History and evolution of Chemistry and Quality Managment

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History and evolution of Chemistry and Quality Managment

  1. 1. A Presentation on History of Analytical Chemistry and Evolution of Quality Management Presented By: Nasir Nazeer
  2. 2. Analytical Chemistry- The History In ancient Egypt, knowledge of chemistry existed and was used when embalming pharaohs and dignitaries. Greek philosophers began to look for the rules to explain natural phenomenon. Plato(428-347 BC) believed that diverse atoms could be differentiated by their constitution, atoms of one element could be changed into other by just modifying them. Aristotle(384-322 BC) postulated that all elements and substances formed from them were composed of a kind of original substance, which take on may forms, shapes and color in course of time. Empedocles (430-490BC) explained that all substances of were composed of four elements, namely fire, earth, water and air.
  3. 3. Analytical Chemistry- The History (Contd…) Ever since beginning of alchemy, man has sought for the material which to be best convert metal fastest and most simply and that could be exploited best. It was regarded as God’s mercy and useless without God’s intervention. The Phlogiston theory (George Ernst 16591734) All flammable substances contain phlogiston. Aristotle added fifth supernatural element; Quintessence. The most inner core of all the substances, sum of body’s own effective powers and qualities.
  4. 4. Analytical Chemistry- The History (Contd…) In Babylonians astronomy planets were linked with certain materials e.g. moonsilver and sun-gold. The Renaissance witnessed the birth of attempts to renew chemistry. The chemists upheld research and the critical ability to think, reason, as the highest judge of the truth of a theory.
  5. 5. Analytical Chemistry and its Role in Today’s society Analytical chemistry is interdisciplinary branch of Chemistry. Terms quality and quantity owe their existence to the results of analytics. It is demand of the society to analytically secure data and judgments instead of empirical or traditional foundations. Good analytics create trust and thus are a prerequisite for production and marketing. In this globalize world where borders are porous and products of one country are available in another country, there are chances of affecting millions of peoples, then responsibilities lie on the shoulders of quality which could not be achieved without maintaining good research and experiments.
  6. 6. Analytical Chemistry and its Role in Today’s society In order to guarantee uniform procedures across international borders when collecting analytical information, international guidelines, such as Good Laboratory Practices (GLP), Good manufacturing practices (GMP) or standards for good analytical work. International Organizations of Standards (ISO) have been introduced. ISO 15189 for diagnostic laboratories and ISO 17025 for industries..
  7. 7. Evolution of Quality Management Definition of Quality: There is hardly any term mentioned more often in connection with products and services. General Definition: It is synonymous with high value. It is not measurable but rather it can merely grasped by experience. Value related definition: Quality means a favorable price/performance ratio. Process related Definition: Quality is equated with compliance with specifications.
  8. 8. Evolution of Quality Management (Contd..) Historical background: The pre-industrial technical production was handicraft production and guilds system played a decisive role. Guilds determined the manufacturing procedure, tool type, tool usage and even production quantities. Their rigidity impeded innovation, technical progress and the expansion of production. It was a centralized manufacturing system. With industrial revolution in Great Britain (1780-1820) technology changed drastically. (e.g, Watt’s steam engine) In mechanize process division of labor was a blessing in disguise. Mass productions started resulted in fall in prices. Division of labor lead to rationalization of workflow. Breaking down the production process into calculable elements and recording and recording and eliminating redundant movements and hidden breaks.
  9. 9. Evolution of Quality Management (Contd…) Variability All systems and processes demonstrates a certain variability. No two things are exactly identical, even if they appear to be identical at a first glance. When we are interested in quality, we must understand where variability comes from and how its influences the process or the work results. Shewart one of the early pioneers of quality management divides variability into two;   Systematic influences (common causes) Random influences (special causes)
  10. 10. Evolution of Quality Management (Contd…) Shewart’s statistical process control (SPC): A phenomenon is regarded as controlled, when future behavior can be forecast by experience at least in a limited area. A prediction within certain limits means that the likelihood that the phenomenon will move within certain limits in future can be estimated. A process is regarded as controlled when the changes caused by such a process are affected exclusively within the control limits.
  11. 11. Evolution of Quality Management (Contd…) Four Pillars of Wisdom (Deming) Understanding the system Understanding dispersion Understanding the theory of Knowledge (How do we learn? How do we improve ourselves?) Understanding psychology and human nature
  12. 12. Evolution of Quality Management (Contd…) Why Standards? In order to guarantee that milestones, delivery, comply with the finished project and finished product a common language had to be invented to ensure that misunderstandings, false interpretations and so on were not the cause of failures, many thins had to be standardized.
  13. 13. Evolution of Quality Management (Contd…) Zero-Defect Tolerance by Philip Crosby: This model aims at eliminating deviations in production without scrap and rework. It is based on four pillars.     Quality does not mean excellence but rather meeting the specifications (conformity). Quality does not arise by discovering deviations, but by avoiding them. The aspired quality standards are not acceptable quality levels, but zero defects. Quality is not measured by indices, but by the price of deviation.
  14. 14. Evolution of Quality Management (Contd…) Development of a QMS according to ISO: By ascertaining the requirements and expectations of the customers and other interested partners and parties By determining the organization’s quality policy and quality goals By determining the necessary processes and responsibilities, in order to achieve the defined quality goals By determining and providing the necessary resources, to achieve the quality goals By introducing methods to measure the effectiveness and efficiency of each process By applying this measurements to ascertain the current effectiveness and efficiency of each process By introducing and applying a process for the continuous improvement of the QMS.
  15. 15. I am not afraid of stroms, for I am learning to sail my ship.
  16. 16. The End

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