‘Research philosophy is an over-arching term relating to the development of knowledge and the nature of that knowledge’ Adapted from Saunders et al, (2009)
» relates to the development of knowledge and the nature of that knowledge» contains important assumptions about the way in which you view the world
» Positivism - the stance of the natural scientist ending at law-like generalizations» Emphasising highly structured methodology to facilitate replication (Gill and Johnson, 1997), quantifiable observation lending themselves to statistical analysis”» Assuming researcher as independent: i.e. neither affects nor is affected by the subject of the research’
» Interpretivism - researchers as ‘social actors’ emphasize ‘ the details of the situation to understand the realitye.g. In this ever changing world circumstances of today may not apply in three months time then some of the value of generalizability would be lost» Arguing that rich insights into this complex world are lost if such complexity is reduced entirely to a series of law like generalizations
» Realism - direct and critical realism, i.e. Reality exist that is independent of human thoughts and beliefs» Recognizing the importance of understanding people’s socially constructed interpretations within the context of broader social forces* Example: Does window shopping fulfill dreams or increase frustration?
The two main research approaches areDeduction - theory and hypothesis are developed and testedInduction – data are collected and a theory developed from the data analysis
Deduction 5 sequential stages of testing theory» Deducing a hypothesis» Expressing the hypothesis operationally» Testing the operational hypothesis» Examining the specific outcome of the enquiry» Modifying the theory (if necessary) Adapted from Robson (2002)
Induction Building theory by –» Being concerned with the context of events» Using more qualitative data» Using a variety of data collection methods» Permitting alternative explanations of what’s going on
The right choice of approach helps you to» Make a more informed decision about the research design» Think about which strategies will work for your research topic» Adapt your design to cater for any constraints Adapted from Easter by-Smith et al. (2008)
Combining research approaches Things worth considering» The nature of the research topic» The time available» The extent of risk» The research audience
» Clear objectives derived from the research question» To specify sources of data collection» To consider constraints and ethical issues» Classification of the research purpose o Exploratory research o Descriptive studies o Explanatory studies or causal research
ArchivalExperiment Case Study Research Survey EthnographyGrounded Action Theory Research More on research design and strategies in the next class
1. In the previous assignment-3, you were asked to; - define ‘parameters for literature search’, - generate ‘keywords and search terms ’, - identify and use ‘tertiary literature sources’ - record the ‘bibliographical details’ and - prepare a list of ‘references’ Continues on next slide
2. Continue this practice, using other approaches ofliterature search noted in Lecture-3; e.g. : (i) Obtaining relevant literature referenced in books and journals already studies; (ii) Scanning and browsing secondary literature available in the libraries; and (iii) Searching using Internet.3. Prepare a list of references of all the literature you havereviewed.4. Also start writing the review according to the guidelinesprovided in Lecture-3.5. Your individual reports be annexed with your groupreport to be submitted in next week-class.
Group‟s assignment1. Exchange your reports as well as „content‟ with each other, hold agroup meeting and finalyze group report for submission in next class.2. Be ready for a discussion in next class on “experiences in reviewingthe literature” and your group‟s “List of references”.
Carrying out a survey of economic statususing SPSS for analysis - I