U.S. PLOICY TOWARD CHINA
(Book name)

Reviewed by

NASIR IQBAL
Contents:
• Introduction
• Rising Influence After The Cold War
• The MFN debate During The Bush Administration
• The MFN D...
MAIN THEME OF THE BOOK
Author his focused attention on the US. China relation
since 1989 -98.
Numbers of incidents occur...
1.Introduction
 According

to the Author, since 1-1-1979(Cater
announcement) major crises in U.S.-China
relations took pl...
1.Introduction…..


President Clinton during his 1st term was
much less concerned with foreign policy
toward china. ( fav...
Introduction….









In 1995 Clinton took charge of Foreign policy after
strong Military reaction from China.
In ...
2. Rising Influence after the cold war
• Elitism –domination by the Executive branch
,especially by the White house, The S...
RISING INFLUENCE AFTER THE COLD WAR….


There exists three different school of
thoughts within U.S regarding Post Cold wa...
RISING INFLUENCE AFTER THE COLD WAR….



2nd school argues for:( America FIRST).




Major cutbacks in U.S. internation...
RISING INFLUENCE AFTER THE COLD WAR….
 Three

 Ist

Approaches to U.S.-China policy:

Approach-considered is moderate ap...
RISING INFLUENCE AFTER THE COLD WAR….


2nd Approach demands for tough relation

with China.
 Supporters of this approac...
RISING INFLUENCE AFTER THE COLD WAR….
 3RD

Approach favored by some U.S.

officials and other leaders believes that
Chin...
RISING INFLUENCE AFTER THE COLD WAR….



Techniques used by groups to influence
U.S f.policy:







Be active not r...
3.The MFN debate During Bush
Administration
 The

TV shown Tiananmen incident June 1989
created major crisis in U.S. poli...
The MFN debate During Bush Administration……

U.S. domestic media, Chinese student at U.S.and
Human rights organization cre...
4.The MFN debate during Clinton administration…

March 9, 1992. While campaigning for
President, Bill Clinton says, “I do ...
The MFN debate during Clinton administration….

About 800 U.S leading Businesses wrote letter
to extend MFN to china witho...
5.The Taiwan Crisis of 1995-96
According to the Author in past two decayed
U.S,China and Taiwan triangle often cover with
...
The Taiwan Crisis of 1995-96…

 This

incident reinforce Chinese suspicion that
U.S had decided to “contain “ china or ho...
6.Convergence and conflicts in us-china
policy,1996-97
 The

crises in Us-China relations over Taiwan
resulted in Clinton...
Convergence and conflicts in us-china
policy,1996-97....
 On

the other hand Chinese leaders welcomes
higher level dialog...
My view about the book
 Easy

and interesting book to read and learn.
 One can understand the role of organized
groups i...
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Book review: US policy toward China: written by Robbert G. Sutter

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Book review: US policy toward China: written by Robbert G. Sutter.

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Book review: US policy toward China: written by Robbert G. Sutter

  1. 1. U.S. PLOICY TOWARD CHINA (Book name) Reviewed by NASIR IQBAL
  2. 2. Contents: • Introduction • Rising Influence After The Cold War • The MFN debate During The Bush Administration • The MFN Debate During The Clinton Administration • The Taiwan Crisis of 1995-1996 • Convergence and Conflict IN U.S.-China Policy199697
  3. 3. MAIN THEME OF THE BOOK Author his focused attention on the US. China relation since 1989 -98. Numbers of incidents occurs (1989-98 )in b/w U.S.-China relations specially :  Tiananmen incident (1989).          End of Cold War (1991). 1992 U.S. election. Interest Groups and their role in policy. MFN linkage with China polices. Chinese efforts for Improvements of home issues. Pro Taiwan groups lobbied for Taiwan president visit to U.S.. Issues regarding military confrontation on Taiwan. U.S. Policy of Engagement with China. U.S.-China Summit conference (1997).
  4. 4. 1.Introduction  According to the Author, since 1-1-1979(Cater announcement) major crises in U.S.-China relations took place with Tiananmen Incident with death of communist party chief Hu Yaobang.  Bush lost his presidency in 1992 due to his to tough policy toward China.  U.S. domestic interest group are now more strong as they were during cold war.
  5. 5. 1.Introduction…..  President Clinton during his 1st term was much less concerned with foreign policy toward china. ( favored by those groups whom funded him in election 1992). U.S. Businesses group, pro Taiwan students and groups.  Allowed Taiwan president to visit U.S.  That result in serious crises b/w U.S. and China.  Chinese agencies provided fund to various candidates and funded congressman visit to China and also to get MFN yearly renewal. 
  6. 6. Introduction….       In 1995 Clinton took charge of Foreign policy after strong Military reaction from China. In response U.S. sent two craft carrier ships to Taiwan and pressed china not to test missile near Taiwan. U.S used back door diplomacy to handle the issue and assured China that they will not allow Taiwan High level official to U.S. On the other hand some domestic group and media continued criticism on soft policy toward China. Clinton during 2nd term of Presidency with strong commitment continued “Engagement Policy” . 1n 1997 China president visited U.S., for U.S.-China Summit, and He also visited few U.S. Top Department and final deal for Dollar 4Billion Boeing Craft to ease down U.S. Domestic critics and Media.
  7. 7. 2. Rising Influence after the cold war • Elitism –domination by the Executive branch ,especially by the White house, The State Department, According to the and the Pentagon. Author, after the end of Cold war • Presidential consultation with a bipartisan leadership. U.S. policy towards • Mobilization of public support through media. China shift from elitism to pluralism. • Pluralization: Reallocation of power within govt, away from the executive branch and toward congress. • Much greater participation of NGO and lobbying groups. • Much less consensus within congress and the broad public over foreign policy.
  8. 8. RISING INFLUENCE AFTER THE COLD WAR….  There exists three different school of thoughts within U.S regarding Post Cold war foreign policy:  one prominent school of thought stresses decline in U.S. power .This group suggest U.S.  To work harder to preserve its interests.  To use complex mix of international, regional, and bilateral efforts .  To keep issues regarding Security, economic and cultural-political on top in policy making.  It urges caution in policy toward other regional power- Russia, China and India.(to work closely with these mentioned states).
  9. 9. RISING INFLUENCE AFTER THE COLD WAR….  2nd school argues for:( America FIRST).   Major cutbacks in U.S. international activity including military involvement, and a renewed focus o solving such domestics as crime, drug use, economic competitiveness, educational standards, homelessness and transportation infrastructure. 3rd school argues that:    Policy needs to promote U.S. interests in international political, military, and economic affairs more actively and to use U.S. influence to pressure countries that do not conform to norms of an appropriate world order. Supporter of this thought want U.S. to maintain its military forces with worldwide capabilities, to lead in world affairs, and to minimize compromises. And importantly this school of thought has been present in American politics thought this century specially after 1960S ( Vietnam war, Oil shocks and the iron hostage crises)… and this trend we have seen presently in U.S. policy ( attacking Iraq, Afghanistan and Libya).
  10. 10. RISING INFLUENCE AFTER THE COLD WAR….  Three  Ist Approaches to U.S.-China policy: Approach-considered is moderate approach believes that trends in china are moving not according to desire “right” direction-that china is increasingly interdependent economically with its neighbors and the advanced industrial economies and thus unlikely to destabilize these relationships.  Economic growth promotes a materially better off and more educated and cosmopolitan populace that will over result for greater political pluralism and democratic institutions.  To get these long term goals U.S must work closely with china.
  11. 11. RISING INFLUENCE AFTER THE COLD WAR….  2nd Approach demands for tough relation with China.  Supporters of this approach consider current China conformance to many international norms a time biding factor and think if once China gets Economic modernization, Beijing will not sacrifice its nationalistic and territorial ambition for economic stability.  And they think U.S. should rely on strong military power as a counterweight to rising china.
  12. 12. RISING INFLUENCE AFTER THE COLD WAR….  3RD Approach favored by some U.S. officials and other leaders believes that China‟s political system needs to change before U.S. can establish constructive relationship with Beijing.  Aim should be to change China from within while maintain vigilance against disruptive Chinese foreign policy.
  13. 13. RISING INFLUENCE AFTER THE COLD WAR….  Techniques used by groups to influence U.S f.policy:      Be active not reactive The message (clear to the point). Amplifying the message (media attention). Entry points( congress is major focus). Strategies( as a strategy work with congress or other influencing bodies supportive to them and those individual who still needs persuasion)
  14. 14. 3.The MFN debate During Bush Administration  The TV shown Tiananmen incident June 1989 created major crisis in U.S. policy toward china.  Initial response form U.S. on Tiananmen incident:   The Bush ordered the suspension of all Govt-Govt sale, commercial export of weapons, suspension of visits b/w U.S. and Chinese Military leaders and also suspended new loans for China. The Bush administration and many congressmen privately pressed Chinese Leaders to take steps for: Easy martial laws in Beijing.  Allow VOA to broadcast programme fro china  Allow U.S. professors to work there.. 
  15. 15. The MFN debate During Bush Administration…… U.S. domestic media, Chinese student at U.S.and Human rights organization created strong anti China atmosphere in U.S.(demanding for tough policy against China).  President Bush took the charge of controlling policy toward china.  Realizing the situation Chinese official took few steps to insure they are committed to improve the situation and not to interfere in U.S  By the end of 1990,Bush considered MFN china yearly renewal necessary for his policy of “engagement” and did so without listening to domestic demand as result last 1992 election. 
  16. 16. 4.The MFN debate during Clinton administration… March 9, 1992. While campaigning for President, Bill Clinton says, “I do not believe we should extend „Most Favored Nation‟ status to China unless they make significant progress in human rights, arms proliferation and fair trade.”  June 3, 1993. President Clinton signs an executive order extending MFN to China on the condition that MFN will not be renewed in 1994 if human rights do not improve.  1993-94, China achieved growth of 12-13%. Which attracted U.S. domestic business groups and they continued to extend their relationship with china. 
  17. 17. The MFN debate during Clinton administration…. About 800 U.S leading Businesses wrote letter to extend MFN to china without conditions.  November 19, 1993. Chinese President Jiang Zeeman meets informally with President Clinton at a conference for Asian-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) leaders. Afterward, Clinton says, “I think anybody should be reluctant to isolate a country as big as China with the potential China has for good.”  May 1994,Clinton delink MFN from Human rights issues in China. 
  18. 18. 5.The Taiwan Crisis of 1995-96 According to the Author in past two decayed U.S,China and Taiwan triangle often cover with presenting problems basically dovetailed with U.S interest.  The Clinton administration‟s decision to allow Taiwan president Lee Teng-hui‟s resulted in unwanted response from China.  China canceled bilateral dialogues ,suspended key meetings with Taiwan and started proactive military exercises near Taiwan border, also warned that move toward independence would result in China invasion of Taiwan. 
  19. 19. The Taiwan Crisis of 1995-96…  This incident reinforce Chinese suspicion that U.S had decided to “contain “ china or hold back Chinese economic growth and want to develop relation with Taiwan.  Clinton administration tried to reassure Beijing that U.S was not attempting to hold China‟s development but Chinese unmoved till Clinton administration assured U.S. will not give visa to other senior Taiwan leaders.
  20. 20. 6.Convergence and conflicts in us-china policy,1996-97  The crises in Us-China relations over Taiwan resulted in Clinton administration to pay more attention to China policy.  This resulted in opening way for higher level meetings and U.S-China summits(1997 and 19980).  U.S leaders have perceived that they will need to devote continuous high level policy attention: case by case, year by year to deal with rising china.
  21. 21. Convergence and conflicts in us-china policy,1996-97....  On the other hand Chinese leaders welcomes higher level dialogues and US-China summits.  Greater coherence and convergence of opinion among US-China policy clearly assists the efforts of organized interests whose goals are compatible with that policy.  And both countries top leaders are aware of sensitive issues on either sides and hence accordingly shipping there policies.
  22. 22. My view about the book  Easy and interesting book to read and learn.  One can understand the role of organized groups in developing or destabilizing relations b/w states.  Both U.S.-China interested to keeps other issues aside from business activities.  In developing foreign policy, each step is very careful designed and taken.  Foreign policy is more about give and take.
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