the code that determines how well your modem will perform. If you have a modem that lacks a hardware controller: A driver is necessary for the modem to work. There are hundreds of modem brand names, manufacturers, and sources for modems with varying degrees of support. Fortunately, there are only a handful of chipset makers - and a common driver base for each of the chipsets. You really need a modem driver if your modem doesn't work at all: if it hasn't installed properly, or if you cannot talk to it as described in Setting Up HyperTerminal. (But, again - not always: See the "If your Modem Doesn't Work at All" listings in Troubleshooting Contents.)
  • 65. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 65 9.9.9.9. BIOSBIOSBIOSBIOS Introduction to the BIOS The instructions that turn a PC into a useful machine come in three stages, starting with application programs, which are loaded by an operating system, which in turn is loaded by a bootstrap loader in the BIOS, which stands for Basic Input/Output System. Software Layer model Layer # Layer 0 Hardware 1 BIOS 2 Operating System 3 Applications The BIOS is also responsible for allowing you to control your computer's hardware settings, for booting up the machine when you turn on the power or hit the reset button and various other system functions. The term BIOS is typically used to refer to the system BIOS, however, various other components such as video adapters and hard drives can have their own BIOSes hardwired to them. When You switch on Electrical power to the system. The microprocessor begins executing the ROM-BIOS code. BIOS routines begin when the computer is booted and are mad up of 3 main operations. Processor manufacturers program processors to always look in the same place in the system BIOS ROM for the start of the BIOS boot program. First, the Power On Self Tests (POST) are conducted. These tests verify that the system is operating correctly and will display an error message and/or output a series of beeps known as beep codes depending on the BIOS manufacturer. Second, is initialization in which the BIOS looks for the video card. In particular, it looks for the video card's built in BIOS program and runs it. The BIOS then looks for other devices' ROMs to see if any of them have BIOSes and they are executed as well. Third, is to initiate the boot process. The BIOS looks for boot information that is contained in file called the master boot record (MBR) at the first sector on the disk.
  • 66. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 66 In most PCs, the BIOS has four main functions Power On Self Test (POST) Test computer hardware, ensuring hardware is properly functioning before starting process of loading Operating System. Additional information on the POST can be found on our POST / Beep Codes page. During this process, the PC communicates what's going on-especially if it discovers problems-through a series of beeps (Beep Codes are given below) initially or text messages that appear on the monitor if the video card functions properly It is a built in program in the BIOS chipset that tests the essential hardware part of your PC. It shows the problem on text message on screen or beeps sound on built-in speaker on the system. Bootstrap Loader - Process of locating the operating system. If capable Operating system located, BIOS will pass the control to it. BIOS - Software / Drivers which interfaces between the operating system and your hardware. When running DOS or Windows you are using complete BIOS support. BIOS / CMOS Setup - Configuration program which allows you to configure hardware settings including system settings such as computer passwords, time, and date. CMOS CMOS is short for Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor. CMOS is anon-board semiconductor chip powered by a CMOS battery inside IBM compatible computers that stores information such as the system time and system settings for your computer; it is modified and changed by entering the CMOS Setup. Standard CMOS Features Here you can setup the basic BIOS features such as date, time, type of floppy etc. Use the arrow keys to move around and press enter to select the required option. You can specify what IDE devices you have such as Hard drive, CD-ROM, ZIP drive etc. The easiest way to setup the IDE devices is by leaving it set to auto. This allows the BIOS to detect the devices automatically so you don't have to do it manually. At the bottom, it also displays the total memory in your system. Integrated Peripherals This menu allows you to change the various I/O devices such as IDE controllers, serial ports, parallel port, keyboard etc. You can make changes as necessary.
  • 67. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 67 PCI Configurations This menu allows you to configure your PCI slots. You can assign IRQ's for various PCI slots. It is recommended that you leave the default settings as it can get a bit complicated messing around with IRQ's. Boot Sequence After loading and providing support for essential hardware, the BIOS searches for boot devices. By default, on current motherboards, the BIOS searches for the floppy drive first, and then the hard drive, and, finally, the CDROM drive. You can configure the search order in the CMOS settings program. Set Password To password protect your BIOS you can specify a password. Make sure you don't forget the password or you can not access the BIOS. The only way you can access the BIOS is by resetting it using the reset jumper on the motherboard. Save and Exit Setup To save any changes you made to the BIOS you must choose this option. From the dialog box choose "Y". Exit without Saving If you don't want to save changes made to the BIOS, choose "N" from the dialog box. To clear an unknown BIOS password. If you have mistakenly forgot or lost your BIOS password or you receive a password at boot that you do not know, you will need to clear the BIOS password by one of the following methods. Precaution: When inside the computer please be sure of the potential of ESD. On the computer motherboard locate the BIOS clear / password jumper or dipswitch and change its position. Once this jumper has been changed, turn on the computer and the password should be cleared. Once cleared, turn the computer off and return the jumper or dipswitch to its original position. Additionally, when looking for the jumper / dipswitch the label of that switch can be anything; however, in most cases will be labeled CLEAR – CLEAR CMOS - CLR - CLRPWD - PASSWD - PASSWORD – PWD On the computer motherboard locate and remove the CMOS battery for at least 10 minutes allowing the computer to lose its information.
  • 68. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 68 If one of the above solutions do not clear the password or you are unable to locate the jumpers or solder beads, it is recommended you contact the computer manufacturer or motherboard manufacturer for the steps on clearing the computer password. Beep Codes The beep codes for each PC vary according to the BIOS manufacturer, although you'll find certain codes on most PCs. Below are IBM BIOS Beep codes that can occur. However, because of the wide variety of models shipping with this BIOS, the beep codes may vary. Beep Code Description No Beeps No Power, Loose Card, or Short. 1 Short Beep Normal POST, computer is ok. 2 Short Beep POST error, review screen for error code. Long repeating Beeps Problem with RAM Continuous Beep No Power, Loose Card, or Short. Repeating Short Beep No Power, Loose Card, or Short. One Long and one Short Beep Motherboard issue. One Long and Two Short Beeps Video (Mono/CGA Display Circuitry) issue. One Long and Three Short Beeps. Video (EGA) Display Circuitry. Three Long Beeps Keyboard / Keyboard card error. One Beep, Blank or Incorrect Display Video Display Circuitry. Note: When the real-time clock starts losing time, its time to replace the CMOS battery When changing the hardware in PC, remember to check the CMOS settings if necessary
  • 69. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 69 Chapter III. PC Assembling and DisassemblingChapter III. PC Assembling and DisassemblingChapter III. PC Assembling and DisassemblingChapter III. PC Assembling and Disassembling The Disassembling processThe Disassembling processThe Disassembling processThe Disassembling process Disassembly Prerequisites Things you need to do before you disassemble. 1. Shut down any running programs and turn the computer off. 2. Remove all cables (especially the power cable) that are attached to the computer. Remember that some cables use special screws to attach them to their ports. 3. Remove any floppy disks from their respective drives to prevent damage to either the disk or the drive. 4. After checking once more to see that all the prerequisites have been dealt with, move the computer to the work surface. Steps: Back up every thing important Have a clean workspace with all necessary tools and equipment Take ESD precautions Document every thing Power all devices and disconnect them from the main power supply Typical Disassembly Detach keyboard and mouse from the back of the computer Detach monitor Detach serial and parallel devices Detach network cables, speaker cables, Modem phone line Detach power cable. Remove system case Detach internal power cables from storage device Remove hard device and other storage devices. Remove interface card Remove power cables from system board Remove CPU Remove RAM Remove cables from system board Remove screws holding system board in place Remove system board
  • 70. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 70 Actually assembling the system is easy after you have lined up all the components. In fact, you will find the parts procurement phase the most lengthy and trying of the entire experience. Completing the system is basically a matter of screwing everything together, plugging in all the cables and connectors, and configuring everything to operate properly together. Assembly PreparationAssembly PreparationAssembly PreparationAssembly Preparation The process of physically assembling a PC requires only a few basic tools: a 1/4" nut driver or Phillips-head screwdriver for the external screws that hold the cover in place and a 3/16" nut driver or Phillips-head screwdriver for all the other screws. Needle-nose pliers can also help in removing motherboard standoffs, jumpers, and stubborn cable connectors. The following sections cover the assembly and disassembly procedure: • Case or cover assembly • Power supply • Adapter boards • Motherboard • Disk drives It is best to consider each system by the type of case it uses. All systems that have AT-type cases, for example, are assembled and disassembled in much the same manner. Tower cases are basically AT-type cases turned sideways, so the same basic instructions apply. Most Slim line and ATX-style cases are similar; these systems are assembled and disassembled in much the same way. The following section lists assembly and disassembly instructions for several case types. ESD Protection One issue you must be aware of is electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection. Another is recording the configuration of the system with regard to the physical aspects of the system (such as jumper or switch settings and cable orientations) and the logical configuration of the system (especially in terms of elements such as CMOS settings). When you are working on the internal components of a computer, you must take the necessary precautions to prevent accidental static discharges to the components. At any time, your body can hold a large static voltage charge that can easily damage components of your system. Before I ever put my hands into an open system, I first touch a grounded portion of the chassis, such as the power supply case. This action serves to equalize the electrical charges the device and my body might be carrying. Be sure the power supply is unplugged during all phases of the assembly process. Some will claim that you should leave the system plugged in to provide an earth ground through the power cord and outlet, but that is unnecessary. If you leave the system plugged in,
  • 71. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 71 you open yourself up to other problems, such as accidentally turning it on or leaving it on when installing a board or device, which can damage the motherboard or other devices. N.B: note that power supplies used in many systems today deliver a +5V current to the motherboard continuously that is, whenever they are plugged in. Bottom line: Be sure any system you are working on is completely unplugged from the wall outlet. Recording Physical Configuration While you are assembling a system, you should record all the physical settings and configurations of each component, including jumper and switch settings, cable orientations and placement, ground wire locations, and even adapter board placement. Keep a notebook handy for recording these items, and write down all the settings. It is especially important to record all the jumper and switch settings on the motherboard, as well as those on any card you install in the system (cards seldom use jumpers or switches today, but some motherboards still do). If you accidentally disturb these jumpers or switches, you will know how they were originally set. This knowledge is very important if you do not have all the documentation for the system handy. Although cable orientation and placement seem to be very simple, we rarely get through the entire course of my PC troubleshooting seminars without at least one group of people having cable-connection problems. Fortunately, in most cases (except power cables), plugging any of the ribbon cables inside the system backward doesn't cause any permanent damage. Power and battery connections on pre-ATX systems are exceptions; plugging them in backward in most cases causes damage. In fact, plugging the motherboard power connectors in backward or in the wrong plug location on these older systems puts 12V where only 5V should bea situation that can cause components of the board to violently explode. I know of several people who have facial scars caused by shrapnel from components that exploded because of improper power supply connections! As a precaution, you always turn your face away from the system when you power it on for the first time. If you are using an ATX board and power supply, there is little chance of this happening because of the superior type of power connector used unless you mix a September 1998 or newer Dell power supply or motherboard with a standard motherboard or power supply. Plugging in the CMOS battery backward can damage the CMOS chip, which usually is soldered into the motherboard; in such a case, the motherboard must be replaced. Motherboard Installation The first step in reassembly is sometimes optional. If you didn’t remove the motherboard during disassembly, you can skip this step. Installing the motherboard involves positioning it in the case and securing it with either screws or plastic circuit board fasteners. Once the motherboard is
  • 72. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 72 secured in the case, you must connect the individual connectors that run to things like the reset switch and the turbo button (if present). When you are installing your system's motherboard, unpack the motherboard and check to ensure you have everything that should be included. If you purchase a new board, you typically get at least the motherboard, some I/O cables, and a manual. If you order the motherboard with a processor or memory, it is usually installed on the board for you but might also be included separately. Some board kits include an antistatic wrist strap to help prevent damage due to static electricity when installing the board. Installing the CPU and Heat sink Before your new motherboard is installed, you should install the processor and memory. This usually is much easier to do before the board is installed in the chassis. Some motherboards have jumpers that control both the CPU speed and the voltage supplied to it. If these are set incorrectly, the system might not operate at all, might operate erratically, or might possibly even damage the CPU. If you have any questions about the proper settings, contact the vendor who sold you the board before making any jumper changes. All processors today run hot enough to require some form of heat sink to dissipate heat from the processor. To install the processor and heat sink, use the following procedure: 1. Prep the motherboard. Take the new motherboard out of the antistatic bag it was supplied in and set it on the bag or the antistatic mat, if you have one. 2. Install the processor. First, find pin 1 on the processor; it usually is denoted by a corner of the chip that is marked by a dot or bevel. Next, find the corresponding pin 1 of the ZIF socket for the CPU on the motherboard; it also is usually marked on the board or with a bevel in one corner of the socket. Be sure the pins on the processor are straight and not bent; if they are bent, the chip won't insert properly into the socket. If necessary, use small needle-nose pliers or a hemostat to carefully straighten any pins. Don't bend them too much they might break off, ruining the chip. Insert the CPU into the ZIF socket by lifting the release lever until it is vertical. Then, align the pins on the processor with the holes in the socket and drop it down into place. If the processor does not seem to want to drop in all the way, remove it to check for proper alignment and any possibly bent pins. When the processor is fully seated in the socket, push the locking lever on the socket down until it latches to secure the processor 3. Attach the heat sink. Most heat sinks clip to the socket with one or more retainer clip. Careful when attaching the clip to the socket; you don't want it to scrape against the motherboard, which can damage circuit traces or components. You also need to keep the heat sink steady on the chip while attaching the clips, so do not move, tilt, or slide the heat sink while you attach it. Most heat sinks have a pre applied thermal pad; otherwise, you will need to put a dab of heat sink thermal transfer compound (normally white- or silver-colored grease) on the CPU before installing the heat sink. This prevents any air gaps and enables the heat sink to work more efficiently. If the
  • 73. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 73 CPU has an active heat sink (with a fan), plug the fan power connector into one of the fan connectors supplied on the motherboard 4. Configure the motherboard jumpers (if necessary). Refer to the motherboard manufacturer's manual to set the jumpers, if any, to match the CPU you are going to install. Most of the time the motherboard BIOS handles this process, but if manual configuration is necessary, look for the diagram of the motherboard in the manual to find the jumper location, and look for the tables for the correct settings for your CPU. If the CPU supplied was already installed on the motherboard, the jumpers should already be correctly set for you, but it is still a good idea to check them. Installing Memory Modules To function, the motherboard must have memory installed on it. Modern motherboards use either DDR or DDR2 DIMMs. Depending on the module type, it will have a specific method of sliding into and clipping to the sockets. Usually, you install modules in the lowest-numbered sockets or banks first. Note that dual-channel boards perform best if modules are installed in matched pairs. Older legacy systems, particularly those based on RDRAM, often require memory to be installed in pairs. Consult the motherboard documentation for more information on which sockets to use first and in what order and how to install the specific modules the board uses The physical act of installing memory is fairly straightforward and follows the same basic rules that have been described for installing other peripherals. There are however, a few specific differences of which you will need to be aware. The hardest task involved in adding memory to a PC is buying the correct RAM for your computer. Memory technology has been changing at a rapid pace to match the changes in CPU and architecture. There are numerous types of RAM available, and most are not interchangeable. In other words, you must buy the correct type of memory and all of your memory must be of the same type Installation Concerns Each type of memory and each system BIOS has its own peculiarities in how it supports memory. You will definitely want to read the system manual before you purchase and install your new memory. Some of the more common “rules” include: When installing memory, many systems require that all slots in a given memory bank be full. This means that if you have a 4-slot bank free and you want to add memory, you will have to install four memory modules. Do not mix memory of different speeds on your system. Many computers will not even boot if you do this. If your computer does boot, you can rest assured you’ll have memory-related problems later! If you are installing memory of different sizes (one 64MB SIMM and two 32MB SIMMs, for instance), place the largest SIMMs in the first memory banks.
  • 74. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 74 Mounting the New Motherboard in the Case The motherboard attaches to the case with one or more screws and often several plastic standoffs. If you are using a new case, you might have to attach one or more metal spacers or plastic standoffs in the proper holes before you can install the motherboard. Use the following procedure to install the new motherboard in the case: 1. Find the holes in the new motherboard for the metal spacers and plastic standoffs. You should use metal spacers wherever there is a ring of solder around the hole 2. Screw any metal spacers into the new case in the proper positions to align with the screw holes in the motherboard 3. Most motherboards today attach directly to the chassis or to a removable motherboard tray with screws that thread into brass standoffs attached to the chassis or tray 4. Install the I/O shield (if used) into the chassis by snapping it into place 5. Install the new motherboard into the case or motherboard tray. Either screw it directly to the standoffs or slide the standoffs already attached to the board by sliding the entire board into position. Be sure you align the I/O shield with the case or the ports on the back of the board with the I/O shield already in the case. Often, you will have to set the board into the case and slide it sideways to engage the standoffs into the slots in the case. When the board is in the proper position, the screw holes in the board should be aligned with all the metal spacers or screw holes in the case. Take the screws and any plastic washers that were supplied with the new motherboard and screw the board into the case. 6. Take the screws and any plastic washers that were supplied with the new motherboard and screw the board into the case Connecting the Power Supply The power supply is very easy to install, and it usually attaches to the chassis with four screws. If the system uses a single ATX-style power connector, plug it in; it can go on only one way. Some ATX systems also use a 6-pin auxiliary connector or a 4-pin ATX12V connector. These are also keyed and plug in only one way. If the system is not ATX and two separate six-wire connectors are used instead, the two black ground wires on the ends of the connectors must meet in the middle. Align the power connectors such that the black ground wires are adjacent to each other, and plug in the connectors. Consult the documentation with your board to ensure that the power supply connection is correct. Incorrectly connecting the power connectors can destroy the motherboard. Plug in the power lead for the CPU fan if one is used. The fan will either connect to the power supply via a disk drive power connector or connect directly to a fan power connector on the motherboard.
  • 75. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 75 Connecting I/O and Other Cables to the Motherboard Several connections must be made between a motherboard and the case. These include LEDs for the hard disk and power, an internal speaker connection, a reset button, and a power button. Most modern motherboards also have several built-in I/O ports that have to be connected. This includes dual IDE host adapters, a floppy controller, and front-mounted USB or IEEE 1394 ports. Some boards also include additional items such as built-in video, sound, or SCSI adapters. If the board is an ATX type, the connectors for all the external I/O ports are already built in to the rear of the board. If you are using a legacy Baby ATtype board, you might have to install cables and brackets to run the serial, parallel, and other external I/O ports to the rear of the case. If your motherboard has onboard I/O (nearly all PCs today use onboard I/O), use the following procedure to connect the cables: 1. Connect the floppy cable between the floppy drives and the 34-pin floppy controller connector on the motherboard. 2. Connect the IDE cables between the hard disk, IDE CD-ROM, and 40-pin primary and secondary IDE connectors on the motherboard; you will use the primary IDE channel connector for hard disks only and the secondary IDE channel connector to attach an IDE CD-ROM or other device, such as a tape drive. If you have a Serial ATA hard disk and a Serial ATA host adapter on the motherboard, connect the Serial ATA cable from the hard disk to the host adapter connection on the motherboard. 3. On non-ATX boards, a 25-pin female cable port bracket is used for the parallel port. Usually two serial ports exist: a 9-pin and either another 9-pin or a 25-pin male connector port. Align pin 1 on the serial and parallel port cables with pin 1 on the motherboard connector, and then plug them in. 4. If the ports don't have card slot type brackets or if you need all your expansion slots, the back of the case might have port knockouts you can use instead. Find ones that fit the ports, and push them out, removing the metal piece covering the hole. Unscrew the hex nuts on each side of the port connector, and position the connector in the hole. Install the hex nuts back in through the case to hold the port connector in place. 5. Most newer motherboards also include a built-in mouse port. If the connector for this port is not built in to the back of the motherboard (typically next to the keyboard connector), you probably have a card bracket type connector to install. In that case, plug the cable into the motherboard mouse connector, and then attach the external mouse connector bracket to the case. 6. Attach the front-panel switch, LED, internal speaker wires, and front-mounted ports such as USB and IEEE 1394 from the case front panel to the motherboard. If they are not marked on the board, check where each one is on the diagram in the motherboard manual.
  • 76. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 76 Installing the Drives At this point you should install your hard drive, floppy drive, and optical drive. The basic process for mounting optical drives, hard drives, and floppy drives is as follows: 1. Remove the drive bay plates (if needed). Simply bend or knock the plate out of the way 2. To install a CD drive, simply slide the drive into the chassis. Note that it is easier to connect the IDE cable to the rear of the drive and make jumper selections before mounting the drive.. 3. After the drive is in the bay, line up the drive-mounting screw holes on the drive with the holes in the case chassis. Secure the drive with four screws, using the ones that came with your case or the drive you are installing .If the drive uses rails, the rails hold the drive in place. Installing Additional Expansion Cards Many systems use additional expansion cards for wireless Ethernet, Internet connection (modem), sound, and SCSI adapters. These cards are plugged in to the bus slots present on the motherboard. To install these cards, follow these steps: 1. Insert each card by holding it carefully by the edges, being sure not to touch the chips and circuitry. Put the bottom-edge finger connector into the appropriate open slot (usually PCI or PCI Express). Firmly press down on the top of the card, exerting even pressure, until it snaps into place 2. Secure each card bracket with a screw 3. Attach any internal cables you might have removed earlier from the cards Replacing the Cover and Connecting External Cables Now the system should be nearly assembled. All that remains is installing the cover assembly and connecting any external devices that are cabled to the system. I usually don't like to install the case cover screws until I have tested the system and am sure everything is working properly. Often, I find that a cable has been connected improperly or some jumper setting is not correct, requiring that I remove the cover to repair the problem. Use the following procedure to complete the assembly: 1. Slide the cover onto the case. 2. Before powering up the system, connect any external cables. Most of the connectors are D-shaped and go in only one way. 3. Plug the 15-pin monitor cable into the video card female connector. 4. Attach the phone cord to the modem, if any.
  • 77. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 77 5. Plug the round keyboard cable into the keyboard connector, and plug the mouse into the mouse port or serial port (if you are using a serial mouse). If you're using a USB keyboard or mouse, plug it into any free USB port. 6. If you have any other external cabling, such as joystick or audio jacks to a sound card, attach them now. 7. Connect the other end of the IDE cable to your motherboard's IDE connector or to the back of another IDE device if you are chaining drives. 8. If your system has a removable drive cage, for floppy and hard disk drives, you should remove the cage. 9. To install floppy and hard drives, slide your drives into the drive cage and secure them with the screws that came with your case or with the drive you are installing. As with an optical drive, it's easier to connect the floppy and IDE cables to the rear of the drives and make any jumper selections prior to placing the drives or the drive cage into the chassis. 10. If your system has a removable drive cage, slide the drive cage back into the PC and secure it to the chassis using the screws provided with your case. 11. Connect the drive cables to the appropriate locations on your motherboard. Installing the New Video Card and Driver Software Follow these steps to install a new video card into a system: 1. If necessary, remove the screw and slot cover behind the expansion slot you want to use for the new video card. 2. Slide the video card straight down into the slot where it will be installed (typically an AGP or a PCI Express slot). 3. Push the card down into the slot, using a front-to-back rocking motion if necessary to get the edge connector to slide into the slot. 4. Use either the screw you removed during removal of the old card or the screw used in step 1 to fasten the card into place. 5. Attach the video cable from the monitor to the proper connector at the rear of the monitor. If the new card uses a DVI-I connector and the monitor uses the standard 15-pin VGA connector, use a DVI-to-VGA adapter (usually provided with the video card or available separately from stores that stock computer parts). If you're building a dual- display system, be sure to plug in your primary and secondary displays to the appropriate connectors. Running the Motherboard BIOS Setup Program (CMOS Setup) Now that everything is connected, you can power up the system and run the BIOS Setup program. This enables you to configure the motherboard to access the installed devices and set the system date and time. The system also tests itself to determine whether any problems exists. Do the following: 1. Power on the monitor first and then the system unit. Observe the operation via the screen and listen for any beeps from the system speaker. 2. The system should automatically go through a power on self test (POST) consisting of video BIOS checking, a RAM test, and usually an installed component report. If a fatal error occurs during the POST, you might not see anything onscreen and the system
  • 78. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 78 might beep several times, indicating a specific problem. Check the motherboard or BIOS documentation to determine what the beep codes mean. 3. If there are no fatal errors, you should see the POST display onscreen. Depending on the type of motherboard BIOS, such as Phoenix, AMI, Award, or others, you have to press a key or series of keys to interrupt the normal boot sequence and get to the Setup program screens that enable you to enter important system information. Normally, the system indicates via the onscreen display which key to press to activate the BIOS Setup program during the POST, but if not, check the motherboard manual for the key(s) to press to enter the BIOS Setup. Common keys used to enter BIOS Setup are F1, F2, F10, Esc, Ins, and Del. 4. After the Setup program is running, use the Setup program menus to enter the current date and time, your hard drive settings, floppy drive types, video cards, keyboard settings, and so on. 5. Entering the hard drive information is most critical when building a new system. Most modern BIOSs feature an autodetect or auto-type setting for the drive; I recommend you choose that if it is available. This causes the BIOS to read the parameters directly from the drive, which eliminates a chance for errorsespecially if the builder is less experienced. These parameters include CHS (cylinder head sector) specifications and transfer speed and translation settings such as LBA. Most systems also let you set a user-definable type, which means that the cylinder, head, and sector counts for this type were entered manually and are not constant. If you set a user-definable type (not normally recommended unless you don't have "auto" as a choice), it is especially important to write down the exact settings you use if you don't use Auto because this information might be very difficult to figure out if it is ever lost. Modern ATA drives also have additional configuration items you should record if you set them manually. These include the translation mode and transfer speed setting. With drives larger than 528MB, you should record the translation mode, which is expressed differently in different BIOS versions. Look for settings such as CHS, ECHS (Extended CHS), Large (which equals ECHS), or LBA (logical block addressing). Typically, you set LBA or Large for any drive over 528MB. Whatever you set, it should be recorded because changing this setting after the drive has been formatted can cause problems. 6. After you have checked all the settings in the BIOS Setup, follow the instructions onscreen or in the motherboard manual to save the settings and exit the Setup menu.
  • 79. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 79 ChapterChapterChapterChapter IV: Software Trouble ShootingIV: Software Trouble ShootingIV: Software Trouble ShootingIV: Software Trouble Shooting To be well acquainted with the basics of software maintenance and troubleshooting we have to first grasp the concept of the motor of the computer system, the operating system. So let’s first define what the operating system is, what components make up the operating system and of course how it does. What is an operating system? An operating system is a software the interfaces the user, software applications and the underling hardware. Operating system interprets user commands and instructions and sends user request to the appropriate application. It provides a consistent environment to other software to execute commands. Basic functions of operating system: • File management • Disk management • Memory management Points worthy knowing about Operating System (OS): • Minimum hardware requirements and recommendations(memory, processor, storage, input/output devices) • Boot file (to make an emergency boot disk) and sequence • Important files and set up information • File system Architecture • And compatible applications Types of Operating system include: • Windows family (Windows 2000, Windows 2006, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7) • Unix, Linux, Ubuntu • Macintosh For our case, since a window is dominant in Ethiopia, we shall consider the modern windows operating system troubleshooting hereafter. Moreover, since the basic foundation of the windows operating systems is similar we shall take one operating system installation process in this section.
  • 80. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 80 Operating system Installation process: Windows 2000/XP installation process involves the following procedures: 1. Start the start up program 2. Text Mode setup Create partition Select File system Format the partition, if needed Copy installation files to the hard disk 3. Restart the computer 4. Setup wizard (Graphics mode) Choose regional settings Enter name and organization Enter the product key Enter a 15 characters computer name(unique in the network) Choose a password for the local Administrator account Fill in the Date and time 5. Network Configuration Auto-detects NICs and installs windows networking(client for network for Microsoft networks Choose to join the work group 6. Restart the computer 7. Final steps to tidy up Create start menu short cuts Set up choices applied Configuration saved to hard disk Temp files deleted 8. Last restart Steps To Install Operating System(Server or Workstation). To Install Operating System (Server Or Workstation)from CD use the following steps. 1. Make sure that you have a CD-ROM connected to your computer and it is functional. 2. Make sure that you have a functional hard disk connected to your computer. 3. Prepare the CD which contains the operating system you want to install (Window XP, Vista ,Window Server). 4. Start your computer and Enter to BIOS setup by pressing the setup key. For example the following are
  • 81. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 81 Pic-1 Phoenix BIOS Pic-2 The Boot Menu Some of the setup key’s with their corresponding types of computers. Setup key Computer F2……………………Dell and HP F1…………………...Gateway F10………………….Compaq Assume that we are working on “phoenix BOIS setup utility”. Which is available in most computers. 5. Set the boot order to 1st CD-ROM, 2nd Hard Disk 3rd Floppy disk …from the BOOT menu as shown in Pic-2 then press F10 to save the changes you made ,Click Yes to confirm save. 6. Insert the CD that contains your operating system in to the CD –Rom, Restart your PC. The following screen will be displayed, at this time press any key from your keyboard.
  • 82. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 82 Press any key to boot from CD… When you press any key Pic-4 will be displayed Pic-4 Set Up is loading filesPic -3 7. Wait until the following screen displays. 8. If your “Hard Disk is New the following Screen Will display , press C to create new partition by selecting the un portioned space, else if your hard disk was installed operating system before go to step 10. Pic-6 Licence AgreementPic-6 Licence Agreement Press “Enter” Key and then accept the Agreement in Pic-6 by pressing F8 key Pic-6 License AgreementPic-5 Setup Window
  • 83. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 83 9. Repeat step 8 to create another Partition. (By reading the information papers on he screens). 10. Identify where are the necessary files which you do not want to format (Erase from the Disk).If you are asked to install another’s computer please ask them the following questions. 1. On which partition you want to install the operating system? 2. On what partition were you put your files before it gets damage? If the necessary files were stored in a different partition on which you are not installing operating system no problem, this files are safe, and simply you can format the disk. But if you have files on the partition you want to format, first you have to copy to another storage media (CD, Flash Disk, Or On other Hard disk )By Making slave in a functional computer.(Refer or Ask How to Make Slave Hard Disk If You Are Not Familiar With Making Master And Slave Disks). 11. After you decide what partition to format(C:, D:, E:..)Select it using the “Arrow keys” then press “Enter”. When you press Enter key Pic-10 will be displayed. When you press C Pic-8 will be displayed, then assign the amount of your first partition(C:) you want to be in MB . E.g. 40000 means around 40 GB. N.B: You can not assign more than the capacity of your hard disk. Pic-8 Partition size assignment. Pic-7 Unpartitioned Space.
  • 84. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 84 12. Choose “Format the partition using the NTFS file system” from “Pic-10” then press “Enter” Note If you chose “Format the partition using the FAT file system” you will loose some special futures of the NTFS file system which are not available in FAT file system. Example 1. You can not install Active Directory (Which is to be add to the server operating system to increase the security of your system). 2. You can not the “Disk quota management” (Which enable to the System administrators to assign hard disk space to all users (Accounts)of the system according to their need. 13. Wait until it finishes formatting, Copying, and Restarting. Without touching (giving command) anything it starts copying files as shown in Pic-12 .When copying file progress finishes 100% set up will restart itself after 15 seconds.
  • 85. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 85 14. Click Next in Pic-15 , Enter, Name (Any Name)and Organization(Any Organization Name) in Pic-17, Enter, Product key (BMPP3 9CJQQ W6GWH MDK7F 48GBB)in Pic-16, Click “Next “in Pic-18,
  • 86. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 86 15. Enter “Computer Name” (E.g. John), enter “Administrator password” and Conform Password it in Pic-18, “Next”. Pic-18 Computer Name and Administrator Password Pic-16 Personalize your SoftwarePic-15 Regional & Language Option Pic-17 Product Key
  • 87. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 87 16. Adjust Date and time in Pic-19 then click next, Select Typical setting from Pic-20 then click Next. 17. Relax and back after around 25 -30 minutes and your installation will finalize and restart , Do nothing in Pic-22,Click “Finish” in Pic-23, Click “yes” in Pic-24. Pic-19 Data and Time Setting Pic-20 Networking Setting Pic-21 Pic-222
  • 88. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 88 18.The following dialogue will display always you start your server ,it is recommended that to read some points about configuring(managing)your server but for now Close it by clicking the close button in the control button of this window in the right upper . 19. Press “Ctrl+Alt+Del” key in Pic-26, Enter User Name=Administrator, password=that you have created in step 15 then click OK in Pic-27 Pic-23 Pic-24
  • 89. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 89 20. Now Enjoy Your “Windows 2003 Server” Boot Sequence of the windows 2000/XP: i. POST ii. Pnp Devices iii. Locates MBR iv. NTLDR (Real mode to 32 bit memory model and then loads the drivers to read the file system)
  • 90. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 90 v. Boot.INI(location of other OS files) vi. BOOTSEC.DOS(for multi-Boot systems when other OS id detected) vii. NTDETECT(Hardware detection) viii. WINNTSYSTEM32NTOSKRNL.EXE(initialized *** win2k kernel file) ix. HAL.DLL(hardware abstraction Layer for hardware independence) x. WINNTSYSTEM32CONFIGHKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESYSTEM ( key form the registry to initialize device drivers) Graphical Display: xi. HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINEHARDWARE key(the key from the registry for detecting hardware settings) xii. Clone copy of control set is created xiii. Device drivers loaded xiv. Windows XP started xv. Log on prompt Maintaining windows 2000/XP: Maintenance is about keeping Windows’ performance from degrading with time and use. It focuses on running Scandisk, Disk Defragmenter, antivirus, System Cleanup, and System Backup utilities. When installed properly, all these work automatically, or nearly automatically, freeing you up for more interesting problems. You can update Windows in three different ways: patches, service packs, and new versions. Patches: are EXE files that you get from Microsoft to fix a specific problem. You run these programs and they do whatever they're supposed to do-update DLLs, reconfigure Registry settings, or whatever else is necessary to fix a particular problem. Sometimes a patch might not totally fix a particular problem or it might even cause other problems. In this case, you need a patch for the patch. Also, some patches must be installed before another patch can be used. Service pack: group of patches Windows update can be accomplished manually or using automatic updates through the internet. The manual option can be accomplished as: For windows XP: Start- All programs-- Windows update
  • 91. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 91 For windows 2000: Start- Windows update When you run Windows Update manually, the software connects to the Microsoft Web site and scans your computer to determine what updates may be needed. You have several choices here, although two are most obvious. If you click the Express button, Windows Update will grab any high-priority updates—these are security patches—and install them on your computer. If you click the Custom button, you can select from a list of optional updates. Automatic updates: Updates are so important that Microsoft gives you the option to update Windows automatically After installing XP (after a day or some days) a message balloon will pop up from the taskbar suggesting that you automate updates. If you click this balloon, the Automatic Updates Setup Wizard will run, enabling you to configure the update program. You say you’ve never seen this message balloon, but would like to automate the update process? No problem—simply right clicks My Computer (on the Start menu), select Properties, click the Automatic Updates tab, and select Automatic Update options. Then, whenever your computer connects to the Web, it checks the Windows Update page. What happens next depends on the setting you choose. You have four choices: Automatic (recommended) Windows Update will simply keep your computer patched up and ready to go. This is the best option for most users, although not necessarily good for users of portable computers. Nobody wants to log into a slow hotel dial-up connection and have most of your bandwidth sucked away by Automatic Update downloading hot fixes! Download updates for me … Windows Update downloads all patches in the background and then, when complete, tells you about them. You have the option at that point to install or not install. Notify me … Windows Update simply flashes you a dialog box that tells you updates are available, but does not download anything until you say go. This is the best option for users of portable computers. You can download files when it’s convenient for you, such as when you’re home rather than traveling on business. Turn off Automatic Updates This does precisely what is advertised. You get neither automatic patches nor notification that patches are available. Only use this option on a system that does not or cannot connect to the Internet. If you’re online, your computer needs to be patched! Driver Updates Device manufacturers occasionally update their drivers. Most of these updates take place to fix problems, but many updates incorporate new features. Whatever the case, when one of your devices gets an updated driver, it’s your job to install it. Windows /Microsoft Update provide an easy method to update drivers from manufacturers that take advantage of the service. The only trick to this is that you usually need to select the Custom option to see these updates because
  • 92. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 92 Windows only installs high-priority updates using the Express option. When you click on the Custom option, look under Hardware, Optional (on the left) to see if Windows has any driver updates Take some time and read what these updates do—sometimes you may choose not to install a driver update because it’s not necessary or useful to your system. Device Manager Apart from installing and troubleshooting devices; device manager also is the tool to use when optimizing device drivers. Right-click on a device in Device Manager to display the context menu. From here you can: Update or uninstall the drive Disable the device Scan for hardware changes, or display the Properties dialog box. When you open the Properties dialog box, you’ll see several tabs that vary according to the specific device. Most have General, Driver, Details, and Resources. The tab that matters most for optimization is the Driver tab. The Driver tab has buttons labeled Driver Details, Update Driver, Roll Back Driver, and Uninstall. Driver Details lists the driver files and their locations on disk. Update Driver opens the Hardware Update Wizard not very useful given that the install programs for almost all drivers do this automatically. The Roll Back Driver option enables you to remove an updated driver, thus rolling back to the previous driver version. Rollback is a lifesaver when you install a new driver and suddenly discover it’s worse than the driver it replaced! Uninstall removes the driver. Adding a New Device Windows should automatically detect any new device you install in your system. If Windows does not detect a newly connected device, use the Add Hardware Wizard to get the device recognized and drivers installed. You’ll find it on the Hardware tab of the System Properties dialog box.Click Next on the Welcome screen, and the wizard will search for hardware that has been connected but does not yet have a driver installed. If it detects the device, select the device, and the wizard will install the driver. You may have to point to the source location for the driver files. If it does not detect the device, which is very likely, it will ask you if the hardware is connected. Select Add a New Hardware Device, and then click Next. If the device is a printer, network card, or modem, select Search for and install the hardware automatically and click Next. In that case, once it detects the device and installs the driver, you’re done. If you do see your device on the list, your best hope is to select Install the hardware that and manually select from a list. Performance Options One optimization you can perform on both Windows 2000 and Windows XP is setting Performance Options. Performance Options are used to configure CPU, RAM, and virtual memory (page file) settings. To access these options:
  • 93. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 93 Right-click My Computer select Properties click the Advanced tab and click the Options button (Windows 2000) or Settings button (Windows XP) in the Performance section of that tab. The Performance Options dialog box differs between the two families of operating systems. In Windows 2000, the Performance Options dialog box shows a pair of radio buttons called Applications and Background Services. These radio buttons set how processor time is divided between the foreground application and all other background tasks. Set this to Applications if you run applications that need more processor time. Set it to Background Services to give all running programs the same processor usage. You can also adjust the size of the page file in this dialog box, but in most cases I don’t mess with these settings and instead leave control of the page file to Windows. The Windows XP Performance Options dialog box has three tabs: Visual Effects, Advanced, and Data Execution Prevention. The Visual Effects tab enables you to adjust visual effects that impact performance. Try clicking the top three choices in turn and watch the list of settings. Notice the tiny difference between the first two choices. The third choice, Adjust for best performance, turns off all visual effects, and the fourth option is an invitation to make your own adjustments. If you’re on a computer that barely supports Windows XP, turning off visual effects can make a huge difference in the responsiveness of the computer. For the most part, though, just leave these settings alone. Managing User Accounts and Groups The most basic element of Windows security is the user account. Each user must present a valid user name and the password of a user account in order to log on to a Windows computer Groups enable the system administrator to easily assign the same rights and permissions to all members of the group without the need to set those rights and permissions individually. Windows 2000 and XP have several built-in groups and two user accounts created during installation—Administrator and Guest—with only the Administrator account enabled by default. When you install Windows, you supply the password for the Administrator account. This is the only usable account you have to log on to the computer. You manage users and groups using the Local Users and Groups node in the Computer Management console, accessed by right- clicking on My Computer and selecting Manage Local Users and Groups can also be used on standalone computers. Using the Users and Passwords Applet in Windows 2000 When you install your OS you may choose to let the OS assume that you are the only user of the computer and do not want to see the logon dialog box. You can check this setting after installation by opening the Users and Passwords applet in Control Panel to see the setting for Users must enter a user name and password to use this computer.
  • 94. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 94 There’s a second setting in Users and Passwords that’s important to enable for the sake of security—the setting on the Advanced Tab under Secure Boot Settings. If checked it requires users to press CTRL-ALT-DEL before logging on. This setting is a defense against certain viruses that try to capture your user name and password, sometimes by presenting a fake logon prompt. Pressing CTRL-ALT-DEL will remove a program like that from memory and allow the actual logon dialog box to appear. Creating a New User in Windows 2000 Creating a new user account enables that user to log in with a user name and password To create a new user: open the Users and Passwords applet from Control Panel click the Add button. This opens the Add New User Wizard Enter the user name that the user will use to log on. Enter the user’s first and last names in the Full name field, and if you wish, enter some text that describes this person in the Description field. If this is at work, enter a job description in this field. The Full name and Description fields are optional. After entering the user information, click the Next button to continue. This opens a password dialog box where you can enter and confirm the initial password for this new user. Click the Next button to continue. Now you get to decide what groups the new user should belong to. Select one of the two suggested options—Standard User or Restricted User—or select the other option button and choose a group from the drop-down list. Select Standard user, which on a Windows 2000 Professional desktop makes this person a member of the local Power Users Group as well as the local Users group. Click the Finish button to close the dialog box. You should see your new user listed in the Users and Passwords dialog box N.B To create and manage users, you must be logged on as the Administrator, be a member of the Administrators group, or have an Administrator account (in Windows XP). Assign a password to the Administrator account so that only authorized users can access this all-powerful account. Managing Users in Windows XP Although Windows XP has essentially the same type of accounts database as Windows 2000, the User Accounts Control Panel applet replaces the former Users and Passwords applet and further simplifies user management tasks. Windows XP has two very different ways to deal with user accounts and how you log on to a system: the blank user name and password text boxes, reminiscent of Windows 2000 , and the Windows XP Welcome screen. If your Windows XP computer is a member of a Windows domain, your system automatically uses the Windows Classic style, including the requirement to press CTRL-ALT-DEL to get to the user name and password text boxes, just like in Windows 2000. If your Windows XP computer is not a member of a domain, you may use either method, although the Welcome screen is the default. Windows XP Home and Windows XP Media Center cannot join a domain, so these versions of Windows only use the Welcome screen.
  • 95. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 95 Windows requires you to create a second account that is a member of the Administrator’s group during the initial Windows installation. This is for simple redundancy—if one administrator is not available or is not able to log on to the computer, another one can log on. Creating users is a straightforward process. To create a new user in Windows XP, open the User Accounts applet from the Control Panel and click Create a new account. On the Pick an account type page you can create either type of account. Simply follow the prompts on the screen. In the User Accounts applet look at the Change the way users logs on and off option. Select it; you will see two checkboxes. If you select the Use the Welcome screen checkbox, Windows will bring up the friendly Welcome screen each time users log in. If this box is unchecked, you’ll have to enter a user name and password. The second option, Use Fast User Switching, enables you to switch to another user without logging off the currently running user. This is a handy option when two people actively share a system, or when someone wants to borrow your system for a moment but you don’t want to close all your programs. This option is only active if you have the Use the Welcome screen checkbox enabled. If Fast User Switching is enabled, when you click on the Log Off button on the Start menu, you get the option to switch users. Error-Checking and Disk Defragmentation Implementing Hard Drives,” are the key Windows maintenance tools you use to accomplish this task. When you can’t find a software reason (and there are many possible ones) for a problem like a system freezing on shutdown, the problem might be the actual physical hard drive. The tool to investigate that is Error-checking. Error-checking can be done: From a command line using the chkdsk command Or through the GUI by opening My Computer, right-clicking on the drive you want to check, selecting Properties, and then clicking the Tools tab, where you can click Check Now to have Error-checking scan the drive for bad sectors, lost clusters, and similar problems, and repair them if possible. Run the Disk Defragmenter on a regular basis to keep your system from slowing down due to files being scattered in pieces on your hard drive. Before you click the Defragment button, click the Analyze button to have Windows analyze the disk and determine if defragmentation is actually necessary. Temporary File Management with Disk Cleanup Before you defrag a drive, you should run the Disk Cleanup utility to make sure you’ve cleared out the junk files that accumulate from daily use. All that Web surfing uses up disk space, leaving behind hundreds of temporary
  • 96. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 96 Internet files. Those, and other bits and pieces such as those “deleted” files still hanging around in your Recycle Bin, can add up to a lot of wasted disk space if you don’t periodically clean them out. The junk files that take up space fall the following categories: Application temporary files that failed to delete Installation temporary files that failed to delete Internet Browser cache files Files in the Recycle Bin Internet cookie files Identical files in separate locations You can access this tool through: Start menu (Start | All Programs | Accessories | System Tools), or you can open My Computer, right-click the drive you want to clean up, select Properties, and right there in the middle of the General tab you’ll find the Disk Cleanup button. Disk Cleanup calculates the space you will be able to free up and then displays the Disk Cleanup dialog box , which tells you how much disk space it can free up—the total amount possible as well as the amount you’ll get from each of the different categories of files it checks. The list of Files to delete only has a few categories checked, and the actual amount of disk space to be gained by allowing Disk Cleanup to delete these files is much smaller than the estimate. If you scroll down through the list, you will see a choice to compress old files. This is one of the few choices where you will gain the most space. The other big heavyweight category is Temporary Internet Files, which it will delete. Try Disk Cleanup on a computer that gets hours of Internet use every day. Registry Maintenance Your Registry is a huge database that Windows constantly updates. As a result, the Registry tends to get clogged with entries that are no longer valid. These usually don’t cause any problems directly, but they can slow down your system. Interestingly, Microsoft does not provide a utility to clean up the Registry. To clean your Registry, you need to turn to a third- party utility. Before you start cleaning your Registry with wild abandon, keep in mind that all Registry cleaners are risky in that there is a chance that it may delete something you want in the Registry. Security: Spyware/Anti-Virus/Firewall You simply cannot run a computer today without a large number of security programs to protect you from malicious attacks from spyware, malware, viruses, and hacking. In fact, the installation, monitoring, and updating of these programs (and possibly even hardware) is so important that they get their own chapter. Optimizing windows Installing and Removing Software
  • 97. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 97 The most common optimization performed on any PC is probably adding and removing applications. Installing and removing software is part of the normal life of any PC. Each time you add or remove software, you are making changes and decisions that can affect the system beyond whatever the program does, so it pays to know how to do it right. Installing Software Most application programs are distributed on CD-ROMs. Luckily, Windows supports Autorun, a feature that enables it to look for and read a special file called—wait for it—Autorun immediately after a CD-ROM is inserted, and then run whatever program is listed in Autorun.inf. Most application programs distributed on CD-ROM have an Autorun file that calls up the installation program. Sometimes, however, it is necessary to choose the installation sequence yourself. The following reasons may enforce for manual installation: Perhaps the installation CD lacks an Autorun installation program, or perhaps Windows is configured so that programs on a CD-ROM must be started manually. Or In some cases, a CD-ROM may contain more than one program, and you must choose which of them to install. Regardless of the reason, beginning the installation manually is a simple and straightforward process using the Add or Remove Programs (Add/Remove Programs in Windows 2000) applet in the Control Panel. Click the Add New Programs button, follow the prompts, and provide the disk or location of the files. Prerequisite to install software: you must be an administrator or member of the administrators group (not always necessary). For a successful installation of an application the following points need to be full filled: • You typically first must accept the terms of a software license before you are allowed to install an application. These steps are not optional—the installation simply won’t proceed until you accept all terms the software manufacturer requires, • And in many cases enter a correct code. • You may also be asked to make several decisions during the installation process. For example, you may be asked where you would like to install the program and if you would like certain optional components installed. Generally speaking, it is best to accept the suggested settings unless you have a very specific reason for changing the defaults. Removing Software Each installed application program takes up space on your computer’s hard drive, and programs that you no longer need simply waste space that could be used for other purposes. Removing unnecessary programs can be an important piece of optimization. You remove a program from a Windows PC in much the same manner as you install it.
  • 98. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 98 Ways to remove installed applications: Use the application’s own uninstall program, when possible. You normally find the uninstall program listed under the application’s icon on the Start Menu If an uninstall program is not available, then use Windows’ Add or Remove Programs applet from Control Panel. You select the program you want to remove and click the Change/Remove button. Click yes if you are sure you no more need the application when you are asked for confirmation. Adding a New Device Windows should automatically detect any new device you install in your system. If Windows does not detect a newly connected device, use the Add Hardware Wizard to get the device recognized and drivers installed. You’ll find it on the Hardware tab of the System Properties dialog box. Click Next on the Welcome screen, and the wizard will search for hardware that has been connected but does not yet have a driver installed. If it detects the device, select the device and the wizard will install the driver. You may have to point to the source location for the driver files. If it does not detect the device, which is very likely, it will ask you if the hardware is connected. When you answer yes and click Next, it will give you a list of installed hardware If the device is in the list, select it and click Next. If not, scroll to the bottom and select Add a New Hardware Device, and then click Next. If the device is a printer, network card, or modem, select Search for and install the hardware automatically and click Next. In that case, once it detects the device and installs the driver, you’re done. If you do see your device on the list, your best hope is to select Install the hardware that I manually select from a list. In the subsequent screens, select the appropriate device category, select the device manufacturer and the correct model, and respond to the prompts from the Add Hardware Wizard to complete the installation. Performance Options One optimization you can perform on both Windows 2000 and Windows XP is setting Performance Options. Performance Options are used to configure CPU, RAM, and virtual memory (page file) settings. To access these options: Right-click My Computer and select Properties Click the Advanced tab-- Click the Options button (Windows 2000) or Settings button (Windows XP) in the Performance section of that tab. The Performance Options dialog box differs between the two families of operating systems. In Windows 2000, the Performance Options dialog box shows a pair of radio buttons called Applications and Background Services. These radio buttons set how processor time is divided between the foreground application and all other background tasks. Set this to Applications if you run applications that need more processor time. Set it to Background Services to give all running programs the same processor usage. The Windows XP Performance Options dialog box has three tabs: Visual Effects, Advanced, and Data Execution Prevention.
  • 99. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 99 The Visual Effects tab enables you to adjust visual effects that impact performance. The third choice, Adjust for best performance, turns off all visual effects, and the fourth option is an invitation to make your own adjustments. If you’re on a computer that barely supports Windows XP, turning off visual effects can make a huge difference in the responsiveness of the computer. For the most part, though, just leave these settings alone. The Advanced tab has three sections: Processor scheduling, Memory usage, and Virtual memory. • Under the Processor scheduling section, you can choose to adjust for best performance of either Programs or Background services. The • Memory usage settings enable you to allocate a greater share of memory to programs or to the system cache. • Finally, the Virtual memory section of this page enables you to modify the size and location of the page file Microsoft introduced Data Execution Prevention (DEP) with Windows XP Service Pack 2. DEP works in the background to stop viruses and other malware from taking over programs loaded in system memory. It doesn’t prevent viruses from being installed on your computer, but makes them less effective. By default, DEP monitors only critical operating system files in RAM, but the Data Execution Prevention tab enables you to have DEP monitor all running programs. It works, but you’ll take a performance hit. Like other options in the Performance Options dialog box, leaving the DEP settings as default is the best option most of the time. Resource Tracking One big issue with optimization is knowing when something needs optimization. Let’s say your Windows computer seems to be running more slowly. Resource tracking is very important for identifying the performance problem. Task Manager and the Performance Console are tools you can use to figure out what (if anything) has become a bottleneck. Task Manager The Task Manager has many uses, for instance, the Applications tab is used to shut down a troublesome program. For optimization purposes, Task Manager is a great tool for investigating how your RAM and CPU are working at any given moment and why. The quick way to open the Task Manager is to press CTRL+SHIFT+ESC or CTRL+ALT+DELETE. Click the Performance tab to reveal a handy screen with the most commonly used information: CPU usage, available physical memory, the size of the disk cache, commit charge (memory for programs), and kernel memory (memory used by Windows). Not only does Task Manager tell you how much CPU and RAM usage is taking place, it also tells you what program is using those resources. Let’s say your system is running slowly. You open up Task Manager and see that your CPU usage is at 100 percent. You then click on the Processes tab to see all the processes running on your system. Click on the CPU column to sort all processes by CPU usage to see who’s hogging the CPU . To shut off a process, just right-click on the process and select End Process. Many times a single process will open many other processes. If you want to be thorough, click on End Process Tree to turn off not only the one process, but also any other processes it started.
  • 100. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 100 Task Manager is also a great tool for turning off processes that are hogging memory. Let’s say you’re experiencing a slowdown, but this time you also notice your hard drive light is flickering nonstop—a clear sign that you’ve run out of memory and the swapfile is now in use. You go into Task Manager and see that there is no available system memory—now you know the swapfile is in use! In order to make the PC run faster you have got to start unloading programs— but which ones? By going into the Processes tab in Task Manager, you can see exactly which processes are using the most memory. Just be careful not to shut down processes you don’t recognize; they might be something the computer needs! Windows troubleshooting The first step to troubleshooting Windows is preparation. You must have critical system files and data backed up and tools in place for the inevitable glitches. The various versions of Windows offer five different tools for the job, although none offer them all: System Restore The Backup or Restore Wizard (called NT Backup if you want to run it from the command prompt), Automated System Recovery (ASR) The Emergency Repair Disk (ERD), And the Recovery Console. System Restore The System Restore tool enables you to create a restore point, a copy of your computer’s configuration at a specific point in time. If you later crash or have a corrupted OS, you can restore the system to its previous state. To create a restore point: Start | All Programs | Accessories | System Tools | System Restore. When the tool opens, select Create a Restore Point and then click Next . Type in a description on the next screen. There’s no need to include the date and time because the System Restore adds them automatically. Click Create and you’re done. The System Restore tool creates some of the restore points in time automatically. For instance, by default, every time you install new software, XP creates a restore point. Thus,if installation of a program causes your computer to malfunction, simply restore the system to a time point prior to that installation, and the computer should work again. During the restore process, only settings and programs are changed. No data is lost. Your computer will include all programs and settings as of the restore date. To restore to a previous time point, start the System Restore Wizard by choosing Start | All Programs | Accessories | System Tools | System Restore. Then select the first radio button, Restore my computer to an earlier time, and then click Next. Select a date on the calendar; then select a restore point from the list on the right and click Next
  • 101. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 101 The last screen before the system is restored shows a warning. It advises you to close all open programs and reminds you that Windows will shut down during the restore process. It also states that the restore operation is completely reversible. Thus, if you go too far back in time, you can restore to a more recent date. You don’t have to count on the automatic creation of restore points. You can open System Restore at any time and simply select Create a restore point. Consider doing this before making changes that might not trigger an automatic restore point, such as directly editing the Registry. System Restore is turned on by default and uses some of your disk space to save information on restore points. To turn System Restore off or change the disk space usage, open the System Properties applet in Control Panel and select the System Restore tab. Backup or Restore Wizard (NT Backup) Windows 2000/XP Backup provide almost all the tools you need. It has come a long way from its origins in Windows NT. It supports a greater variety of devices, enabling you to network drives, logical drives, tape, and removable disks (but not CD-R, CD-RW, or DVD-R). Most folks, however, still turn to third-party utilities to create system, email, browser, and personal data backups. You can start Backup by navigate: Start | Accessories | System Tools, Clicking the Backup Now button on the Tools page of the local disk properties box. Start | Run with the command NTBACKUP. This technique works in both Windows 2000 and Windows XP. To create a backup, start the Backup utility, click Advanced Mode, and choose the Backup tab. Check the boxes next to the drives and files you want to include in the backup. To include your system state information, such as Registry and boot files (which you should do), click the System State checkbox. To specify where to put the backup file you’re creating, either type the path and filename in the Backup media or filename box or click Browse, select a location, type the filename, and click Save. Click Start Backup. Choose whether you want to append this backup to a previous one or overwrite it. Click Advanced to open the Advanced Backup Options dialog box, select Verify data after backup, and click OK. Click Start Backup again. A dialog box will show you the utility’s progress. When it’s done, click Close and then close the Backup utility. Installing Recovery Console When things get really bad on a Windows system, you need to turn to the Recovery Console. The Recovery Console is a text-based startup of Windows that gets you to a command prompt similar to the Windows command prompt. If you have the Windows 2000/XP CD-ROM, you can start the Recovery Console by running Setup, selecting Repair, and then selecting Recovery Console. If you like to be proactive, however, you can install the Recovery Console on your hard drive so that it is one of your startup options and does not require the Windows 2000 or XP CD-ROM to run. The steps to do this in Windows 2000 and Windows XP are very nearly identical. First, you need to log into the system with the Administrator account. Grab your
  • 102. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 102 Windows 2000 or XP installation CD-ROM and drop it in your system. If the Autorun function kicks in, just click the No button. To install the Recovery Console and make it a part of your startup options, click the Start button, select Run, and type the following: d:i386winnt32 /cmdcons If your CD-ROM drive uses a different drive letter, substitute it for the D: drive. Then just follow the instructions on the screen. If you are connected to the Internet, allow the Setup program to download updated files. From now on, every time the system boots, the OS selection menu will show your Windows OS (Windows 2000 Professional or Windows XP) and the Microsoft Windows Recovery Console. It may also show other choices if yours is a multi-boot computer. Diagnosing Windows Failure to Boot Windows boot errors take place in those short moments between the time the POST ends and the Loading Windows screen begins. For Windows to start loading the main operating system, the critical system files NTLDR, NTDETECT.COM, and BOOT.INI must reside in the root directory of the C: drive, and BOOT.INI must point to the Windows boot files. If any of these requirements aren’t in place, the system won’t get past this step. Here are some of the common errors you see at this point: No Boot device Present NTLDR Bad or Missing Invalid BOOT.INI Note that these text errors take place very early in the startup process. That’s your big clue that you have a boot issue. If you get to the Windows splash screen and then lock up, that’s a whole different issue, so know the difference. If you get one of the catastrophic error messages, you have a three-level process to get heal. First try to repair If repair fails try to Restore from a back up copy of windows If restore is either not available or fails, then your only recourse is to rebuild. N.B You will lose data at the restore and rebuild phases, so you definitely want to spend a lot of effort on the repair effort first! Repair Using Recovery Console To begin troubleshooting one of these errors, boot from the installation CD-ROM and have Windows do a repair of an existing installation. Windows will prompt you if you want to use the Recovery Console or the emergency repair process (ASR/ERD). Start with the Recovery Console.
  • 103. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 103 If Recovery console is not installed, start it as described earlier using the Windows 2000 or XP installation CD-ROM. When you select the Recovery Console, you will see a message about NTDETECT, another one that the Recovery Console is starting up, and then you will be greeted with the following message and command prompt: Microsoft Windows XP<TM> Recovery Console. The Recovery Console provides system repair and recovery functionality. Type Exit to quit the Recovery Console and restart the computer. 1: C:WINDOWS Which Windows XP installation would you like to log onto <To cancel, press ENTER>? If there is only one installation of Windows XP on your computer, type the number 1 at the prompt and press the ENTER key. If you press ENTER before typing in a valid selection, the Recovery Console will cancel and the computer will reboot. The only choice you can make in this example is 1. Having made that choice, the only change to the screen above is a new line: Type the Administrator password: Enter the Administrator password for that computer and press ENTER. The screen still shows everything that has happened so far, unless something has happened to cause an error message. It now looks like this: Microsoft Windows XP<TM> Recovery Console. The Recovery Console provides system repair and recovery functionality. Type Exit to quit the Recovery Console and restart the computer. 1: C:WINDOWS Which Windows XP installation would you like to log onto <To cancel, press ENTER>? 1 Type the Administrator password: ******** C:Windows> Now you are supposed to use the recovery console commands to repair the problem. The Recovery Console shines in the business of manually restoring registries, stopping problem services, rebuilding partitions (other than the system partition), and using the EXPAND program to extract copies of corrupted files from a CD-ROM or floppy disk. Using the Recovery Console, you can reconfigure a service so that it starts with different settings, format drives on the hard disk, read and write on local FAT or NTFS volumes, and copy replacement files from a floppy or CD-ROM. The Recovery Console enables you to access the file system, and is still constrained by the file and folder security of NTFS. The Recovery Console is best at fixing three items: repairing the MBR, reinstalling the boot files, and rebuilding BOOT.INI. Let’s look at each of these.
  • 104. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 104 i. A bad boot sector usually shows up as a No Boot Device error. If it turns out that this isn’t the problem, the Recovery Console command to fix it won’t hurt anything. At the Recovery Console prompt, just type: Fixmbr This fixes the master boot record. ii. The second problem the Recovery Console is best at fixing is missing system files, usually indicated by the error NTLDR bad or missing. Odds are good that if NTDLR is missing, so are the rest of the system files. To fix this, get to the root directory (CD— and type copy d:i386ntldr Then type copy d:i386ntdetect.com iii. Rebuilding BOOT.INI. If the BOOT.INI file is gone or corrupted, run this command from the recovery console: bootcfg /rebuild The Recovery console will then try to locate all installed copies of Windows and ask you if you want to add them to the new BOOT.INI file it’s about to create. Say yes to the ones you want. If all goes well with the Recovery Console, then do a thorough backup as soon as possible (just in case something else goes wrong). If the Recovery Console does not do the trick, the next step is to restore Windows XP. Attempt to Restore If you’ve been diligent about backing up, you can attempt to restore to an earlier, working copy of Windows. You have two basic choices depending on your OS. In Windows 2000, you can try the Emergency Repair Disk (ERD). Windows XP limits you to the Automated System Recovery (ASR). Rebuild If faced with a full system rebuild, you have several options depending on the particular system. You could simply reboot to the Windows CD-ROM and install right on top of the existing system, but that’s usually not the optimal solution. To avoid losing anything important, you’d be better off swapping the C: drive for a blank hard drive and installing a clean version of Windows. Most OEM systems come with a misleadingly-named Recover CD or recovery partition. The Recover CD is a CD-ROM that you boot to and run. The recovery partition is a hidden partition on the hard drive that you activate at boot by holding down a key combination specific to the manufacturer of that system. Both “recover” options do the same thing—restore your computer to the factory-installed state. If you run one of these tools, you will wipe everything off your system—all personal files, folders,
  • 105. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 105 and programs will go away! Before running either tool, make sure all important files and folders are backed up on an optical disc or spare hard drive. Failure to Load the GUI Assuming that Windows gets past the boot part of the startup, it will then begin to load the real Windows OS. You will see the Windows startup image on the screen hiding everything until Windows loads the Desktop. Several issues can cause Windows to hang during the GUI-loading phase, such as buggy device drivers or Registry problems. Even autoloading programs can cause the GUI to hang on load. The first step in troubleshooting these issues is to use one of the Advanced Startup options to try to get past the hang spot and into Windows. Device Drivers Device driver problems that stop Windows GUI from loading look pretty scary. The common symptom of this is a Stop error, better known as the Blue Screen of Death (BSoD). The BSoD only appears when something causes an error from which Windows cannot recover. The BSoD is not limited to device driver problems, but device drivers are one of the reasons you’ll see the BSoD. Windows BSoDs tell you the name of the file that caused the problem and usually suggest a recommended action. These are helpful—but not often. BSoD problems due to device drivers almost always take place immediately after you’ve installed a new device and rebooted. Take out the device and reboot. If Windows loads properly, you are safe. The second indication of a device problem that shows up during the GUI part of startup is a freeze-up: the Windows startup screen just stays there and you never get a chance to log on. If this happens, try one of the Advanced Startup Options, covered below.
  • 106. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 106 Registry Your Registry files load every time the computer boots. Windows does a pretty good job of protecting your Registry files from corruption, but from time to time something may slip by Windows and it will attempt to load a bad Registry. These errors may show up as BSoDs that say “Registry File Failure” or text errors that say “Windows could not start.” Whatever the case, you need to restore a good Registry copy. The best way to do this is the Last Known Good Configuration boot option. If that fails, then you can restore an earlier version of the Registry through the Recovery Console. Boot to the Windows installation CD-ROM, select the repair installation to get to the Recovery Console, and type these commands to restore a Registry. Notice I didn’t not Registry in the previous sentence. Your Registry is corrupted and gone, so you need to rebuild. delete c:windowssystem32configsystem delete c:windowssystem32configsoftware delete c:windowssystem32configsam delete c:windowssystem32configsecurity delete c:windowssystem32configdefault copy c:windowsrepairsystem c:windowssystem32configsystem copy c:windowsrepairsoftware c:windowssystem32configsoftware copy c:windowsrepairsam c:windowssystem32configsam copy c:windowsrepairsecurity c:windowssystem32configsecurity copy c:windowsrepairdefault c:windowssystem32configdefault Advanced Startup Options If Windows fails to start up, use the Windows Advanced Startup Options menu to discover the cause. To get to this menu, restart the computer and press F8 after the POST messages, but before the Windows logo screen appears. Windows 2000 and Windows XP have similar menus. The basic to these advanced options are Safe Mode and Last Known Good Configuration. There are several differences between the two operating systems in this menu. i. Boot normally in windows 2000 is termed as Start Windows Normally in windows XP ii. Windows XP has options not available in windows 2000(Disable automatic restart on system failure and Reboot.) A Windows system with multiple operating systems might also have the Return to OS Choices Menu. Safe Mode Safe Mode starts up Windows but loads only very basic, non–vendor specific drivers for mouse, VGA monitor, keyboard, mass storage, and system services. Some devices, such as your USB mouse, may not work! Once in Safe Mode, you can use tools like Device Manager to locate and correct the source of the problem. When you use Device Manager in Safe Mode, you can access the properties for all the devices, even those that are not working in Safe Mode. The status displayed for the device is
  • 107. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 107 the status for a normal startup. Even the network card will show as enabled. You can disable any suspect device or perform other tasks, such as removing or updating drivers. If a problem with a device driver is preventing the operating system from starting normally, check the Device Manager for yellow question mark warning icons that indicate an unknown device. Safe Mode with Networking This mode is identical to plain Safe Mode except that you get network support. I use this mode to test for a problem with network drivers. If Windows won’t start up normally, but does start up in Safe Mode, I then reboot into Safe Mode with Networking. If it fails to start up with Networking, then the problem is a network driver. I reboot back to Safe Mode, open Device Manager, and start disabling network components, beginning with the network adapter. Safe Mode with Command Prompt When you start Windows in this mode, after you log on, rather than loading the GUI desktop, it loads the command prompt (CMD.EXE) as the shell to the operating system. This is a handy option to remember if the desktop does not display at all, which, after you have eliminated video drivers, can be caused by the corruption of the EXPLORER.EXE program. From the command prompt you can delete the corrupted version of EXPLORER.EXE and copy in an undamaged version. This requires knowing the command-line commands for navigating the directory structure, as well as knowing the location of the file that you are replacing. Although Explorer is not loaded, you can load other GUI tools that don’t depend on Explorer. All you have to do is enter the correct command. Enable Boot Logging This option starts Windows normally and creates a log file of the drivers as they load into memory. The file is named Ntbtlog.txt and is saved in the %SystemRoot% folder. If the startup failed because of a bad driver, the last entry in this file may be the driver the OS was initializing when it failed. Reboot and go into the Recovery Console. Use the Recovery Console tools to read the boot log (type ntbtlog.txt) and disable or enable problematic devices or services. Enable VGA Mode Enable VGA Mode starts Windows normally but only loads a default VGA driver. If this mode works, it may mean that you have a bad driver, or it may mean that you are using the correct video driver, but it is configured incorrectly (perhaps with the wrong refresh rate and/or resolution). Whereas Safe Mode loads a generic VGA driver, this mode loads the driver Windows is configured to use, but starts it up in standard VGA mode rather than using the settings for which it is configured. After successfully starting in this mode, open the Display Properties and change the settings. Last Known Good Configuration When Windows’ startup fails immediately after installing a new driver, but before you have logged on again, you may want to try this option. This can be a rather fickle and limited tool, but it never hurts to try it.
  • 108. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 108 Disable automatic restart on system failure Sometimes a BSOD will appear at startup, causing your computer to spontaneously reboot. That’s all well and good, but if it happens too quickly, you might not be able to read the BSOD to see what caused the problem. Selecting Disable automatic restart on system failure from the Advanced Startup Options menu stops the computer from rebooting on Stop errors. This gives you the opportunity to write down the error and hopefully find a fix. Start Windows Normally This choice will simply start Windows normally, without rebooting. You already rebooted to get to this menu. Select this if you changed your mind about using any of the other exotic choices. Troubleshooting Tools in the GUI Once you’re able to load into Windows, whether through Safe Mode or one of the other options, there are plenty of windows tools to diagnostic windows. For example, If a bad device driver caused the startup problems, for example, you can open Device Manager and begin troubleshooting. Event Viewer might reveal problems with applications failing to load, a big cause of Windows loading problems. It might also reveal problems with services failing to start. Finally, Windows might run into problems loading DLLs. You can troubleshoot these issues individually or you can use System Restore in Windows XP to load a restore point that predates the bugginess. Auto loading Programs Windows autoload some programs so they start at boot. The problem with Autoloading programs is when one of them starts behaving badly—you need to shut off that program! There are at least five different locations in folders, files, and the Registry that Windows accesses to autoload programs. To help you, Windows XP includes the handy System Configuration Utility (MSCONFIG.EXE), a one-stop spot to see and maintain every program (and service) that autoloads at startup. The System Configuration Utility enables you to keep individual programs and services from autoloading, but it does not actually remove the programs/services. If you want to completely delete a program, you’ll need to find the undelete or Add/Remove Program option. Services Windows loads a number of services as it starts. If any critical service fails to load, Windows will tell you at this point with an error message. The important word here is critical. Windows will not report all service failures at this point. If a service that is less than critical in Windows’ eyes doesn’t start, Windows usually waits until you actually try to use a program that needs that service before it prompts you with an error message
  • 109. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 109 To work with your system’s services, go to the Control Panel | Administrative Tools | Services and verify that the Service you need is running. If not, turn it on. Also notice that each service has a Startup Type—Automatic, Manual, or Disabled—that defines when it starts. It’s very common to find that a service has been set to Manual when it needs to be set to Automatic so that it starts when Windows boots System Files Windows lives on dynamic link library (DLL) files. Almost every program used by Windows— and certainly all of the important ones—call to DLL files to do most of the heavy lifting that makes Windows work. Windows protects all of the critical DLL files very carefully, but once in a while you may get an error saying Windows can’t load a particular DLL. Although rare, the core system files that make up Windows itself may become corrupted, preventing Windows from starting properly. You usually see something like “Error loading XXXX.DLL,” or sometimes a program you need simply won’t start when you double-click on its icon. In these cases, the tool you need is the System File Checker. The System File Checker is a command prompt program (SFC.EXE) that is used to check a number of critical files, including the ever-important DLL cache. SFC takes a number of switches, but by far the most important is /scannow. Go to a command prompt and type the following to start the program: SFC /scannow SFC will automatically check all critical files and replace any it sees as corrupted. During this process, it may ask for the Windows installation CD-ROM, so keep it handy! System Restore Windows XP systems enable you to recover from a bad device or application installation by using System Restore to load a restore point. Follow the process explained earlier in the chapter. System Restore is the final step in recovering from a major Windows meltdown. Windows 2000 only REGEDT32 is safe to use for actual editing, but you can use the older REGEDIT to perform searches, because REGEDT32’s search capabilities are not very good. Module V: CModule V: CModule V: CModule V: Common Hardware problems and Troubleommon Hardware problems and Troubleommon Hardware problems and Troubleommon Hardware problems and Trouble shootingsshootingsshootingsshootings
  • 110. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 110 Trouble Shooting Methods STARTING POINT FOR TROUBLESHOOTING Replacement Method Common Hardware problem and their solutions Mouse Keyboards Power supply Motherboard Main memory Hard disk Sound card Modem card Monitors Common type of hard ware problems and trouble shootings: TROUBLESHOOTING METHODS Troubleshooting is the process of identifying and correcting problems. The best troubleshooters are usually people who have been exposed to most problems. They have seen different types of problems and their solutions. Therefore, if they run into a particular problem, they might see it before and can quickly address the problems. Most of the solutions are quite simple, so you don't have to be a technical expert to work with your PC in good condition. If you want to be a good troubleshooter, just follow the procedures detailed in this book. STARTING POINT FOR TROUBLESHOOTING Every technician [computer users] has his or her own way to troubleshoot. Some people use their instincts while others need an advice from other people. But let us see a common troubleshooting method. 1. GATHER INFORMATION Ask the customer the following questions to define the problems:
  • 111. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 111 Can you tell me something about the problem? What did you do to your computer lastly [Before it stopped working]? How often does this happen? Have you installed new software Have you deleted some files? Have you added a new hardware device? Have you made any other changes to the computer recently? 2. CHECK THE POWER AND CABLE CONNECTORS Check the power line. Check the wall outlet power. Check the power sockets. Check the cables. Is it plugged in? Is it turned on? Is the computer ready to accept command from the user? Open the case covers and Reset chips and cables. ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) ESD stands for electrostatic discharge. ESD happen when two objects of dissimilar charge (for example, man and the computer components) contact each other. This charge can damage the computer components like CPU, RAM, Motherboards, cards and other electronic components. • To prevent ESD, simply touch the metal part of the case (power supply) in every movement while working inside the computer. Or use anti-static wrist strap. 3. CHECK IF THE ERROR IS USER'S ERROR Because the user cannot print. Because the user cannot save the files Because the user cannot run application etc. If the user is wrong, show him her how to use the computer. 4. RESTART THE COMPUTER
  • 112. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 112 This process is called a "cold boot" (since the machine was off or cold when it started). A "warm boot" is the same except it occurs when the machine is rebooted using {CTRL+ALT+DELETE}. NOTE: -Reboot can solve or show the problem. Rebooting doesn't work, try to power down the system completely, and then power it up 5. DEFINE IF THE PROBLEM IS A HARDWARE OR SOFTW RERELATED Is it a startup problem? Is it windows problem? Is it a program problem? Is it a device problem? Startup problem: An error occurs before or during boot process. Window Problem: An error occurs with window system itself. Program Problem: An error occurs with a specific program. Device Problem: An error occurs with a specific piece of hardware parts. 6. FIND OUT THE PROBLEM AND SOLVE IT! If the problem is hardware related, determine which component is failing and try to solve the problem. If the problem is software related; determine which is corrupted or missed and try to solve the problem. REPLACEMENT METHOD
  • 113. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 113 When you troubleshoot, make one change at a time is my favorite troubleshooting method). If the change does not solve the problem, change it back to its original state before making another change. For example, you may have trouble on your monitor. If you can get another monitor, attach to your system and try it. If the other monitor works, you know that the problem is with your monitor. But if the other monitor does not work, change it back to its original state and try to find other possible causes. Common hardware problems and their solutions: Mouse Keyboards Power supply Motherboard Main memory Hard disk Sound card Modem card Monitors Mouse problems and solutions Problem: The mouse may hang up or may not move in the correct way due to dust. [Doesn’t work properly] Solution Clean the mouse [mechanical mouse]: Shutdown the PC. Remove the mouse cable from its connection at the back of your PC. Turn the mouse upside-down and remove the securing screws from the mouse case. Remove the mouse ball from the cavity. Clean the cavity and the mouse ball with proper available materials. [ use dry cloth] Look inside the mouse housing. You will see the two perpendicular bars. Use your finger nail to scrape along each bar, removing any dirt. Reconnect the cable to the computer. Turn ON the PC and see that if it is activated. Problem:
  • 114. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 114 The new PS/2 or serial mouse doesn't work when plugged on the system running Windows XP. Solution Restart the system. Plug the new mouse firmly. Restart the PC. The new mouse will be active. Else-use a replacement method. Keyboard problems and solutions While working on PC, something (liquid) Spilled in to the keyboard. Solution Remove the keyboard cable from its connection at the back of the PC. Do not wait!! You need to cut power to the device in order to avoid a possible short circuit. Shutdown the PC using the mouse [start>turn off computer ...]. Tip the keyboard upside down and drain out as much of the liquid as you can. Try to dry the inside part of the keyboard properly by using blow dryer or direct sunlight. Reconnect the keyboard cable to the computer. Power up the computer and manipulate the keyboard to assure proper functioning. Some keys on the keyboard don't work. Solution For the current help: Use On-Screen Keyboard. [Win XP] To open On-Screen Keyboard: click on Start, point to Programs, point to Accessories, point to Accessibility, and then click On-Screen Keyboard. Then you can use the mouse to type any text. OR Turn OFF the PC and Remove the keyboard cable from its connection at the back of the PC. Turn the keyboard upside-down and remove the securing screws properly.
  • 115. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 115 Select the key that you want to remove. Just be careful not to damage the other key. Clean or adjust the sit of the key properly. If you remove multiple keys, be sure to return them to their proper seats. Make sure· that the keyboard is dry while cleaning. Replace the cover. Reconnect the cable to the computer. Boot up the PC and check that if activated. CPU problems and trouble shootings: Problem Both the CPU and power supply fan work properly but the system shows a blank screen. Solution The CPU might be damaged. Use the replacement method. CPU problem Possible causes: • Overheating. • Static discharge. • Bent or Broken pins. General symptom of CPU • The system fails to Boot (start). • Black Screen. • The system boots, but the operating system (windows) fails to load. • The system locks-up or dies after several minutes of operations. • The system says “hardware monitor error .....” General symptom of RAM • The system refuses to do another task until you close some windows program. • Slow down in operation. • The system freezes. • Creates [shows] the ghost and crashes pictures on the screen.
  • 116. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 116 General Troubleshooting • Check the virtual memory. • Check the capacity of your RAM. • Use the replacement method. • Run any memory diagnostic software that is supplied by your computer manufacturer. Problem The system displays blank screen with a long [multiple] beep sounds. Solution • The memory is not installed correctly [or the RAM is absent] . • Press the RAM firmly on the motherboard. • Or there's a problem with your memory or motherboard. • Else-Use the replacement method. Problem Some PC shows 200 series error any error (from 200-299) code during the POST process. Solution • Any number starting with 2 usually indicate memory-related problem. • Check the memory setting into the BIOS set on • Use the replacement method. Problem A PC shows memory size error Solution • Memory size error always (usually) hap] after memory has been added.
  • 117. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 117 Running BIOS setup program will allow the system recognize the memory and the error should away. • If the system is out of memory, add a memory stick (RAM) to increase the memory capacity. Problem A PC shows memory parity error that halts the system operation Solution • If you get a parity error message, write down any memory address information that appears. If the problem occurs again, then the RAM is bad. Replace the RAM] General power problems The general power problems can be categorized in three types: 1. Power Quality problem Possible causes: • EMI (Electro-Magnetic Interference]. • Variable rate [frequency] from the power line. 2. Too much power Possible causes: • Power spike [for few milliseconds]. • Power surge [for several seconds]. 3. No-enough power Possible causes: • Power sag [for few milli second] • Brownout [if sag lasts for longer than a second]
  • 118. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 118 • Blackout [a complete of power failure] Protection against power problems You can use the following devices for proper Line conditioner Stabilizer Surge suppressor UPS N.B ups means uninterruptible Power 5uppfy. The UPS is also known as battery backup Problem Monitor's power indicator lights but no power lights on the system unit. Solution • Check the system unit's power connection. • Check your power supply DC volt outlet. • Use a replacement method for power supply. • Check also the motherboard. Power supply symptoms • Fan noise sounds rough or louder than usual. • Fan noise is absent altogether. • The power supply chassis is unusually hot to touch. General troubleshooting methods • Check the power cable. • Check the power supply [you can use a Multi- meter to test electronic components]. Check the power outlet voltage. • Replace the power supply unit. Problem A PC accidentally reboots or shutdown Solution
  • 119. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 119 • Check your power line. • Make sure that your power supply is rated [watt" to handle all the peripherals that it powers [30Owatt or above is better] • Check the power supply fan movement. • Use a replacement method. Motherboard problems and trouble shootings: Problem The PC shows 100 series error (any error from 100- 199) code and freezes the system. Solution • Any number starting with 1 usually indicates system board problem. • Check the system board (motherboard) • Use a replacement method. Problem The power supply works properly' but no movement of the CPU fan and the display shows black screen. Solution The system board power connector is plugged correctly or the motherboard failure might cause this problem. Symptom: - hard disk failure message on black screen Troubleshooting • Your hard drive is not hooked up right. • Check the power cable for hard drive. • Check the data (IDE) cable. • Check the BIOS setting for hard drive and CDROM drive. [usually configured AUTO] • Check the jumper (MASTER SLA VE) setting. • Else-the hard drive has failed. If you can get another hard drive that works, plug it in and see if it corrects the problem (replacement method).
  • 120. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 120 Symptom: - boot failure message troubleshooting Your hard disk can't start windows. It might have gone bad, or you might have a computer virus. Re-installation of the operating system may solve the problem. Problem The PC's hard disk is busy Solution • Check the viruses. • Run the system maintenance·· tasks [disk defragmenter, disk cleanup, scandisk.] • Is the hard disk's Light indicator [on the PC's front case] blinking constantly? If so, your PC doesn't have enough memory. So, add more RAM Problem On POST (power on self test) routine, the system freezes and shows "no boot device available" message on the screen Solution • Remove any floppy disk from the floppy drive so that the boot process can continue. • Check the IDE cables connectors. • Check the jumper of the hard diskCD drive. • You have a bootable Hard disk partition but forget to set it active. [Reconfigure the hard disk setting] Problem Some systems show 1700-1799 error code on the screen during the POST routine. Solution • Hard disk problems. The hard disk geometry might not be set correctly, or the hard disk contains a bad controller. • Use the replacement method.
  • 121. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 121 Problem The system shows "drive not found" or not boot device available" at boot time. Solution • Check the connectivity first. • Check the jumper setting for the HDD CDROM. • Check the cable connection. • Adjust the CMOS setting to 'Auto' detection. Problem The system shows "no operating system" or "missing operating system" error message during boot process. Solution • Make sure the CMOS setting detects the hard disk properly. • The hard disk might have a corrupted or missing, file. • Backup the data and reinstall the operating!" system. Sound card Usually built-in the motherboard and is used to give sound through the speakers. Problem No sound from the Computer Possible cause: • Software related problem. • Speaker connection failure. Solution • Check your speaker and its connection. • Check the volume control in the windows system • Check the driver software for the sound card.
  • 122. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 122 Problem No sound from the CD drive Solution • Check the disc into another system. • The audio cable connecting the CD drive to Sound card is detached. Therefore, unplug off] the PC and reattach the audio cable to sound card. • Run any sound card diagnostic software. • Use the replacement method. Modem card In order to connect· the computer ·to the Internet connection, you must have a modem card between the motherboard and Telephone line. Problem Modem cannot dial and "no Dial tone" message appears on the monitor Solution • Check the phone card connection. • Make sure the jack on the modem labeled "line" is connected to phone line wall jack. Monitor problems and trouble shootings: General display problem • Incorrect configuration. [Check the brightness and contrast control] • Adapter might not be seated properly in II expansion slot. • Cable between the CPU and monitor may lose or fail. • Software related problems. • Failure in monitor s display electronics and in monitor's power supply. • Incompatibility between software and display adapter. Common symptom: No display. Troubleshooting
  • 123. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 123 • Check the power to monitor. • Check the brightness control on the monitor. • Check the data cable between the monitor and the video port on the system unit. Problem When the system turns on, it sounds a single beep and shows the disk activity (light flashes) but the display is blank. Solution • The computer is starting normally but the monitor doesn't display anything. Just use the following simple method. Methods • Shutdown the PC [unplug the power cable] and press down the video card firmly, restart the PC. • Is the monitor turned on? If not, check the monitor power connector. • If the problem is on the monitor, use the replacement method. • Also check the connection (data cable) between the video card and the monitor. • Your adapter hardware may not work, so use the replacement method. Problem The Monitor shows only one bright vertical line in the center of the screen Solution • The monitor is unaJle to drag the ray (beam) to the horizontal side. • There is a -problem on the horizontal section of the monitor circuit board. • This symptom may also be the horizontal deflection' coil or its connection opened. However, unsolder the horizontal transistor from its board and measure it by using a
  • 124. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 124 multi-meter. [Usually Done by an electronics expert] Problem The Monitor shows only one bright Horizontal line in the center of the screen. Solution • The monitor is unable to pull the beam to the vertical the vertical side • There is a problem in the vertical section [vertical IC]. • Cable between the CPU and monitor might fail or disconnected. • Display adapter fault. • Supply to vertical section is missing. • Vertical deflection coil or its connection IS opened. Problem The Monitor shows only one bright point in the center of the screen Solution • The monitor is unable to pull the beam to horizontal and vertical side of the monitor. • Check the horizontal transistor and vertical IC. Problem: No Power light appears on the Computer (Monitor &. System Unit) and there is no display on the screen. Solution • Check the power line from the wall outlet. • Check the adapter sockets. • Check the power cables. • Check that the system unit's power supply is plugged into the wall outlet (adapter
  • 125. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 125 socket) • Check that the monitor is plugged into the wall outlet (adapter socket). • Check the system unit's ON OFF switch. • Check the monitor's ONOFF switch. Problem Still black screen, no power light and no fan sounds. Solution Both the system unit and the monitor not getting power properly. Is it plugged in? Is the wall outlet power working? Or Computer's power supply has gone bad Problem System unit's power lights, fan sound and no power light on the monitor. Solution Check the monitor power connection. Use the replacement method. Problem Both the monitor's and the system unit's power lights but no picture on the screen. Solution Note: The red power light on the monitor indicates 'no signal’ has been sent to the monitor through the monitor's data cable, and the green light indicates: that the monitor has received a signal from the CPU. Check if the monitor brightness and contrast is on accurate setting. Re-attach the data cable. The data (video) cable that connects the monitor to the video card may be unplugged. Problem Still the monitor and computer system Power lights came on but there is no picture on the screen.
  • 126. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 126 Solution • Reseat the video card firmly. [Don't forget ESD] • The video cable (pins) might fail. [So check it] • The video card might fail. [Replace it] • The monitor might fail. • Use the replacement method. Problem The computer shows "keyboard error" message on black screen or you couldn’t' type anything. Solution Check the keyboard connection (Identify t.: keyboard and the mouse connector (PS /2 types) at the back of your PC]. Unplug and re-plug the keyboard cable to make sure it is plugged in firmly. Make sure that nothing is holding any key down on the keyboard. Or the keyboard might fail. Use the replacement method. Problem A PC shuts down and reboots without warning. Solution Fluctuation in voltage would cause sudden restart or shutdown. Heat problem could cause restart after a few minutes of operation. Check the power supply fan. Check the CPU cooling fan. Check also the thermal compound [grease] between the CPU chipset and heat sink. CHAPTER IVCHAPTER IVCHAPTER IVCHAPTER IV PrintersPrintersPrintersPrinters Printer definition Printer language Printer Quality
  • 127. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 127 Type of printers Printer operation stages: Laser printer image troubleshooting Toner cartridge Refill Method: Ink jet printer image Troubleshooting Printer definition It is an electro-mechanical device that is used to put information from the computer onto paper. a printer is a device that accepts text and graphic output from a computer and transfers the information to paper, usually to standard size sheets of paper. Printers vary in size, speed, sophistication, and cost. In general, more expensive printers are used for higher-resolution color printing. Printer Languages Printer languages are commands from the computer to the printer to tell the printer how to format the document being printed. These commands manage font size, graphics, compression of data sent to the printer, color, etc Printer qualities Color: Color is important for users who need to print pages for presentations or maps and other pages where color is part of the information. Color printers can also be set to print only in black-and-white. Color printers are more expensive to operate since they use two ink cartridges (one color and one black ink) Resolution: Printer resolution (the sharpness of text and images on paper) is usually measured in dots per inch ( dpi ). Most inexpensive printers provide sufficient resolution for most Speed: If you do much printing, the speed of the printer becomes important. Inexpensive printers print only about 3 to 6 sheets per minute. Color printing is slower. More expensive printers are much faster.
  • 128. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 128 Memory: Most printers come with a small amount of memory (for example, one megabyte ) that can be expanded by the user. Having more than the minimum amount of memory is helpful and faster when printing out pages with large images or tables with lines around them Type of printers Impact printer Non impact printer Impact Printer Impact printers worked something like an automatic typewriter, with a key striking an inked impression on paper for each printed character . Examples of non impact printer • dot matrix printer • passbook printer The dot-matrix printer was a popular low-cost personal computer printer. It's an impact printer that strikes the paper a line at a time. It has a print head that cost as that of the printer and it has also a heat sink that controls the heat Dot matrix is used mostly used in governmental offices It is an old printer that is currently out of use due to the following three main reasons. • Highly noisy • Poor quality • Very slow Non impact printer There are two common types of non impact printers Inkjet [color] and Laser Jet printers. The Inkjet printer uses an ink cartridge where as the LaserJet printer uses a toner [black powder] cartridge The best-known non-impact printers are • Inkjet printer • Laser printer
  • 129. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 129 Laser jet printer • Is a common type of computer printer that rapidly produces high quality text and graphics on plain paper. • Is a printer that uses a laser to produce an image on a rotating drum before electrostatically transferring the image to paper. • Is a printer that uses a laser and the electrophotographic method to print a full page at a time. The laser "paints" a charged drum with light, to which toner is applied and then transferred onto paper .different types of laser jet printers and their cartridges numbers Type of printer cartridgeno speed Quality memory 4 plus 98A 4ppm 300dpi 8mb 4l 74A 4ppm 600dpi 8mb 5l, 6l 06A 6ppm 600dpi 8mb 1100 92A 8ppm 600dpi 8mb 1000,1200 15A 20ppm 1200dpi 64mb 1150 24A 20ppm 1200dpi >> 1300 13A 20ppm 1200dpi >> 1320 49A 20ppm 1200dpi >> 2013 53A 26ppm 1200dpi >> 1010,1012 12A 12ppm 1200dp >> 1015,1018,1020 12A 12ppm >1200dpi >> 4050 27A 35ppm >1200dpi >> 4100 61A 35ppm >1200dpi >> 4200 38A 35ppm >1200dpi >> 4250 42A 35ppm >1200dpi >> 4250 printer families 4250, 4250D, 4250N, 4250DN, Where: D: means duplex used to print front and back N: mean network card used for sharing printer among many computers S: means step TONER CARTRIDGE SECTION
  • 130. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 130 Drum unit. Developing unit. Drum unit contains the following: • Photosensitive drum. • Charging roller (primary corona roller) • Cleaning blade. • Waste tanker. • Bias voltage connector. Developing unit contains the following: • Toner powder • Toner tanker • Rubber blade • Magnetic charging roller (developing roller) • Bias voltage connector. Toner Powdery substance It contains: • Carbon substance [for black color] • Plastic resins [for easy flow and melt] • Iron oxide [for electrical charge] Photosensitive drum • It is the heart of the image formation system. • Its electrical properties are charged when it is exposed to light. [The drum becomes conductive when exposed to light and areas not exposed to light remain non conductive and maintain their charges.] • The drum is made from aluminum coated with an organic photo conductive material(OPC)
  • 131. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 131 • The drum sometimes called OPC[print drum or EP drum) Cleaning blade: • It is used to clean small amount of toner from drum, which is not transferred to the print paper. • It is MADE FROM long, flat strip of rubber Waste tanker: • It is part of drum unit • It is a toner hopper for used toner Note: Some people recycle the second hand of toner from the waste tanker but the print quality will be less poor. Primary charger: • It is located close to the photosensitive drum • It uses 600 dc v(bias voltage ) to charge the drum surface negatively • Developer roller: • It is located to parallel to the drum • It is the toner transfer roller and major part of developing unit • It contains the magnetic substance to attract the toner • It uses -600cv( bias voltage ) to transfer toner on the exposed surface of the drum. Transfer roller • This section is found outside the toner cartridge . • It transfers the toner from the drum surface to the paper. • It uses +600dcv( biasing voltage) to charge the surface of the paper. Printer operation stages: Stage 1 Cleaning process Physical cleaning: the cleaning blade removes the toner from the drum surface Electrical cleaning: the eraser lamp removes an electrical charge from the drum surface.
  • 132. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 132 Stage 2 Charging [Conditioning] process The corona roller applies a uniform negative [-600dcv] charge to the surface of the drum. Stage 3: exposing[laser writing] process From the laser assembly, a laser beam focuses on the print drum and creates an image or text by discharging the negative surface of the drum. Stage 4. Developing process The toner from the developing roller is transferred to the drum surface and visible image is formed. Note: the friction feed mechanism feeds the paper into the printer. Stage 5: transfer process The transfer roller applies a positive charge at the back of the paper, causing the paper To attract the negatively charged toner from the drum surface. Note Next to the transfer roller, there is static eliminator to discharge the paper. Stage 6. Fixing [fusing] process At the fIxing stage, the paper passes between the fuser film and pressure roller. The fuser lamp melts and dries the toner while the pressure roller compresses the paper. Remember: The mechanical and electronics part of a printer are usually repaired by office machine technicians. Laser printer image troubleshooting Symptom:-white image Possible Causes: • Opc(drum) problem
  • 133. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 133 • Laser writer problem • Lose contact to the magnetic sleeve • Lose contact to the transfer unit • Out of toner. • Incorrect software setup. Troubleshooting • Replace the toner cartridge. • Re-install the printer driver. [start>printer and faxes> select" add printer" and follow the wizard] Symptom: -black image Possible Causes: • Primary charger failure • Fuser film • Cleaning blade Symptom: -light image Possible causes: • OPC • Laser writer • False contact to the magnetic sleeve • False contact to the transfer roller Toner cartridge Refill Method: 1. Disassemble the toner cartridge parts. 2. Remove the used toner from the waste tanker. 3. Clean the parts with dry cloth [or lI:d compressed air]. 4. Add the original toner to the toner cylindll (some folks use photocopy toner). 5. Reassemble the cartridge. 6. Shake it gently. 7. Place the cartridge into the printer. 8. Make a self-test or print test page and see the outcome. Problem While printing, the computer displays a message: " there was an error writing to
  • 134. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 134 LPT 1" 9. Solution • Check the printer connection. • Remove and re-attach the cable, then restart your PC. • Make sure it is turned on and online. • Check the printer in device manager. Black stripes on paper Possible Causes: • Dirty prullary corona wire • Poorly seated tonerOPC drum solution • Visual check • Clean corona wire. Paper jams or skewed printing Possible Causes: • Paper not loaded squarely. • Too much paper loaded into the tray . • Mechanical problem that do not allow the movement of the cartridge such as motors Solution for paper jams • Visualize the problem. • Check the paper feeder. • Service the entire part of the printer. Desk jet printer • A printer that forms an image by using electromagnetic fields to guide electrically charged ink streams onto the page
  • 135. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 135 • High-speed computer-driven printer that sprays a row of fine streams of ink onto labels and/or forms to create a dot pattern print image. • Printer that forms characters by firing tiny dots of ink at the paper • Operates by propelling variably-sized droplets of liquid or molten material (ink) onto almost any sized page. They are the most common type of computer printer for the general consumer] due to their low cost, high quality of output, capability of printing in vivid color, and ease of use. • Sprays ink at a sheet of paper. Ink-jet printers produce high-quality text and graphics. Ink jet printer has the following three indicators for its functionalty Power green color Resume orange Cartridge orange Power: • remains on : ready to use • remains blinking: printing • fast blinking: ink cleaner problem Resume remains blinking: paper jam Resume and power remains blinking : mechanical problem( that forces the cartridge assembly from moving Cartridge assembly includes the following: • Motor • Rail • Belt • Vertical adjustment sensor Cartridge and power remains on: low ink Cartridge remains blinking, and power remains on: cartridge problem. Causes: • missing cartridge • Wrong cartridge number
  • 136. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 136 • Defective cartridge Cartridge, resume power remains on: control panel board problem Ink jet printer image troubleshooting Problem Poor print quality Possible Causes: • Print cartridge may need reactivation . • Paper may be unsuitable. Solution • Check the manufacturer manual. Problem • Fading print Possible Cause: • Print cartridge has insufficient ink Solution • Visual check [quake it gently] • You can refill the ink cartridge. [Officially not recommended. It may damage the printer parts] • Replace new ink cartridge. Problem • Faint print Possible Cause:
  • 137. AdvancedAdvancedAdvancedAdvanced PC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and TroubleshootingPC Maintenance and Troubleshooting 2011 Sheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science DepartmentSheba University College, Computer Science Department CompiledCompiledCompiledCompiled by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M.by: Natan M. 137 • Paper may be unsuitable. Solution • Check the manufacturer's recommendations