Oceanic Zones And Trophic Levels
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Oceanic Zones And Trophic Levels

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This slide set was used to help facilitate a discussion about oceanic zonation (in both the pelagic and benthic realm) in my Marine Biology class. ...

This slide set was used to help facilitate a discussion about oceanic zonation (in both the pelagic and benthic realm) in my Marine Biology class.

Particular emphasis was placed on the intertidal zone since this is the zone we will explore most in our field study to the Florida Keys in April.

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Oceanic Zones And Trophic Levels Presentation Transcript

  • 1. VS.
  • 2. The PELAGIC zone
  • 3. epipelagic mesopelagic bathypelagic The PELAGIC zone
  • 4. The BENTHIC zone
  • 5. The BENTHIC zone
  • 6. 2% ! photic zone aphotic zone LIGHT penetration
  • 7. TROPHIC LEVELS 1 kg of TUNA 10 kg of MID-SIZED FISH 100 kg of SMALL FISH 1000 kg of SMALL HERBIVORES 10,000 kg of PRIMARY PRODUCERS
  • 8. CORAL REEF ECOSYSTEM? MANY, OBVIOUS CONSUMERS WHERE… ARE THE PRODUCERS?
  • 9. This is only an APPARENT INVERTED TROPHIC PYRAMID
  • 10. Enter... THE ATOMIC BOMB
  • 11. AFTER WWII: • US conducts first postwar nuclear tests on Enewetok •studied pre and post- explosion flora & fauna • Howard & Eugene ODUM
  • 12. Enewetok Atoll is/are the small islands where the U.S. tested 43 atomic bombs in the 1950's.. including 'mike'... the worlds first thermonuclear device. I was there during the late 1970's for the government’s attempt at cleaning up the resulting radiation. Radioactive soil and materials were dumped into the lagoon and into a large bomb crater, then the crater was sealed with a huge concrete cap. The burial site is expected to be 'hot' for 25,000 years. This Atoll, although one of the most beautiful places anywhere, is not where I would go for a vacation.
  • 13. People are not allowed to stay the night on Bikini due to the high levels of radioactivity. The ocean floor has completely recovered, and has some beautiful coral diving. Bikini natives now live on Kwajalein Atoll .
  • 14. No one was living on the Bikini atoll at the time of the BRAVO blast. However, a total of 236 people were living on the atolls of Rongelap and Utirik, 100 and 300 miles east of Bikini, respectively. The residents of Rongelap were exposed to as much as 200 rems of radiation. They were evacuated 24 hours after the detonation. The residents of Utirik, which were exposed to lower levels of radiation, were not evacuated until at least two days later. After their evacuation, many experienced typical symptoms of radiation poisoning; burning of the mouth and eyes, nausea, diarrhea, loss of hair, and skin burns. Ten years after the blast the first thyroid tumors began to appear. Of those under twelve on Rongelap at the time of BRAVO, 90% have developed thyroid tumors. In 1964, the U. S. Government admitted responsibility for exposing the islanders to radiation and appropriated funds to compensate them.
  • 15. No one was living on the Bikini atoll at the time of the BRAVO blast. However, a total of 236 people were living on the atolls of Rongelap and Utirik, 100 and 300 miles east of Bikini, respectively. The residents of Rongelap were exposed to as much as 200 rems of radiation. They were evacuated 24 hours after the detonation. The residents of Utirik, which were exposed to lower levels of radiation, were not evacuated until at least two days later. After their evacuation, many experienced typical symptoms of radiation poisoning; burning of the mouth and eyes, nausea, diarrhea, loss of hair, and skin burns. Ten years after the blast the first thyroid tumors began to appear. Of those under twelve on Rongelap at the time of BRAVO, 90% have developed thyroid tumors. In 1964, the U. S. Government admitted responsibility for exposing the islanders to radiation and appropriated funds to compensate them.
  • 16. FOUND: •encrusting algae had a MUCH more substantial biomass than was thought • more algae in sand and dead coral skeletons •substantial BASE… but not enough
  • 17. THEN FOUND: • coral polyps have algae living WITHIN them! • called: ZOOXANTHELLAE • corals are their OWN mutualistic “mini-ecosystem”
  • 18. Endish.