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6 control

  1. 1. Control<br /><ul><li>Where are decisions made?
  2. 2. How can the company optimize globally?
  3. 3. How should country units report to headquarters?</li></ul>1<br />
  4. 4. DEFINITION<br />Is the planning, implementation, evaluation, and correction of performance to ensure that organizational objectives are achived<br />2<br />
  5. 5. FACTORS MAKE CONTROL MORE DIFFICULT INTERNATIONALLY THAN IT IS DOMESTICALLY:<br />Distance<br />Diversity<br />Uncontrollables<br />Degree of certainty<br />3<br />
  6. 6. Distance<br />It takes more time and expense to communicate.<br />The geographic distance (especially when operations span multiple time zones) and <br />cultural disparity separating countries the time, expense, and possibility of error in cross-national communications.<br />4<br />FACTORS MAKE CONTROL MORE DIFFICULT INTERNATIONALLY THAN IT IS DOMESTICALLY<br />
  7. 7. Diversity<br />Country differences make it hard to compare operations<br />When go internationally MNE need to adjust their operations (market size, nature of product, labor cost, currency & types of competition) to unique situations encountered in each country in which it operates. <br />Differentiate operations among countries, make the task of evaluating performance or setting standards to correct or improve business functions extremely complicated.<br />5<br />FACTORS MAKE CONTROL MORE DIFFICULT INTERNATIONALLY THAN IT IS DOMESTICALLY<br />
  8. 8. Uncontrollables<br />There are more outside stockholders and governmental dictates.<br />Performance evaluation is less use in maintaining control unless to take corrective action. Effective corrective action may be minimal because foreign operation must contend with outside stockholder, whose objectives may differ from the parent company, and with government regulations over which the company has no short-term influence.<br />6<br />FACTORS MAKE CONTROL MORE DIFFICULT INTERNATIONALLY THAN IT IS DOMESTICALLY<br />
  9. 9. Degree of Uncertainty<br />There often are rapid changes in the environment and data problems<br />Control implies setting goals and developing plans to meet organization’s goal; Economic and industry data are much less complete and accurate for some countries than for others, political also subject to rapid change. All these situations impede planning, especially for long term planning, and reduce the certainty of results from implementation.<br />7<br />FACTORS MAKE CONTROL MORE DIFFICULT INTERNATIONALLY THAN IT IS DOMESTICALLY<br />
  10. 10. CONTROL PROCESS<br />Planning<br />Organizational Structure<br />Location of Decision Making<br />Control Mechanism<br />Special Situations<br />8<br />
  11. 11. Planning<br />The process of setting goals, developing strategies and outlining tasks and schedules to accomplish the goals<br />The essence of planning is company must adapt its unique resources and objectives to different and changing international competitive situations.<br />9<br />CONTROL PROCESS<br />
  12. 12. Organizational Structure<br /><ul><li>Defines how individuals and organizational units are grouped to carry out company activities
  13. 13. Consists of formal structure and lines of communications
  14. 14. Types of organizational structure:-</li></ul> - International Division<br /> - Functional Division<br /> - Product Division<br /> - Geographic (area) division<br /> - Matrix<br />10<br />CONTROL PROCESS<br />
  15. 15. International Division<br /><ul><li>Grouping international activities into their own decision
  16. 16. Allows their own personnel to handle task such as export documentation, forex transaction & relation with foreign governments
  17. 17. Depend on the domestic divisions for product to sell, personnel, technology & other resources
  18. 18. Best suited for multidomestic strategies</li></ul>11<br />ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE<br />
  19. 19. International Division<br />12<br />
  20. 20. Functional Division<br />Use among companies with narrow product lines<br />It ideal when product & production methods are basically undifferentiated among countries<br />To ensure the effectiveness of division specialization<br />13<br />ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE<br />
  21. 21. Functional Division<br />14<br />
  22. 22. Product Division<br /><ul><li>Use among international companies with diverse products
  23. 23. Both foreign & domestic operations report to the same head</li></ul>15<br />ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE<br />Geographical (area) Division<br /><ul><li>Use companies with large foreign operations that are not dominated by a single country or area</li></li></ul><li>Product Division<br />16<br />
  24. 24. Geographical (area) Division<br />17<br />
  25. 25. Matrix<br /><ul><li>Use to integrate or separate foreign operations
  26. 26. Subsidiary reports to more than one group
  27. 27. Each group shares responsibility over foreign operations, the groups will become more interdependent, exchange information, and ultimately take strategic global perspectives as they seek to exchange resources with each other.</li></ul>18<br />ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE<br />
  28. 28. Matrix<br />19<br />
  29. 29. Location of Decision Making<br /><ul><li>Companies must determine where decisions will be made even though organizational structure outlines who reports to whom within the MNE.
  30. 30. The choice of decision location should be based on:-</li></ul> 1. balancing pressures for global integration vs pressures <br /> for local responsiveness,<br /> 2. balancing the capabilities of headquarters vs<br /> subsidiary personnel, and<br /> 3. balancing the expediency vs the quality of decisions. <br />20<br />CONTROL PROCESS<br />
  31. 31. <ul><li>Corporate culture – The common values shared by employees in a corporation
  32. 32. Reports – reports must be timely in order to allow companies to respond to their information
  33. 33. Management vs subsidiary performance – companies should evaluate managers on things they can control. Subsidiaries should be evaluated separately from their managers so that managers are not penalized for conditions or occurrences outside their control.</li></ul>21<br />Control Mechanism<br />CONTROL PROCESS<br />
  34. 34. Cost and accounting comparability – different cost structures among subsidiaries may prevent a meaningful comparison of their operating results.<br />Evaluate measurement systems – companies must evaluate results in relation to budgets (to evaluate performance look at the budget agreed upon by HQ and subsidiary managers, so company can differentiate between subsidiary’s worth and its management’s performance).<br />22<br />Control Mechanism cont..<br />
  35. 35. Control Mechanism cont..<br />Planning information acquisitions – management should reevaluate information needs periodically to keep costs down and should ensure that information is being used. Information include subsidiary cash balances and needs, analyses of local political and economic conditions, feedback from parent to local subsidiaries such as R&D findings, lateral info between related subsidiaries and information for external reporting needs.<br />23<br />
  36. 36. Control in Special Situation<br /><ul><li>Shared Ownership (such as Wholly Owned / Joint venture)
  37. 37. Sharing ownership limits the flexibility of corporate decision making.
  38. 38. Acquisition
  39. 39. Criteria in evaluating performance may be different from that of the acquired company’s accustomed performance criteria.
  40. 40. When to centralize certain decision-making procedure or to change operating method may results distrust, apprehension, and resistance to change.</li></ul>24<br />CONTROL PROCESS<br />
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