Style (Lat. 'stylus‘) = a short stick sharp at one end and flat at the other used by the Romans for writing on wax tablets.
Stylistics ( Fr. “ Stylistique” ) =instrument for writing.
fields of investigation
the aesthetic function of language;
2) expressive means in language;
3) synonymous ways of rendering one and the same idea;
4) emotional colouring of language;
5) a system of special devices called stylistic devices;
6) the interrelation between language and thought;
7) the individual manner of an author in making use of language.
correspondence between thought and expression
embellishment of language
technique of expression
a literary genre
different styles of language (functional styles)
the belles- lettres style;
2) the publicist style;
3) the newspaper style;
4) the scientific prose style;
5) the style of official documents
Stylistics and its Subdivisions
SDs and Ems desirable effect;
b) types of text “discourse” -functional styles
Depending on the school of thought there are:
2) Literary stylistics (encoding stylistics);
3) Decoding stylistics (of the reader);
studies of literary discourse from a linguistic point of view;
studies the linguistic nature of the expressive means of the language, their character and functions.
Literary stylistics (encoding st.)
the composition of a work of art
various literary genres
the writer's outlook
Decoding stylistics (of the reader)
Sender - message - receiver
Speaker - book - reader
Expressive Means (EM) and Stylistic Devices (SD)
fixed in grammars and dictionaries; normalized, and are labeled as intensifiers in some dictionaries; in most cases they have corresponding neutral synonymous forms.
Drawling out certain syllables
A sing-song manner of speech
and other ways of using the voice
“ shall” (2 nd and 3 rd )
Cf. He shall do it
(I shall make him do it)
He has to do it
(It is necessary for him to do it)
Word Building Means
diminutive suf. as - у (- ie) , - let
e.g. dear ie , stream let
an unexpected use of the author's nonce words
e.g. He glasnosted his love affair with this movie star .
Lexical expressive means
group of intensifiers - awfully, terribly, absolutely, etc.
words that retain their logical meaning while being used emphatically:
It was a very special evening/event/gift.
Lexical expressive means
proverbs and sayings
the ability of a verbal element to obtain extra significance, to say more in a definite context. Most stylistic devices may be regarded as aiming at the further intensification in the corresponding EM.
unlike EM, SD are patterns of the language
the interplay/interaction of the dictionary and contextual meanings of words will lead to such stylistic devices as metaphor, metonymy or irony.