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Water Water Everywhere

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  • 1. Water, Water, Everywhere TIDES, CURRENTS, & WAVES
  • 2. Welcome to the ocean planet.
  • 3. 326,000,000,000,000,000,000 gallons.
  • 4. Average depth of the ocean is 13,124 feet.
  • 5. The deepest point in the ocean is The Mariana Trench near the Phillipines. This trench has a maximum depth of 36,200 feet.
  • 6. SEAWATER (1kg) 35 g fresh water other components 965 g
  • 7. DISSOLVED GASES % % in in ATM ocean nitrogen 78% 48% oxygen 21% 36% carbon dioxide .04% 15%
  • 8. TIDES => • LUNAR TIDES -gravitational force between earth & moon • “bulge” forms on side facing moon
  • 9. TIDES => • “bulge” forms on opposite side due to inertia • How many tides/day?
  • 10. TIDES => • “lunar day” is 24 hr. & 50 min. • orbital plane of moon is inclined 28.5º
  • 11. TIDES => • SOLAR TIDES are caused by the SUN and are 1/2 the height of lunar tides
  • 12. TIDES => • “constructive” interference leads to “SPRING” tides • “destructive” interference leads to “NEAP” tides
  • 13. TIDES etc. => • TIDAL RANGE is the difference between high to low water • TIDAL CURRENTS are due to flow of water in or out of a bay or harbor
  • 14. TIDES etc. =>  FLOOD CURRENT is water flowing in due to rising tide  EBB CURRENT is the outflow due to falling tide
  • 15. TIDES etc. => • SLACK WATER is the still water between tide changes • tidal currents can reach 3mi/hr
  • 16. OCEAN CURRENTS •  A combination of 4 things circulates the ocean in the Atlantic, forming “gyres”.
  • 17. 4 forces of current: •  surface winds •  the sun’s heat •  the Coriolis effect •  gravity
  • 18. The NORTH ATLANTIC gyre •  a series of four interconnecting currents:
  • 19. •  The Gulf Stream •  The North Atlantic Current •  The Canary Current •  The North Equatorial Current
  • 20. STUDYING CURRENTS • FLOAT METHOD • depends on movement of a free-floating object • FLOW METHOD • measure current as it flows past a fixed point
  • 21. sometimes big big boats sail the ocean blue…
  • 22. sometimes it gets purrrty windy…
  • 23. and other times…
  • 24. ACCIDENTAL DATA? • May, 1990: • The Hansa Carrier • 21 boxcar-sized cargo containers lost • containing 30,910 pairs of Nike shoes!
  • 25. ACCIDENTAL DATA? • pairs were not tied together • beachcombers placed ads, held swap meets, etc… • oceanographers noticed ads
  • 26. ACCIDENTAL DATA? • requested where and when information on shoe findings • refined computer models of the North Pacific gyre • some completed a FULL circuit of the gyre!
  • 27. ACCIDENTAL DATA? • January 1992, freighter lost 29,000 rubber ducks, etc. in the N. Pacific • recovered from 500mi of Alaskan shoreline
  • 28. WAVE CLASSIFICATION • by the DISTURBING FORCE: • wind • storm surges • landslides • seismic activity • volcanic eruptions
  • 29. WAVELENGTH A B crest height trough
  • 30. orbital path of individual water molecule at water surface
  • 31. FREQUENCY: number of wave crests passing point A or point B each second A B
  • 32. PERIOD: time required for wave crest at point A to reach point B A B
  • 33. TYPICAL WAVELENGTHS • WIND WAVE: 60-150m (200-500ft.) • SEISMIC SEA WAVE (tsunami): 200km (125mi.) • TIDE: 1/2 circumference of Earth
  • 34. TROPICAL STORM FORMATION
  • 35. FORMATION • area of storms moving off African coast… “cape verde” storms • converging winds cause storm to begin rotation • requires WARM water to continue dev. (80ºF)
  • 36. FORMATION • water vapor rises quickly • often continues until it hits land in the W. hemisphere • sometimes moves over colder water or is sheared off by easterly winds
  • 37. IF DEVELOPMENT CONTINUES • A TROPICAL DISTURBANCE is an organized area of storms for at least 24 hrs. • A TROPICAL DEPRESSION is an area of low pressure with defined circulation
  • 38. IF DEVELOPMENT CONTINUES • A TROPICAL STORM is a strong area of low press. and max. sustained winds 39-73mph.
  • 39. IF DEVELOPMENT CONTINUES • A HURRICANE has maximum sustained winds over 73 mph. • usually 200-250 miles in diameter
  • 40. • EXAMPLES of hurricanes:
  • 41. • Sept. 2004 – Hurricane Frances approaches Florida…
  • 42. • Sept. 2004 – Ivan in Texas, Jeanne nearing Bahamas
  • 43. • Sept. 2004 – Hurricane Jeanne nearing Bahamas with 115mph. winds
  • 44. • Sept. 2004 – Hurricane Jeanne makes landfall at Port St. Lucie…
  • 45. stay in touch… http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/
  • 46. Can it be the end??

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