Inside The Computer


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Inside The Computer

  1. 1. Introduction to Computer Science (I) Inside the Computer
  2. 2. Computer System <ul><li>A computer system consists of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware: The set of electronic elements required to run programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software: The set of instructions to be run on the hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data: Raw facts as input to the computer. After processed, useful information as the output of the computer is produced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Binary Digits: 1 and 0 <ul><li>Types of signals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analog: Continuous waveforms in which variations in frequency and amplitude can be used to represent information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital: Discrete signals in two states. Generally, the on state is expressed or represented by the number 1 and the off state by the number 0 </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Digitalized data in computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Letters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Odors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bit: An on or off electronic state </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On-bit: 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Off-bit: 0 </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>On and off states inside the computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RAM: Presence or absence of an electrical charge in an integrated circuit </li></ul></ul>Source:
  6. 6. <ul><ul><li>Disk storage: Two states are represented by the magnetic arrangement of the surface coating on magnetic disks </li></ul></ul>Source:
  7. 7. <ul><ul><li>CD and DVD: Digital data are stored permanently as microscopic pits </li></ul></ul>Source:
  8. 8. <ul><ul><li>Fiber optic cable: Binary data are pulses of light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical transmission media: Binary numbers are electrical signals </li></ul></ul>Source:
  9. 9. <ul><li>Character encoding systems: bits and bytes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Byte: The 8-bit combination of bits are used to represent a character </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASCII: The 7-bit ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) code can represent up to 128 characters </li></ul></ul>Source:
  10. 10. <ul><ul><li>Unicode: A 16-bit encoding system to represent more characters than the English language </li></ul></ul>Source:
  11. 11. The Components of A Computer <ul><li>Von Neumann architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The model of computing proposed by John Von Neumann (1903-1957) in 1946 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The stored program computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The instructions that control the operation of the computer be encoded as binary values and stored internally in the memory unit along with the data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The basis of the structure and organization of virtually all modern computers </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><ul><li>Include four major subsystems called memory, input/output, the arithmetic/logic unit (ALU), and the control unit </li></ul></ul>Memory Memory Control unit ALU Processor
  13. 13. <ul><ul><li>The first stored program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maurice Wilkes of the University of Cambridge created the first stored program on a machine, called EDSAC, which calculated and printed the table of squares on May 6, 1949. </li></ul></ul></ul>Image courtesy of Computer History Museum,
  14. 14. <ul><li>The major devices of a personal computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The PC system unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Input devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Output devices </li></ul></ul>System Unit Storage Devices CPU Output Devices Control Unit Input Devices ALU Main Memory
  15. 15. The PC System Unit <ul><li>The motherboard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A single circuit board provides the path through which the processor communicates with memory components and peripheral devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attached devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Processor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support electronic circuitry, such as the chipset </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Memory chips </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion boards </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Source: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1: Processor socket 2: DIMM sockets 3. Floppy connector 4: Hard disk connectors 5: Chipset 6: PCI expansion slots 7: AGP video cord slot
  17. 17. 1: PS/2 mouse port 2: Parallel port 3: RJ-45 port 4: Line In port 5: Line Out port 6: Microphone port 7: USB 2.0 ports 1 and 2 8: VGA por 9: S/PDIF out port (digital audio) 10: USB 2.0 ports 3 and 4 11: PS/2 keyboard port Source:
  18. 18. <ul><li>The processor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Called the central processing unit or CPU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The nucleus of any computer system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains the control unit and the arithmetic and logic unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intel: Pentium 4, Celeron, Xeon, Itanium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motorola: 680x0 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AMD: K6, Duron, Athlon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Apple/Motorola/IBM: Power PC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sun: SPARC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compaq: Alpha </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>DRAM (dynamic random access memory) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A high-speed holding area for data and programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SDRAM (synchronous DRAM) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VCM (virtual channel memory) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DRDRAM (direct rambus DRAM) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DDR SDRAM (double data rate SDRAM) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Module </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SIMM (single in-line memory module) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DIMM (double in-line memory module) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Cache memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 1 cache: Built into the processor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 2 cache: On another chip, sitting between the processor and RAM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Volatile memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DRAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SRAM (static RAM): Used in cache memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nonvolatile memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ROM (read only memory) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When you turn on a microcomputer system, aprogram in ROM automatically readies the computer for use and produces the initial display-screen prompt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PROM (programmable ROM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flash memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The PC’s BIOS (basic input output system) is stored in flash memory </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A type of memory chip with very low power requirements, and in PCs it operates using small batteries. In PCs, CMOS is more specifically referred to as CMOS RAM. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Store information your computer needs when it boots up, such as hard disk types, keyboard and display type, chip set, and even the time and date. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>Buses and ports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The motherboard and its system bus must be linked to input, output, storage, and communication devices to receive data and return the results of processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PCI local bus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The PCI local bus (peripheral component interconnect) enables circuit boards with extra features to be linked to the common system bus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AGP bus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The AGP bus (accelerated graphics port) is a special-function bus designed to accommodate the throughput demands of high-resolution 3-D graphics </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><ul><li>USB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The USB (universal serial bus) is the primary standard for connecting peripheral devices to a PC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The USB hub is a device connecting to a USB port and offering three, four, or five additional USB ports </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>USB 2.0 permits data transfer at 480 Mbps, about 40 times faster than the original USB standard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1394 or FireWire bus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The 1394 bus supports data transfer rates of 400 Mbps for the original standard and 800 Mbps for the current standard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SCSI bus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The SCSI bus (small computer system interface) was an early alternative to using expansion slots to extend PC functionality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 15 SCSI peripheral devices can be daisy-chained to a SCSI interface expansion card via the SCSI port </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><ul><li>Serial port </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The 9-pin or 25-pin RS-232C connector </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An external modem might be connected to a serial port </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel port </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel ports use the same 25-pin RS-232C connector </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Printers used parallel ports </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IrDA port </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The infrared port transmits data via infrared light waves </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 27. USB connector PS/2 keyboard connector 1394/FireWire connector Ethernet connector
  27. 28. SCSI cable Printer connector Video/monitor cable
  28. 29. <ul><li>Expansion boards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic adapter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Normally an AGP board </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Typically has receptacles for a microphone, a headset, an audio output and most has a port for a game controller and a MIDI (music instrument digital interface) port </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data/voice/fax modem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network interface card </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SCSI interface card </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video capture card </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Sound card Graphics adapter SCSI interface card Network interface card
  30. 31. <ul><li>PC cards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The PCMCIA card is a credit card-sized removable expansion module that is plugged into an external PCMCIA expansion slot on a PC, usually a notebook </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended RAM, programmable nonvolatile flash memory, network interface cards (wireless and wired), data/voice/fax modems, hard-disk cards </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. PCI card and PCMCIA radio card PCMCIA hard disk PCMCIA flash memory PCMCIA wireless network interface card
  32. 33. <ul><li>Processor description </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Word size: bits handled as a unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>32 bits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>64 bits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Core speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PCs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MHz (millions of clock cycles per second) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GHz (billions of clock cycles per second) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PCs, workstations, server computers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MIPS (millions of instructions per second) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supercomputers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FLOPS (floating point operations per second) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><ul><li>Bus speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MHz </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GHz </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Memory capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kilobytes (KB): 1024 ( ) bytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Megabytes (MB): 1,048,576 ( ) bytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gigabytes (GB): bytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terabytes (TB): bytes </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. Storage Devices <ul><li>Magnetic disk storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed disks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hard disks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interchangeable disks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Floppy disks: 1.44 MB </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SuperDisk: 120 MB </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zip disks: 100, 250, 750 MB </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 36. Floppy disk Hard disk Zip disk Superdisk
  36. 37. <ul><li>Optical laser discs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CD formats (650MB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CD audio (compact disc): 4.72 inch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CD-ROM (compact disc-read-only memory) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>32X, 40X, 75X: Spin at 32, 40, and 75 times the speed of the original CD standard </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Original 1X CD-ROM data transfer rate: 150 KB per second </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spin more quickly when accessing the data near the center (about 450 rpm) and more slowly for data near the edge (about 250 rpm) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CD-R (compact disc recordable) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CD-RW (CD-ReWritable) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 38. <ul><ul><li>DVD formats (4.7 GB or 9.4 GB for double sided) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DVD (digital video disc) audio, DVD video </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DVD-ROM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The data transfer rate is nine times that of a CD-ROM spinning at the same rae </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DVD+R, DVD-R: Like CD-R </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DVD+RW, DVD-RW: Like CD-RW </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DVD-RW (DVD-R) and DVD_RW (DVD+R) are competing technologies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 39. CD-R disc DVD-RW disc
  39. 40. <ul><li>Solid state storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flash memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mini USB drive </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 41. Input Devices <ul><li>Keyboard </li></ul><ul><li>Mouse </li></ul><ul><li>Point-and-draw devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trackpad: Common on notebook PCs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trackpoint: Usually positioned in or near a notebook’s keyboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trackball: A ball inset in a notebook PC or as a separate unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joystick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digitizer tablet and pen </li></ul></ul>
  41. 42. Keyboard Mouse Trackpad Trackpoint
  42. 43. Trackball Joystick Digitizer tablet and pen
  43. 44. <ul><li>Scanner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Handheld label scanner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Read data on price tags, shipping labels, inventory part numbers, book ISBNs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes called wand scanners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stationary label scanner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Applications like wand scanners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Common in grocery stored and discount stores </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document scanner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scans documents of varying sizes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Read envelopes at the U.S. Postal Service, and also read turnaround documents for utility companies </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 45. Handheld label scanner Stationary label scanner Document scanner
  45. 46. <ul><li>Image scanner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Page image scanner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The scanned result is a high-resolution digitized image </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hand image scanner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rolled manually over the image to be scanned </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Badge reader (for magnetic stripes and smart cards) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The magnetic stripes on the back of charge cards and badges offer another means of data entry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Speech recognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of software, a generic vocabulary database, and a high-quality microphone with noise-canceling capabilities </li></ul></ul>
  46. 47. Hand image scanner Page image scanner Badge reader Speech recognition
  47. 48. <ul><li>Digital camera </li></ul><ul><li>Desktop digital video camera </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Webcam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digital video cameras that are continuously linked to the Internet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Real-time Internet-based videophone conversations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital camcorder </li></ul>
  48. 49. Digital camera Webcam Digital camcorder
  49. 50. Output Devices <ul><li>Monitors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CRT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat-panel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LCD (liquid crystal display): Active matrix or passive matrix </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TFT (thin film transistor) LCD: Active matrix </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Touch screen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has pressure-sensitive overlays that can detect pressure and the exact location of that pressure </li></ul></ul></ul>
  50. 51. <ul><ul><li>Monitor resolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The number of pixels that can be displayed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1024*768 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The number of bits used to represent each pixel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8-bit color mode: 256 colors </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>16-bit high-color mode: 65,536 colors </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>True color, either 24-bit or 32-bit mode </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The dot pitch of the monitor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dot pitch: The distance between the centers of adjacent pixels </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>.28 mm, .25 mm </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  51. 52. CRT monitor TFT LCD monitor Touch screen monitor
  52. 53. <ul><li>LCD projector </li></ul><ul><li>Printer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nonimpact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>600 dpi (dots per inch), 1200 dpi </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ink-jet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nonimpact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The droplets, ehich dry instantly as dots, form the letters and images </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large-format ink-jet, or plotter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All-in-one multifunction device: Print, fax, scan, and copy </li></ul></ul>
  53. 54. LCD projector Ink-jet printer Laser printer Large-format ink-jet printer Multifunction device
  54. 55. <ul><li>Sound System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small speaker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6.1 sound system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Voice-response system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recorded voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech synthesis </li></ul></ul>
  55. 56. References <ul><li>Computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larry Long & Nancy Long, Twelfth Edition, Pearson Education, Inc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Invitation to Computer Science, C++ Version </li></ul><ul><ul><li>G. Michael Schneider & Judith L. Gersting, Third Edition, Course Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computer History Museum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www .computerhistory .org </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>