Water Water Everywhere

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Water Water Everywhere

  1. 1. Water, Water, Everywhere TIDES, CURRENTS, & WAVES
  2. 2. Welcome to the ocean planet.
  3. 3. 326,000,000,000,000,000,000 gallons.
  4. 4. Average depth of the ocean is 13,124 feet.
  5. 5. The deepest point in the ocean is The Mariana Trench near the Phillipines. This trench has a maximum depth of 36,200 feet.
  6. 6. SEAWATER (1kg) 35 g fresh water other components 965 g
  7. 7. DISSOLVED GASES % % in in ATM ocean nitrogen 78% 48% oxygen 21% 36% carbon dioxide .04% 15%
  8. 8. TIDES => • LUNAR TIDES -gravitational force between earth & moon • “bulge” forms on side facing moon
  9. 9. TIDES => • “bulge” forms on opposite side due to inertia • How many tides/day?
  10. 10. TIDES => • “lunar day” is 24 hr. & 50 min. • orbital plane of moon is inclined 28.5º
  11. 11. TIDES => • SOLAR TIDES are caused by the SUN and are 1/2 the height of lunar tides
  12. 12. TIDES => • “constructive” interference leads to “SPRING” tides • “destructive” interference leads to “NEAP” tides
  13. 13. TIDES etc. => • TIDAL RANGE is the difference between high to low water • TIDAL CURRENTS are due to flow of water in or out of a bay or harbor
  14. 14. TIDES etc. =>  FLOOD CURRENT is water flowing in due to rising tide  EBB CURRENT is the outflow due to falling tide
  15. 15. TIDES etc. => • SLACK WATER is the still water between tide changes • tidal currents can reach 3mi/hr
  16. 16. OCEAN CURRENTS •  A combination of 4 things circulates the ocean in the Atlantic, forming “gyres”.
  17. 17. 4 forces of current: •  surface winds •  the sun’s heat •  the Coriolis effect •  gravity
  18. 18. The NORTH ATLANTIC gyre •  a series of four interconnecting currents:
  19. 19. •  The Gulf Stream •  The North Atlantic Current •  The Canary Current •  The North Equatorial Current
  20. 20. STUDYING CURRENTS • FLOAT METHOD • depends on movement of a free-floating object • FLOW METHOD • measure current as it flows past a fixed point
  21. 21. sometimes big big boats sail the ocean blue…
  22. 22. sometimes it gets purrrty windy…
  23. 23. and other times…
  24. 24. ACCIDENTAL DATA? • May, 1990: • The Hansa Carrier • 21 boxcar-sized cargo containers lost • containing 30,910 pairs of Nike shoes!
  25. 25. ACCIDENTAL DATA? • pairs were not tied together • beachcombers placed ads, held swap meets, etc… • oceanographers noticed ads
  26. 26. ACCIDENTAL DATA? • requested where and when information on shoe findings • refined computer models of the North Pacific gyre • some completed a FULL circuit of the gyre!
  27. 27. ACCIDENTAL DATA? • January 1992, freighter lost 29,000 rubber ducks, etc. in the N. Pacific • recovered from 500mi of Alaskan shoreline
  28. 28. WAVE CLASSIFICATION • by the DISTURBING FORCE: • wind • storm surges • landslides • seismic activity • volcanic eruptions
  29. 29. WAVELENGTH A B crest height trough
  30. 30. orbital path of individual water molecule at water surface
  31. 31. FREQUENCY: number of wave crests passing point A or point B each second A B
  32. 32. PERIOD: time required for wave crest at point A to reach point B A B
  33. 33. TYPICAL WAVELENGTHS • WIND WAVE: 60-150m (200-500ft.) • SEISMIC SEA WAVE (tsunami): 200km (125mi.) • TIDE: 1/2 circumference of Earth
  34. 34. TROPICAL STORM FORMATION
  35. 35. FORMATION • area of storms moving off African coast… “cape verde” storms • converging winds cause storm to begin rotation • requires WARM water to continue dev. (80ºF)
  36. 36. FORMATION • water vapor rises quickly • often continues until it hits land in the W. hemisphere • sometimes moves over colder water or is sheared off by easterly winds
  37. 37. IF DEVELOPMENT CONTINUES • A TROPICAL DISTURBANCE is an organized area of storms for at least 24 hrs. • A TROPICAL DEPRESSION is an area of low pressure with defined circulation
  38. 38. IF DEVELOPMENT CONTINUES • A TROPICAL STORM is a strong area of low press. and max. sustained winds 39-73mph.
  39. 39. IF DEVELOPMENT CONTINUES • A HURRICANE has maximum sustained winds over 73 mph. • usually 200-250 miles in diameter
  40. 40. • EXAMPLES of hurricanes:
  41. 41. • Sept. 2004 – Hurricane Frances approaches Florida…
  42. 42. • Sept. 2004 – Ivan in Texas, Jeanne nearing Bahamas
  43. 43. • Sept. 2004 – Hurricane Jeanne nearing Bahamas with 115mph. winds
  44. 44. • Sept. 2004 – Hurricane Jeanne makes landfall at Port St. Lucie…
  45. 45. stay in touch… http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/
  46. 46. Can it be the end??

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