Low-Fat Vegan Diets
and Disease
Natalie Mestel NSD 666 Metabolism Fall 2013
Updating a 12-Year Experience With Arrest
and Reversal Therapy for Coronary Heart
Disease (An Overdue Requiem for Palliati...
Medical Surgeries to Treat Heart Disease
• Modern cardiology relies on
aggressive interventions [1]
 Coronary artery bypa...
What Is The Cost of These Procedures?
Money
• Cost of CVD in 2010: about $444 billion

• CVD treatment accounts for $1 of ...
Epidemiological Basis For Study
The China Study [4]:
• 1983, N=6,500 age 35-64, 65 counties, in 130 villages, 50
adults/vi...
Epidemiological Basis For Study
Framingham Study [5]:

World War II [6]:

• Purpose: follow development of CVD in large gr...
Initial 5 Year Study to Eliminate CVD
Study Overview
• Study 1985-1988

• N=24 age 44-68
(1 woman, 23 men)
 Nonsmoking
 ...
Lipid Profiles of 18 Patients At 5 and 12 years
Significance
• Results show
nutritional therapy
stops rather than
slows co...
TCC502: Heart Disease

Maintenance
4 Techniques Used

Now,! what! about! angiograms?!
Angiograms! are! kind! of! interesti...
come!out!of!his!mouth—it!
is! almost! a! guarantee:!
“You!are!a!walking!time!bomb.”!But!nothing!is!probably!further!from!t...
Nitric Oxide
• Nitric Oxide
 Causes vasodilation = GOOD! ✓

• Arginine
 Catalyzes Nitric Oxide Synthase to produce NO = ...
Why Low Fat?

TCC502: Heart Disease
angina!at!rest.!You!are!supposed!to!look!like!a!donut!in!this!view,!and!here!he!wasn’t...
Fiber & Anti-Oxidants Are Key
[9]

Plant-based diets
• High in Fiber
More bile excreted leads to more LDL-c removed from ...
Conclusions About LF Vegan Diets and CVD
• AHA, National Research Council, and National Cholesterol Education Program reco...
Real World Example: My Daddy!
 Before vegan (0 months):

350

Total cholesterol = Up to 308 mg/dl

 Vegan with oil & pro...
Real World Example: My Daddy!
Usefulness of Vegetarian and Vegan Diets
for Treating Type 2 Diabetes (2010)
Caroline B. Trapp Neal D. Barnard
Low Fat Vegan Diets and Diabetes:
Two Adventist Cohort Studies [2] (Snowdon DA, Phillips RL) (onstad
S, Butler T, Yan R, F...
Low Fat Vegan Diets and Diabetes
22 Week Randomized Trial [2] (Barnard ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJ et al)
• N=99 with type 2 d...
22 Week Randomized Trial [2] (Barnard
ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJ et al)
Low Fat Vegan Diets and Diabetes
Week Pilot Trial [2] (Barnard ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJ et al)
• 2-week inpatient program i...
•

Construction of AHEI
Scores

Scores diets based on servings per day of vegetables, fruit, nuts, and
soy protein; ratio ...
Conclusions About LF Vegan Diets and Diabetes
• In observational studies, diabetes prevalence lower in vegans and vegetari...
Effects of a Very Low-Fat, Vegan Diet in
Subjects With Rheumatoid Arthritis (2002)
John McDougall, M.D Bonnie Bruce Dr.pH ...
Low Fat Vegan Diets and Arthritis
Study Overview
• Purpose: To demonstrate effects of very low-fat vegan diet on patients ...
Low Fat Vegan Diets and Arthritis
Methods and Results
• Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) used for statistica...
Mechanisms for Inflammation
• High CHL, animal proteins negative effect on intestine
 Increased "leaky gut" permeability ...
Conclusions About LF Vegan Diets and Arthritis
• Results of study found patients experience dramatic improvement in arthri...
In Conclusion
Low-Fat Vegan Diets:
•

Can help prevent or reverse effects of chronic disease

•

Long-term, controlled stu...
References
•

[1] Esselstyn Jr., Caldwell B. M.D., (1999). Updating a 12-Year Experience With Arrest and
Reversal Therapy ...
Low-Fat Vegan Diets and Disease
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Low-Fat Vegan Diets and Disease

322

Published on

0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
322
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
13
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Low-Fat Vegan Diets and Disease

  1. 1. Low-Fat Vegan Diets and Disease Natalie Mestel NSD 666 Metabolism Fall 2013
  2. 2. Updating a 12-Year Experience With Arrest and Reversal Therapy for Coronary Heart Disease (An Overdue Requiem for Palliative Cardiology) (1985-1999) Caldwell B. Esselstyn, Jr., MD
  3. 3. Medical Surgeries to Treat Heart Disease • Modern cardiology relies on aggressive interventions [1]  Coronary artery bypass graft: surgery to remove or relieve angina (chest discomfort due to poor blood flow through blood vessels in heart)  Atherectomy: surgically removing atherosclerosis (fat, cholesterol, and other substances build up in walls of arteries and form plaques)  Angioplasty: mechanically widening narrowed or obstructed arteries  Stenting: mesh tube placed in coronary arteries that supply heart to keep arteries open
  4. 4. What Is The Cost of These Procedures? Money • Cost of CVD in 2010: about $444 billion • CVD treatment accounts for $1 of every $6 spent on health care in U.S [8] Lives • 1.1% angioplasty, stenting, atherectomy, and 1.3% bypass graft procedures = 240,000 deaths in 1 decade [1] Author's Argument: • What is being treated are the symptoms, not the disease • Palliative cardiology: non-treatment of CVD leading to disease extension and fatality [1] • Total cholesterol levels <150 mg/dl stabilizes and reverses coronary heart disease • Heart disease rarely seen in cultures that base nutrition on grains, legumes, lentils, vegetables, and fruit  China Study  Framingham Heart Study  World War II Axis
  5. 5. Epidemiological Basis For Study The China Study [4]: • 1983, N=6,500 age 35-64, 65 counties, in 130 villages, 50 adults/village in rural China  Rural areas more stable as opposed to cities  90 to 95% born in the county resided at time of survey  Consumed locally produced food • Animal foods tended to increase cholesterol, plant foods decrease cholesterol • Avg. animal pro. intake 0.8% of tot. kcal vs. 11% in U.S, 64g of protein vs. 91g in U.S, 14.5% tot. kcal fat vs. 34-28% in U.S • No heart disease if total cholesterol below 150  Increased as cholesterol levels went from 150 to 170  Some counties had avg. levels as low as 94 mg/dl  Cholesterol good indicator for predicting heart disease rates • Findings indicate lower percentage of animal-based foods, greater health benefits, even from 10% to 0% of calories
  6. 6. Epidemiological Basis For Study Framingham Study [5]: World War II [6]: • Purpose: follow development of CVD in large group w/o CVD symptoms over long-term to identify common contributing factors. Began in 1948  N=5,209 men and women, age 30-62, Massachusetts  Extensive physical exams and lifestyle interviews  1971, Study enrolled second generation of 5,124 of original participants' adult children and spouses  1994, new cohort study to reflect more diverse community • Results:  Participants w/ cholesterol levels between 150-200 mg/dl: 35% of those with coronary disease. Those with cholesterol levels <150 mg/dl, disease is rare  1000 participants at age 50 measured and found to have normal blood pressure. Same group at age 70: 90% have hypertension 8 Strom A, Jensen RA. Mortality from circulatory diseases in Norway 1940–1945. Lancet 1951;1:126–129. • 1940-1945: Axis powers of Germany occupied Norway. • Troops took cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, and chickens. Pop. subsisting on plant-based diet 1945: War ends, heart disease returns
  7. 7. Initial 5 Year Study to Eliminate CVD Study Overview • Study 1985-1988 • N=24 age 44-68 (1 woman, 23 men)  Nonsmoking  Non-diabetic  Non-hypertensive  All with severe CVD • Patients followed plant-based diet  <10% calories from fat  No oil, no fish, fowl, meat, or dairy  Encouraged to eat grains, legumes, lentils, vegetables, and fruit  Medications individualized Goal: to keep total cholesterol <150 mg/dl
  8. 8. Lipid Profiles of 18 Patients At 5 and 12 years Significance • Results show nutritional therapy stops rather than slows coronary atherosclerosis
  9. 9. TCC502: Heart Disease Maintenance 4 Techniques Used Now,! what! about! angiograms?! Angiograms! are! kind! of! interesting.! All!these!angiograms!that!I!am!going! to! share! with! you! have! been! reviewed! in! triplicate! in! the! Cleveland! Clinic! Angiography! Core! Laboratory,! where! these! two! individuals! do! nothing! all! day! long! except! review! angiograms! for! national! medical! trials.! They! review! these,! and! when! they! give! the! percentage! I! know! it! is! accurate! because!of!the!degree!of!review!that! they!received.!Now,!this!is!as!small! an!improvement!that!your!eye!can! see! in! a! 67D yearD old! pediatrician! with! a!10%!improvement! in!1987! to!1992.!! ① 60-90 minute interviews with patient and spouse to discuss in-depth objectives upon enrollment ② Bi-weekly visits monitored patients' lipid results for first 5 Now,!that!isn’t!how!long!it!took!for! years. Monthly that! to! happen.! That! is! when! we! visits during second 5 year period and quarterly for last 2 years. to! do! the! angiogram.! happened! ③ ④ This! is! in! a! 58D yearD old! factory! worker.!! Calls to each patient after clinic visit to review lipid profile The!circumflex!vessel![is]!here!and! and you!can!see,!I!think,!there!is!quite! dietary/medication adjustments. [a]! difference! here! when! you! compare!to!over!here.!! Group meetings several times yearly to review treatment This!happens!to!be!in!a!54DyearDold! retired! security! guard,! where! objectives, exchange menus, and socialize. Physician committed to same a! this! was! described! as! 30%! diet for additional motivation. improvement.! !
  10. 10. come!out!of!his!mouth—it! is! almost! a! guarantee:! “You!are!a!walking!time!bomb.”!But!nothing!is!probably!further!from!the!truth,!because!in! actual!fact,!this!plaque!has!been!around!a!long,!long!time.!It!is!not!a!young!juvenile!plaque! filled!with!mostly!fat!and!cholesterol!that!is!so!much!at!risk!for!rupture.!This!is!a!stable! plaque,!which!is!very!unlikely!to!rupture.! ! As!a!matter!of!fact,!what!often!happens!here!with!the!slow!chronic!onset,!these!patients!are! very!likely!to!have!angina!and!are!very!likely!to!have!developed!little!vascular!threads!that! run! around! outside! of! the! artery! feeding! this! downstream! heart! muscle.! We! call! these! collaterals,! and! the! collaterals,! of! course,! are! never! going! to! equal! something! like! this! [normal!artery],!but!they!can!be!enough!that!when!the!artery!finally!blocks!off,!the!patient! will!not!have!had!a!heart!attack.!Maybe!the!angina!will!have!gotten!a!lot!worse!or!they!often! will!have!100%!blockage!with!absolutely!no!damage!to!the!downstream!heart!muscle.!No! heart!attack.!! Endothelial Cells • Produce Nitric Oxide  Cause Vasodialtion  Improves blood flow  Prevents platelets adhesion • Endothelial cell damage due to oxidized LDL ① LDL enters through endothelium On!the!other!hand,!if!you!can!say!that! ② LDL oxidized into pro-inflammatory lipids 10%!of!heart!attacks!occur!this!way,! ③ Endothelial injured by oxidized where!do!the!other!90%!occur?!The! LDL 90%! are! with! these! ④ Monocytes differentiate into macrophages, consume young! small! juvenile! plaques! that! are! occupying! LDL > now foam cells no!more!than!10,!30,!40,!50%!of!the! ⑤ Foam cells accumulate, release cytokines > lead to more lumen! of! the! artery.! What! seems! to! plaque formation occur! is! that! as! you! eat! this! typical! ⑥ Endothelial unable to produce NO > monocytes adhere American!diet,!very,!very!hazardous! to endothelial cells, move to sub-endothelium things!happen!to!these!plaques.!! ⑦ Endothelial tears lead to propagating blood clot, blocking artery, depriving heart of O2start! eating! this! fat! diet,! When! you! the! first! thing! that! occurs! is! that! things! begin! to! get! sticky.! The! cellular!elements!of!your!blood!flow!
  11. 11. Nitric Oxide • Nitric Oxide  Causes vasodilation = GOOD! ✓ • Arginine  Catalyzes Nitric Oxide Synthase to produce NO = GOOD! ✓ TCC502: Heart Disease • ADMA: Asymmetric DiMethylArginine  Normal byproduct of protein metabolism  ADMA competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase = BAD! ✖ • Has a greater affinity to displace arginine • Natural ways to rid ADMA: For individual student use only: please do not copy or distribute.  Through enzyme DDAH: Dimethyl Arginine, Dimethyl Amino © 2012, T. Colin Campbell Foundation and TILS Hydrolase • Hypertension, high triglycerides, insulin resistance, tobacco smoke, high cholesterol, free radicals lead to oxidative stress will destroy DDAH. 9
  12. 12. Why Low Fat? TCC502: Heart Disease angina!at!rest.!You!are!supposed!to!look!like!a!donut!in!this!view,!and!here!he!wasn’t!even! filling!it!out!at!all.!I!counseled!him,!10!days! later,! my! allD time! champ,! 160! points! in! 10! days! it! came! down.! Six! weeks! later! got! it! back.!Pretty!exciting.!! ! Finally,!we!have!a!58D yearD old!stockbroker! with! cholesterol! of! 248! and! close! again— might!be![a]!donut!here!but!not!closing!the! loop!right!here.!! Triggers Inflammatory Response • Diets high in whole grains, plant sterols, soy protein, fiber, low in SFA and dairy associated lower CRP (C-Reactive Protein) levels • Ideal ratio of Omega-6 and Omega-3 around 1:1, 2:1, or 3:1  Average in U.S is 10:1, 20:1, or 30:1 • N-3 anti-inflammatory He!has!an!area!of!ischemia,!not!good!flow.!I! counseled! him.! After! an! hour! he! had! this,! and!10!days!later!130—not!six!weeks!later,! not!12!weeks!later,!but!3!weeks!later,!he!got! it!back.!Why!does!that!happen?!Remember! it’s!those!powerful!cells!lining!your!arteries! that!are!going!to!do!it.!The!endothelial!cells.!It!seems!that!when!you!profoundly!lower!their! cholesterol,!most!importantly!when!you!give!them!the!right!food!and!take!away!the!wrong! food!and!you!stop!punishing!the!endothelial!cells!and!you!nourish!them,!back!they!come!in! force,!and!now!they!dilate!and! even!the!diseased!arteries!can! function more! flow.! So! if! you! carry! recall! Pascal’s! law! in! physics,! flow! is! related! to! the! fourth! power! of! the! radius.! So! for! a! tiny! increase! in! diameter,! you! get!a!huge!increase!in!flow,!and! you! have! these! people! locked! in.!  Associated with lower levels of cytokines and IL-6  Due to anti-inflammatory cytokines and series 1 & 3 prostaglandins • Series 1 and 3  Vasodilation, endurance, oxygen flow, immune system  Pain, cellular proliferation, platelet aggregation • N-6 pro-inflammatory  Thromboxane, peroxide, leukotriene and series 2 prostaglandin production • Series 2  Vasoconstriction, pain, cellular proliferation, platelet aggregation If! you! get! rid! of! their! angina!  Endurance, immune system function, oxygen flow within! a! few! weeks,! boy,! are! they!believers.!So!here!we!go,!a! little!bit!different!than!we!saw! earlier.! As! you! eat! correctly,! notice!how!this!is!going!to!get!
  13. 13. Fiber & Anti-Oxidants Are Key [9] Plant-based diets • High in Fiber More bile excreted leads to more LDL-c removed from blood circulation Viscous fiber interferes with micelle formation Fermentation of short chain FA inhibit cholesterol synthesis Fiber lowers insulin spikes which lead to less active HMG CoA reductase • High in Anti-Oxidants Flavonoids prevent free radicals (potent oxidizers) from: • binding to cell receptor to enable NF-KB to make more cytokines and CAMs • oxidizing LDL-c within coronary endothelium leading to plaques • 50 food products highest in antioxidant concentrations:  13 spices  8 fruits and veggies  5 berries  5 chocolate-based  5 cereals  4 nuts or seeds
  14. 14. Conclusions About LF Vegan Diets and CVD • AHA, National Research Council, and National Cholesterol Education Program recommend 30% max for fat calories and total cholesterol <200 mg/dl [1]  CVD develops and progresses within these guidelines! • Epidemiological evidence based research identifies threshold for coronary artery disease <150 mg/dl • Threshold can be achieved and maintained with a plant-based diet to reverse and eliminate heart disease.  Lipid-lowering medication used when necessary
  15. 15. Real World Example: My Daddy!  Before vegan (0 months): 350 Total cholesterol = Up to 308 mg/dl  Vegan with oil & processed foods with full dose statins (3 months): 300 Total cholesterol = 225 mg/dl 250  No Oil Vegan with half dose statins (6 months): Total cholesterol = 137 mg/dl Total Cholesterol (mg/dl) 200 150 308 225 100 Current Status: 137 COMPLETELY OFF STATINS! (9 months): 0 6 9 50 Total CHL = 126 mg/dl 126 0 3 Time (Months)
  16. 16. Real World Example: My Daddy!
  17. 17. Usefulness of Vegetarian and Vegan Diets for Treating Type 2 Diabetes (2010) Caroline B. Trapp Neal D. Barnard
  18. 18. Low Fat Vegan Diets and Diabetes: Two Adventist Cohort Studies [2] (Snowdon DA, Phillips RL) (onstad S, Butler T, Yan R, Fraser GE) • N=25,698, and N=22,434 men and 38,469 women • 1.6-2 times diabetes among non-vegetarians compared with vegetarians and vegans  As consumption of animal products Diabetes , corresponding prevalence of Type 2 Harvard's Women's Health Study, Nurses' Health Study, Health Professionals' Follow-Up Study [2] (Aune D, Ursin G, Veierod MB) • Men and women who ate most meat, risk for Type 2 Diabetes  Red meat and processed meat associated 21% and 41% risk  Progressive worsening renal function associated with animal protein intake in individuals with some degree renal impairment
  19. 19. Low Fat Vegan Diets and Diabetes 22 Week Randomized Trial [2] (Barnard ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJ et al) • N=99 with type 2 diabetes  Two groups: low- fat vegan diet (n = 49), or portion-controlled omnivorous diet (n = 50) following 2003 ADA guidelines • Results:  Hemoglobin A1c: Vegan group (P=0.01)  Body weight: Vegan group 1.23 points, ADA group 14.3 lb, ADA group  LDL cholesterol: Vegan group (9.3%) (P=0.02) 0.38 points 6.8 lb (P = 0.001) 22.6 mg/dL (21.2%), ADA group  Medications: 43% (21/49) of vegan group of ADA group 10.7 mg/dL diabetes medications, 26% (13/50)  Glycemia & Plasma Lipid: After 74 weeks, same patients showed better concentrations in vegan study group  Urinary Albumin: Vegan group by −15.9 mg per 24 hours, ADA group −10.9 mg per 24 hours (P = 0.013) by
  20. 20. 22 Week Randomized Trial [2] (Barnard ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJ et al)
  21. 21. Low Fat Vegan Diets and Diabetes Week Pilot Trial [2] (Barnard ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJ et al) • 2-week inpatient program included low-fat vegan diet and 30-minute walk per day • Results:  17 of 21 participants have pain free legs, remaining 4 partial improvement 22 Week Randomized Control Trial [2] (Turner-McGrievy et al.) • Effect of low vegan diet on overall nutrition • 3-day dietary records evaluated using Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)  AHEI shown to be reliable predictor of risk of CVD and other major chronic diseases [2] • Results:  Vegan diet led to significant improvements in energy, total fat, trans fat, and cholesterol, fiber intake, vitamins and minerals, and improved AHEI score  ADA group saw no improvement in AHEI score  If followed long term, a low-fat vegan diet may reduce risk of major chronic diseases
  22. 22. • Construction of AHEI Scores Scores diets based on servings per day of vegetables, fruit, nuts, and soy protein; ratio in grams of white to red meat; grams of cereal fiber; percent of energy from trans fat; ratio in grams of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids
  23. 23. Conclusions About LF Vegan Diets and Diabetes • In observational studies, diabetes prevalence lower in vegans and vegetarians compared with omnivores, with increased prevalence as consumption of animal products increases • Low-fat vegan diets promote weight loss via improved glycemic control  Associated with hemoglobin A1c reduction • Plant sources of protein meet daily requirements. Carefully planned low-fat vegan diets are nutritionally adequate and may have a higher diet quality  <10% of energy fat, 10% to 15% protein, 75%-80% carbohydrate [2]  May have additional advantages in terms of promoting satiety through increased fiber  Improved clinical outcomes are achieved without carbohydrate calculations or portion size control, making approach easier patients [2]
  24. 24. Effects of a Very Low-Fat, Vegan Diet in Subjects With Rheumatoid Arthritis (2002) John McDougall, M.D Bonnie Bruce Dr.pH Gene Spiller, Ph.D John Westerdahl, M.P.H., R.D., C.N.S., Mary McDougall
  25. 25. Low Fat Vegan Diets and Arthritis Study Overview • Purpose: To demonstrate effects of very low-fat vegan diet on patients with RA [3] • N=24 with moderate (41%) to severe (58%) disease 56+- 11 years old. Women 92% of group  None could follow vegan or dairy-free diet 4 weeks before study or have other diseases • Pre and post tests conducted on degree of pain, limitation in function, morning stiffness due to RA by unbiased rheumatologist • 4 Week single-blind dietary intervention • Patients followed plant-based diet  No animals products or added oil of any kind  Foods to include: beans, breads, corn, pastas, potatoes, sweet potatoes, rice, fruits, vegetables  Allowed to eat ad libitum (no calorie restriction)  Four weekly meetings held to teach diet
  26. 26. Low Fat Vegan Diets and Arthritis Methods and Results • Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) used for statistical analysis.  Paired t-test (two-tailed) from baseline to 4 weeks was computed  Diet records analyzed by Nutritionist IV program by RD • Results:  Energy intake: +-447 kcal to +-317 kcal daily (p<0.001), % kcal from carbs: 49% (+- 7) to 76% (+- 7) (p< 0.001), % from fat: 32% (+-6) to 10% (+-5) (p<0.001), % from protein: from 17% (+- 3) to 13% (+- 3) (p<0.001), body weight: from 150 lb (+-42) to 143 lb (+-39.7) (p<0.001)  ESR: Unchanged 50 mm/hr (+-30) to 50 mm/hr (+-28) (p<0.05)  C-reactive protein: Non-significant  Rheumatoid factor: Non-significant  Degree of pain: in 2.08 mg/dl (+-1.8) to 1.74 mg/dl (+_1.7) (p> 0.05) 371.5 IU/mL (+-573) to 333.3 IU/mL (+-504) (p> 0.05) from 49 (+-20) to 34 (+-20) (p<0.004)  Limitation in function: from a score of 47 (+-25) to 29 (+-22) (p<0.001)  Joint tenderness: score from 24 (+-12) to 17 (+-16) (p<0.01), Joint swelling:  Morning stiffness: 49 (+-21) to 36 (+-27) (p<0.004) from 27 (+-9) to 22 (+-8) (p< 0.02)
  27. 27. Mechanisms for Inflammation • High CHL, animal proteins negative effect on intestine  Increased "leaky gut" permeability allows antigens to enter body  More free radicals and large molecules can pass into blood  Food proteins are recognized as foreign • Triggers antibodies and inflammatory response • Molecular mimicry  Antibodies directed to foreign protein antigens find similar antigen sites in joint tissues, attacking these tissues, leads to autoimmune diseases  Molecular mimicry in rheumatoid arthritis has been identified with cow’s milk [10] • Amino acid residues of bovine albumin identified as same as amino acids found in human collagen in joints • Antibodies synthesized to attack foreign cow’s milk proteins, attack joint tissues because of shared sequences of amino acids
  28. 28. Conclusions About LF Vegan Diets and Arthritis • Results of study found patients experience dramatic improvement in arthritis symptoms, some with complete remission • Complete avoidance of food by a water-only fast is most complete method of avoiding exposure to foreign proteins [3]  Fasting with limited amounts vegetable and fruit juices shown to decrease intestinal permeability and avoids dairy proteins found to worsen symptoms [3] • Problem: Fasting can only be sustained for limited time • Solution: Low-fat plant-based diets eliminate foods most likely to cause immune reactions
  29. 29. In Conclusion Low-Fat Vegan Diets: • Can help prevent or reverse effects of chronic disease • Long-term, controlled studies needed • Evidence of present epidemiological research makes strong case for use of diet in MNT
  30. 30. References • [1] Esselstyn Jr., Caldwell B. M.D., (1999). Updating a 12-Year Experience With Arrest and Reversal Therapy for Coronary Heart Disease (An Overdue Requiem for Palliative Cardiology). The American Journal of Cardiology. 84: 339-341. • [2] Trapp, Caroline B., Barnard, Neal D. (2010). Usefulness of Vegetarian and Vegan Diets for Treating Type 2 Diabetes. Current Diabetes Reports. 10: 152-158. • [3] McDougall, John, M.D., Bruce, Bonnie, PhD., Spiller, Gene, PhD., Westerdahl, John, M.P.H., R.D ., C.N.S., McDougall, Mary. (2002). • {4} Chen J, Campbell TC, Li J, et al. Diet, life-style and mortality in China. A study of the characteristics of 65 Chinese counties. Oxford, UK; Ithaca, NY; Beijing, PRC: Oxford University Press; Cornell University Press; People's Medical Publishing House, 1990. • [5] (http://www.framinghamheartstudy.org/about/history.html) • [6] Certificate in Plant-Based Nutrition Course Two: Diseases of Affluence: Heart Disease.(2012). Lecture by Caldwell B. Esselstyn Jr, 1-26 • [7] http://www.sabiosciences.com/pathway.php?sn=LDL_Oxidation_in_Atherogenesis • [8] (http://www.webmd.com/healthy-aging/features/heart-disease-medical-costs) • [9] Carlsen, Monica H., Halvorsen, Bente L., Holte, Kari, Bohn, Siv K., Dragland, Steiner, Sampson, Laura, Willey, Carol, Senoo, Haruki, Umezono Yuko, Sanada Chiho, Barikmo, Ingrid, Berhe, Nega, Willett, Walter C., Phillips, Katherine M., Jacobs Jr, David R., Blomhoff, Rune. (2010). The Total Antioxidant Content of More Than 3100 Foods, Beverages, Spices, Herbs, and Supplements Used Worldwide. Nutrition Journal. 9:3 • [10] Perez-Maceda B et al. Antibodies to Dietary Antigens in Rheumatoid Arthritis—Possible Molecular Mimicry Mechanism. Clin Chim Acta 1991;203:153-65.
  1. ¿Le ha llamado la atención una diapositiva en particular?

    Recortar diapositivas es una manera útil de recopilar información importante para consultarla más tarde.

×