Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

NPC 2014 - North - Building Innovation Thought Process - Aditya Bhalla, QAI Global

2,562

Published on

Presentation by Aditya Bhalla, Innovation Practice Head, QAI Global

Presentation by Aditya Bhalla, Innovation Practice Head, QAI Global

Published in: Leadership & Management
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,562
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
6
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
14
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 1 Building Innovation Thought Process 7-core skills of Innovators Aditya Bhalla, Innovation Practice Head, QAI Global
  • 2. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 2 Aditya Bhalla Innovation Practice Head, QAI Global • President of TRIZ Asia Forum and one of the two in South Asia to be Certified MATRIZ Level 3 and ITRIZ-IPS, AFD trainer, Lean Six Sigma Master Black Belt, and Post Graduate Diploma in Patents Law. • Facilitated over 400 projects spanning different industries and trained more than 1500 people on areas related to Design of products and services, Business Process Innovation, Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Business process design and improvement. • Created innovative problem solving programs for kids from age group 8+ years • Authored 50+ articles published in ASQ Quality Progress, ASQ Six Sigma Forum, Quality Digest, Altshuller Institute, TRIZ Journal, IDG Outsourcing World, OUTSOURCING, The Business Issues, Management Next amongst others. • Been invited as a speaker to many international conferences in Asia Pacific and Middle East. • Started career in 1995 after graduating from IIT-Delhi.
  • 3. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 3 Agenda A. Ideation, Invention and Innovation Pg. 4 B. Our Mind is our Biggest Battlefield! Pg. 12 C. Successful Entrepreneurs are innovative problem solvers Pg. 32 D. Illustrative problems for 7 core skills of innovators Pg. 44
  • 4. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 4 A. Ideation, Invention and Innovation
  • 5. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 5 Ideation, Invention and Innovation 1. Ideation i. The process of generating ideas ii. Creativity or the ability to generate ideas is a MUST. 2. Invention i. It is an output or outcome of inventive thinking ii. Key characteristic of an invention: Novelty iii. Inventive thinking is an attempt to generate a novel or unique solution to a problem that has not yet been considered by any prior or existing solutions. iv. Patent is one type of legal protection available for an invention to an inventor. 3. Innovation i. Key characteristics: Novelty and Usefulness ii. Innovation is a solution in an area of concern for a customer that is novel when compared to alternative solutions and is readily accepted and implemented by the customer (seen as adding value to the customer). Idea both unique and well known Invention – Novel or unique solution idea Innovation – Novel and Useful
  • 6. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 6 Exercise: Invention or Innovation?
  • 7. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 7 Systematic Innovation is a structured process of Idea to Impact • Systematic Innovation – The structured process of generating innovative ideas – Innovation is about finding better ways of delivering value to the customer – Mind to Market. – Technology is an enabler
  • 8. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 8 Exercise: Invention or Innovation?
  • 9. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 9 Does structure limit Creativity? • Most Western music use the seven-note major scale. – Does that limit the creativity of the singers/musicians? • A waterbrush artist has limited material options to play with. – Does that make the output less creative?
  • 10. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 10 Levels of Systematic Innovation Value Proposition • Business Model Innovation • Product / Service Innovation Creation of Value • Production or Manufacturing Process Innovation Delivery of Value • Supply Chain Management Process Innovation What we sell? How it is Created? How it is Delivered? Technology as an Enabler
  • 11. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 11 Five Application areas of Systematic Innovation
  • 12. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 12 B. Our Mind is our biggest Battlefield!
  • 13. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 13 What stops us from generating innovative solutions? • There are many reasons why people struggle to generate innovative solutions • Let us consider real world examples of each
  • 14. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 14 Exercise: What will happen if…? • I take out the SIM card of my mobile phone and at that moment my friend dials my phone number? • What if I told you that I can still talk to my friend? • What if I further told you that my phone can only hold one (1) SIM card, i.e. it is not dual SIM phone?
  • 15. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 15 Reason # 1: Our “Knowledge” & “expertise” convinces us otherwise • "This 'telephone' has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. The device is inherently of no value to us." --Western Union internal memo, 1876. • "The wireless music box has no imaginable commercial value. Who would pay for a message sent to nobody in particular?" --David Sarnoff's associates in response to his urgings for investment in the radio in the 1920s. • International Business Machine (IBM) will never develop electronic computers. -- From Reply of IBM company to John Vincent Atanasoff about the first electronic computer he proposed to the company in 1938. • "There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home." --Ken Olson, president, chairman and founder of Digital Equipment Corp., 1977
  • 16. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 16 Exercise: Formula Car powered by chocolates? • Can a car powered by chocolates, steered by carrots and bodywork of potatoes run at 125 mph in Formula racing competition?
  • 17. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 17 Formula 3 racing car powered by chocolate and steered by carrots • Researchers at the University of Warwick have unveiled the “WorldFirst Formula 3 racing car” which is powered by chocolate, steered by carrots, has bodywork made from potatoes, and can still do 125mph around corners. • Components include – A race specification steering wheel derived from carrots and other root vegetables, – A flax fibre and soybean oil foam racing seat, – A woven flax fibre bib, plant oil based lubricants and – A biodiesel engine configured to run on fuel derived from waste chocolate and vegetable oil. – It also incorporates a radiator coated in a ground-breaking emission destroying catalyst.
  • 18. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 18 Functions remain constant Solutions keep on changing/evolving We are mostly arguing about solutions while… …Customers are loyal to the Function and not the specific solution Reason #2: Our mind refuses to let go of solutions!
  • 19. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 19 Exercise: A restaurant serves you food on a brick (construction) and asks you to “lick the brick”. Would you? Would you lick the brick? ‘Chicken on a brick' - a London house brick coated in caramel glaze and then smeared with chicken liver parfait topped with sweet corn, pearl barley, edible flowers, celeriac purée and a red onion jam.
  • 20. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 20 Reason #3: Failure to anticipate evolutionary patterns and preparing for the future Horses and Horseless carriages • The first time cars starting running on the roads, a law was passed requiring a horse’s head to be attached to the front to prevent other horses from being spooked • A man with a hand-bell run was required to run in front of the automobile to warn pedestrians.
  • 21. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 21 What is reality today was considered a fiction in the past. What is considered a fiction today will be the reality tomorrow.
  • 22. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 22 Exercise: What’s the connection between iPod and Seafood?
  • 23. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 23 Reason # 4: Creativity and Age of an Individual 10-12 years old Peak of Creativity Age Creativity The French psychologist, Antoine Ribot studied the effect of age on creativity in the early 1900’s. He found the age at which the average person peaks to be 14. A few years ago MIT’s Sloan School of Management repeated the study. They found that the peak age of creativity had shifted down to 12.
  • 24. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 24 Exercise: How to thread a sewing needle? • Threading a sewing needle can be a real pain. • What are the different ways you can think of threading a sewing needle?
  • 25. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 25 Sewing needle: What ideas did you get? Any other ideas?
  • 26. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 26 Reason # 5: Psychological Inertia of an untrained mind holds back our thinking! Psychological Inertia Types • Image • Function • Functioning or principle of operation • Manner of usage • Typical Characteristic • Typical Orientation • Dimension of object • Terminology or Jargon • Traditional conditions • Traditional values • Superfluous Information
  • 27. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 27 Time to Practice! • Discuss and present as many different ways as possible in which a spoon can be used! • You have 2 minutes!
  • 28. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 28 How many did you get? 1. Scoop – Food items – Mud in the garden – Insect walking on the ground 2. Stirrer of liquid 3. Paperweight 4. Measuring instrument 5. Reflective surface (if metallic) 6. Scratching a surface (including back) 7. Holding hair as a knot 8. To remove the top of any surface 9. As a hammer 10. Conductor of heat (if metallic) 11. Attract attention 12. To play music 13. As a decorative item 14. As a puppet 15. To apply paint/glue 16. To hit someone/something 17. To display luxury/personal wealth 18. To cut open a sealed cardboard box 19. As a candle (if made of wood) 20. As a candle stand 21. As a teaching aid (Convex/concave) 22. Holding lemon in lemon and spoon race 23. Snacks holder 24. Controlled irrigation 25. ……
  • 29. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 29 High I.Q. and E.Q. ≠ High Thinking Skills
  • 30. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 30 • A lot of emphasis has been laid on technical skills and soft skills… • However, one skill remains largely unaddressed…
  • 31. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 31 Core skills employed by successful innovators
  • 32. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 32 C. Successful Product Entrepreneurs are Innovative Problem Solvers… …with a high risk appetite
  • 33. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 33 Innovators are problem solvers Customer problems Business problems Partner problems Employee problems
  • 34. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 34 What do we mean by a Problem? Problem is defined as the gap between the desired value and the actual or current value of some characteristic or parameter of interest within an area of focus
  • 35. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 35 Not all problems require inventive thinking! • Routine Problem – For which there are known solutions that can close the gap between the desired value and the current value. • Creative Problem – This is the realm of Innovation – Popular or conventional solutions are not effective in closing the gap between the desired value and the current value – There are no pre-scripted answers
  • 36. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 36 Routine vs. Creative Problem examples Routine Problem 1. Reducing the defects generated on the floor by a team handling a specific work type. 2. Improving the productivity of team handling a specific work type Creative Problem 1. Preventing the occurrence of defects that occur randomly, at low frequency and even by experienced staff 2. Improving the productivity of team whose members are either in continuous churn (attrition) or are seasonal (based on spike in incoming volume)
  • 37. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 37 What stops an Idea from becoming an Innovation? Five stages where ideas fail to create an impact on the customer • 1. Identification: We generate solutions in an area that is not of value to the customer • 2. Ideation: Our ideas are not bold enough – customer is not motivated to change. • 3. Innovation: We design a solution that is Novel but not Useful to the customer • 4. Interaction: We fail to communicate the usefulness of the solution to the customer • 5. Implementation: The solution is not value for money.
  • 38. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 38 1. Addressing an area not of value to customer?
  • 39. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 39 2. Idea not bold enough?
  • 40. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 40 3. Novel but not useful?
  • 41. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 41 4. Fail to communicate the value?
  • 42. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 42 5. Not value for money?
  • 43. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 43 Five steps from Idea to Impact 1. Identification 1.1 Is the customer’s area of concern of high importance to the customer? 1.2 Is the customer dissatisfied with the current solutions in that area of concern? 1.3 Is the customer actively seeking alternative solutions? 2. Ideation 2.1 Can we demonstrate the novelty of our solution? 2.2 Does the proposed solution make use of readily available resources? 2.3 Are we closer to achieving ideality or perfection? 3. Innovation 3.1 Does the proposed solution address the explicit needs of the customer and the underlying contradictions? 3.2 Do the strengths of our product map to the explicit needs of the customer? 4. Interaction 4.1 Does the customer acknowledge that our solution resolves the explicit need of the customer 4.2 Do our communications reflect the same? 5. Implementation 5.1 Is the solution creating bigger secondary problems for customer? 5.2 Is it fitting within the constraints of the customer?
  • 44. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 44 D. Illustrative problems for understanding core skills of innovators
  • 45. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 45 Core skills employed by successful innovators
  • 46. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 46 1. Abstraction & Analogy thinking: Are the two problems similar? 21
  • 47. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 47 2. Contradiction resolution: How to sleep with eyes open?
  • 48. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 48 3. Resource Thinking: Two Donkeys and Two Haystacks
  • 49. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 49 4. Exercise: Ensuring kids wash their hands before eating food
  • 50. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 50 Exercise: Ensuring kids wash their hands before eating food
  • 51. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 51 Conventional Approach is Inefficient 51
  • 52. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 52 Balanced development of Left-Brain and Right-Brain potential
  • 53. INDIA USA CHINA SINGAPORE Entire Course Material © QAI Global. Do Not Copy/Transmit/Store without explicit written permission from QAI Pg. 53 Aditya Bhalla aditya.bhalla@qaiglobal.com Mobile: +91-9810227503 Any Questions?

×