Inside The Computer

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  • 1. Introduction to Computer Science (I) Inside the Computer
  • 2. Computer System
    • A computer system consists of
      • Hardware: The set of electronic elements required to run programs
      • Software: The set of instructions to be run on the hardware
      • Data: Raw facts as input to the computer. After processed, useful information as the output of the computer is produced
      • User
  • 3. Binary Digits: 1 and 0
    • Types of signals
      • Analog: Continuous waveforms in which variations in frequency and amplitude can be used to represent information
      • Digital: Discrete signals in two states. Generally, the on state is expressed or represented by the number 1 and the off state by the number 0
  • 4.
    • Digitalized data in computers
      • Letters
      • Numbers
      • Colors
      • Sounds
      • Images
      • Odors
    • Bit: An on or off electronic state
      • On-bit: 1
      • Off-bit: 0
  • 5.
    • On and off states inside the computers
      • RAM: Presence or absence of an electrical charge in an integrated circuit
    Source: http://www.intel.com/research/silicon/nanotechnology.htm
  • 6.
      • Disk storage: Two states are represented by the magnetic arrangement of the surface coating on magnetic disks
    Source: http://www.research.ibm.com/resources/news/20010518_whitepaper.shtml
  • 7.
      • CD and DVD: Digital data are stored permanently as microscopic pits
    Source: http://www.opticaldisc-systems.com/2002SepOct/DVDBASICS80.htm
  • 8.
      • Fiber optic cable: Binary data are pulses of light
      • Electrical transmission media: Binary numbers are electrical signals
    Source: http://www.bsu.edu/web/CBTHORNBERRY/trends5.html
  • 9.
    • Character encoding systems: bits and bytes
      • Byte: The 8-bit combination of bits are used to represent a character
      • ASCII: The 7-bit ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) code can represent up to 128 characters
    Source: http://www.unicode.org/charts/PDF/U0000.pdf
  • 10.
      • Unicode: A 16-bit encoding system to represent more characters than the English language
    Source: http://www.unicode.org/charts/PDF/U4E00.pdf
  • 11. The Components of A Computer
    • Von Neumann architecture
      • The model of computing proposed by John Von Neumann (1903-1957) in 1946
      • The stored program computer
        • The instructions that control the operation of the computer be encoded as binary values and stored internally in the memory unit along with the data
      • The basis of the structure and organization of virtually all modern computers
  • 12.
      • Include four major subsystems called memory, input/output, the arithmetic/logic unit (ALU), and the control unit
    Memory Memory Control unit ALU Processor
  • 13.
      • The first stored program
        • Maurice Wilkes of the University of Cambridge created the first stored program on a machine, called EDSAC, which calculated and printed the table of squares on May 6, 1949.
    Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http://www.computerhistory.org
  • 14.
    • The major devices of a personal computer
      • The PC system unit
      • Storage devices
      • Input devices
      • Output devices
    System Unit Storage Devices CPU Output Devices Control Unit Input Devices ALU Main Memory
  • 15. The PC System Unit
    • The motherboard
      • A single circuit board provides the path through which the processor communicates with memory components and peripheral devices
      • Attached devices
        • Processor
        • Support electronic circuitry, such as the chipset
        • Memory chips
        • Expansion boards
  • 16. Source: http://www.asus.com 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1: Processor socket 2: DIMM sockets 3. Floppy connector 4: Hard disk connectors 5: Chipset 6: PCI expansion slots 7: AGP video cord slot
  • 17. 1: PS/2 mouse port 2: Parallel port 3: RJ-45 port 4: Line In port 5: Line Out port 6: Microphone port 7: USB 2.0 ports 1 and 2 8: VGA por 9: S/PDIF out port (digital audio) 10: USB 2.0 ports 3 and 4 11: PS/2 keyboard port Source: http://www.asus.com
  • 18.
    • The processor
      • Called the central processing unit or CPU
      • The nucleus of any computer system
      • Contains the control unit and the arithmetic and logic unit
      • Companies
        • Intel: Pentium 4, Celeron, Xeon, Itanium
        • Motorola: 680x0
        • AMD: K6, Duron, Athlon
        • Apple/Motorola/IBM: Power PC
        • Sun: SPARC
        • Compaq: Alpha
  • 19.
    • DRAM (dynamic random access memory)
      • A high-speed holding area for data and programs
      • Types
        • SDRAM (synchronous DRAM)
        • VCM (virtual channel memory)
        • DRDRAM (direct rambus DRAM)
        • DDR SDRAM (double data rate SDRAM)
      • Module
        • SIMM (single in-line memory module)
        • DIMM (double in-line memory module)
  • 20. VCM DRDRAM DDR SDRAM 200 PIN DDR333 256MB SO-DIMM
  • 21.
    • Cache memory
      • Level 1 cache: Built into the processor
      • Level 2 cache: On another chip, sitting between the processor and RAM
    • Volatile memory
      • DRAM
      • SRAM (static RAM): Used in cache memory
    • Nonvolatile memory
      • ROM (read only memory)
        • When you turn on a microcomputer system, aprogram in ROM automatically readies the computer for use and produces the initial display-screen prompt
      • PROM (programmable ROM)
      • Flash memory
        • The PC’s BIOS (basic input output system) is stored in flash memory
  • 22.
    • CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor )
      • A type of memory chip with very low power requirements, and in PCs it operates using small batteries. In PCs, CMOS is more specifically referred to as CMOS RAM.
      • Store information your computer needs when it boots up, such as hard disk types, keyboard and display type, chip set, and even the time and date.
  • 23.  
  • 24.
    • Buses and ports
      • The motherboard and its system bus must be linked to input, output, storage, and communication devices to receive data and return the results of processing
      • PCI local bus
        • The PCI local bus (peripheral component interconnect) enables circuit boards with extra features to be linked to the common system bus
      • AGP bus
        • The AGP bus (accelerated graphics port) is a special-function bus designed to accommodate the throughput demands of high-resolution 3-D graphics
  • 25.
      • USB
        • The USB (universal serial bus) is the primary standard for connecting peripheral devices to a PC
        • The USB hub is a device connecting to a USB port and offering three, four, or five additional USB ports
        • USB 2.0 permits data transfer at 480 Mbps, about 40 times faster than the original USB standard
      • 1394 or FireWire bus
        • The 1394 bus supports data transfer rates of 400 Mbps for the original standard and 800 Mbps for the current standard
      • SCSI bus
        • The SCSI bus (small computer system interface) was an early alternative to using expansion slots to extend PC functionality
        • Up to 15 SCSI peripheral devices can be daisy-chained to a SCSI interface expansion card via the SCSI port
  • 26.
      • Serial port
        • The 9-pin or 25-pin RS-232C connector
        • An external modem might be connected to a serial port
      • Parallel port
        • Parallel ports use the same 25-pin RS-232C connector
        • Printers used parallel ports
      • IrDA port
        • The infrared port transmits data via infrared light waves
  • 27. USB connector PS/2 keyboard connector 1394/FireWire connector Ethernet connector
  • 28. SCSI cable Printer connector Video/monitor cable
  • 29.
    • Expansion boards
      • Graphic adapter
        • Normally an AGP board
      • Sound
        • Typically has receptacles for a microphone, a headset, an audio output and most has a port for a game controller and a MIDI (music instrument digital interface) port
      • Data/voice/fax modem
      • Network interface card
      • SCSI interface card
      • Video capture card
  • 30. Sound card Graphics adapter SCSI interface card Network interface card
  • 31.
    • PC cards
      • The PCMCIA card is a credit card-sized removable expansion module that is plugged into an external PCMCIA expansion slot on a PC, usually a notebook
      • Extended RAM, programmable nonvolatile flash memory, network interface cards (wireless and wired), data/voice/fax modems, hard-disk cards
  • 32. PCI card and PCMCIA radio card PCMCIA hard disk PCMCIA flash memory PCMCIA wireless network interface card
  • 33.
    • Processor description
      • Word size: bits handled as a unit
        • 32 bits
        • 64 bits
      • Core speed
        • PCs
          • MHz (millions of clock cycles per second)
          • GHz (billions of clock cycles per second)
        • PCs, workstations, server computers
          • MIPS (millions of instructions per second)
        • Supercomputers
          • FLOPS (floating point operations per second)
  • 34.
      • Bus speed
        • MHz
        • GHz
    • Memory capacity
      • Kilobytes (KB): 1024 ( ) bytes
      • Megabytes (MB): 1,048,576 ( ) bytes
      • Gigabytes (GB): bytes
      • Terabytes (TB): bytes
  • 35. Storage Devices
    • Magnetic disk storage
      • Fixed disks
        • Hard disks
      • Interchangeable disks
        • Floppy disks: 1.44 MB
        • SuperDisk: 120 MB
        • Zip disks: 100, 250, 750 MB
  • 36. Floppy disk Hard disk Zip disk Superdisk
  • 37.
    • Optical laser discs
      • CD formats (650MB)
        • CD audio (compact disc): 4.72 inch
        • CD-ROM (compact disc-read-only memory)
          • 32X, 40X, 75X: Spin at 32, 40, and 75 times the speed of the original CD standard
          • Original 1X CD-ROM data transfer rate: 150 KB per second
          • Spin more quickly when accessing the data near the center (about 450 rpm) and more slowly for data near the edge (about 250 rpm)
        • CD-R (compact disc recordable)
        • CD-RW (CD-ReWritable)
  • 38.
      • DVD formats (4.7 GB or 9.4 GB for double sided)
        • DVD (digital video disc) audio, DVD video
        • DVD-ROM
          • The data transfer rate is nine times that of a CD-ROM spinning at the same rae
        • DVD+R, DVD-R: Like CD-R
        • DVD+RW, DVD-RW: Like CD-RW
          • DVD-RW (DVD-R) and DVD_RW (DVD+R) are competing technologies
  • 39. CD-R disc DVD-RW disc
  • 40.
    • Solid state storage
      • Flash memory
        • Mini USB drive
  • 41. Input Devices
    • Keyboard
    • Mouse
    • Point-and-draw devices
      • Trackpad: Common on notebook PCs
      • Trackpoint: Usually positioned in or near a notebook’s keyboard
      • Trackball: A ball inset in a notebook PC or as a separate unit
      • Joystick
      • Digitizer tablet and pen
  • 42. Keyboard Mouse Trackpad Trackpoint
  • 43. Trackball Joystick Digitizer tablet and pen
  • 44.
    • Scanner
      • Handheld label scanner
        • Read data on price tags, shipping labels, inventory part numbers, book ISBNs
        • Sometimes called wand scanners
      • Stationary label scanner
        • Applications like wand scanners
        • Common in grocery stored and discount stores
      • Document scanner
        • Scans documents of varying sizes
        • Read envelopes at the U.S. Postal Service, and also read turnaround documents for utility companies
  • 45. Handheld label scanner Stationary label scanner Document scanner
  • 46.
    • Image scanner
      • Page image scanner
        • The scanned result is a high-resolution digitized image
      • Hand image scanner
        • Rolled manually over the image to be scanned
    • Badge reader (for magnetic stripes and smart cards)
      • The magnetic stripes on the back of charge cards and badges offer another means of data entry
    • Speech recognition
      • Consists of software, a generic vocabulary database, and a high-quality microphone with noise-canceling capabilities
  • 47. Hand image scanner Page image scanner Badge reader Speech recognition
  • 48.
    • Digital camera
    • Desktop digital video camera
      • Webcam
        • Digital video cameras that are continuously linked to the Internet
      • Real-time Internet-based videophone conversations
    • Digital camcorder
  • 49. Digital camera Webcam Digital camcorder
  • 50. Output Devices
    • Monitors
      • CRT
      • Flat-panel
        • LCD (liquid crystal display): Active matrix or passive matrix
        • TFT (thin film transistor) LCD: Active matrix
      • Touch screen
        • Has pressure-sensitive overlays that can detect pressure and the exact location of that pressure
  • 51.
      • Monitor resolution
        • The number of pixels that can be displayed
          • 1024*768
        • The number of bits used to represent each pixel
          • 8-bit color mode: 256 colors
          • 16-bit high-color mode: 65,536 colors
          • True color, either 24-bit or 32-bit mode
        • The dot pitch of the monitor
          • Dot pitch: The distance between the centers of adjacent pixels
          • .28 mm, .25 mm
  • 52. CRT monitor TFT LCD monitor Touch screen monitor
  • 53.
    • LCD projector
    • Printer
      • Laser
        • Nonimpact
        • 600 dpi (dots per inch), 1200 dpi
      • Ink-jet
        • Nonimpact
        • The droplets, ehich dry instantly as dots, form the letters and images
      • Large-format ink-jet, or plotter
      • All-in-one multifunction device: Print, fax, scan, and copy
  • 54. LCD projector Ink-jet printer Laser printer Large-format ink-jet printer Multifunction device
  • 55.
    • Sound System
      • Small speaker
      • 6.1 sound system
    • Voice-response system
      • Recorded voice
      • Speech synthesis
  • 56. References
    • Computers
      • Larry Long & Nancy Long, Twelfth Edition, Pearson Education, Inc
    • Invitation to Computer Science, C++ Version
      • G. Michael Schneider & Judith L. Gersting, Third Edition, Course Technology
    • Computer History Museum
      • http://www .computerhistory .org
    • http://archive.computerhistory.org/