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Dr. David Salvesen - Nashville Area School Siting Symposium

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I his remarks to elected leaders, planners, engineers, architects, and school facility managers at the first ever school siting symposium in the Nashville region, Dr. Salvensen stressed the …

I his remarks to elected leaders, planners, engineers, architects, and school facility managers at the first ever school siting symposium in the Nashville region, Dr. Salvensen stressed the importance of intergovernmental collaboration in school siting.

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  • HIGH SCHOOL IN FREDERICK, MARYLAND WHAT IS THE AVERAGE SIZE SCHOOL IN THE NASHVILLE AREA? WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS OF BUILDING LARGER SCHOOLS IN DISTANT SITES?
  • SEVERAL STATES STILL USE THESE GUIDELINES. CEFPI HAS DONE AWAY WITH THEM, RECOGNIZING THAT THERE’S NO ONE-SIZE-FITS-ALL SEVERAL STATES HAVE RESCINDED THE GUIDELINES: NC, SC, MD
  • WILLIAMSON COUNTY SCHOOLS: 202 BUSES TRANSPORT APROXIMATELY 18,000 STUDENTS A DAY , TRAVELING MORE THAN 16,470 MILES EACH DAY . THIS IS ABOUT 3 MILLION MILES PER YEAR. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS IN TERMS OF: SCHOOL BUDGET AIR QUALITY TIME SPENT IN BUSES OPPORTUNITY COST – IMAGINE IF THAT MONEY WERE AVAILABLE FOR ADDITIONAL TEACHERS, TEACHERS AIDES, ADDITIONAL CLASSES (E.G., FOR LANGUAGES), ETC.
  • WHAT ARE THE MAIN OBSTACLES? DISTANCE SAFETY CONCERNS IS WALKING TO SCHOOL A GOAL WHEN SELECTING NEW SITES? According to the 2000 census, an impressive 14.4% of Davis, ca residents commuted by bike, far exceeding any other U.S. city. There are no school buses in Davis, and at the typical elementary school upwards to 1/3 of the students and teachers ride a bike, many getting there on the off-road system of bike paths which meander through the neighborhoods. Source: Pedaling Revolution, Jeff Mapes, 2009
  • DORMAN HIGH SCHOOL, SPARTENBURG, SC BUILT IN 2002 300 ACRES, ABOUT 3200 STUDENTS IN TWO CAMPUSES: 9 TH GRADE AND 10-12. Dorman High School serves District 6, a rural district comprised of many small communities. The District boundaries also follow I-26, forming a buffer along the interstate. The former Dorman High School was built in the 1960s, also on I-26. The Westgate Mall was built across the street from the old Dorman, initiating a lot of commercial development around the school. The school eventually became landlocked, surrounded by commercial development and unable to expand. TODAY: THE OLD SCHOOL HAS SINCE BEEN DEMOLISHED AND REPLACED BY A WAL MART. Since Dorman was built, residential growth has happened around the school. One of the common criticisms is that kids can’t walk to school. When it was built, there was nowhere to walk from. Now there is a neighborhood across the street and sidewalks could be built to allow walking.
  • CLARENCE PERRY’S NEIGHBORHOOD UNIT (1929) SCHOOLS AS CENTER OF COMMUNITY
  • FRAGMENTED GOVERNANCE SEPARATE CONSTITUTIONAL ENTITIES WITH THEIR OWN ELECTED MEMBERS, SEPARATE MISSIONS, SEPARATE OPERATION, SEPARATE FINANCES, (INDEPENDENT TAX BASE, IN MOST CASES).… SCHOOL BOARD – DEVELOPS POPULATION AND ENROLLMENT PROJECTIONS, PREPARES (5 OR 10-YEAR) FACILITY MASTER PLANS, SELECTS SITES FOR SCHOOLS, BUILDS SCHOOLS. NOT REQUIRED TO CONSULT OR COORDINATE WITH LOCAL GOVERNMENTS. SCHOOL FACILITY DECISIONS (PERCEIVED QUALITY OF SCHOOLS) AFFECT THE DESIRABILITY OF NEIGHBORHOODS, THE LOCATION AND PATTERN OF GROWTH, AND TRAFFIC. SCHOOL SPRAWL. LOCAL GOVERNMENTS – DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE PLAN, ZONE LAND, ADOPT SUBDIVISION ORDINANCES, AND APPROVE (OR DENY) NEW DEVELOPMENT, WHICH AFFECTS SCHOOLS. NOT REQUIRED TO CONSULT WITH SCHOOLS TO SEE IF CAPACITY EXISTS. COUNTY COMMISSION - F INANCES CAPITAL COSTS OF SCHOOLS, PLANS FOR AND BUILDS PUBLIC FACILITIES, INCLUDING LIBRARIES, PARKS, FIRE STATIONS AND INFRASTRUCTURE. GOVERNS DEVELOPMENT IN UNINCORPORATED AREAS. NOT REQUIRED TO CONSULT WITH SCHOOLS WHEN BUILDING NEW FACILITIES, INFRASTRUCTURE OR APPROVING NEW DEVELOPMENT. SCHOOL DISTRICTS OFTEN BEHIND THE GROWTH CURVE. OFTEN SEEK CHEAPEST LAND THEY CAN FIND, USUALLY ON THE URBAN FRINGE.
  • N=22
  • N=22
  • COLLABORATION IS NOT ABDICATION OF AUTHORITY OR RESPONSIBILITIES
  • RESULTS OF SURVEY OF ATTENDEES: N=22
  • A NETWORK IS AN INFORMAL ARRANGEMENT WHERE TWO OR MORE PEOPLE EXCHANGE IDEAS, BUILD RELATIONSHIPS, IDENTIFY COMMON INTERESTS, EXPLORE OPTIONS ON HOW TO WORK TOGETHER, SHARE POWER, SOLVE PROBLEMS OF MUTUAL INTERESTS, WHETHER OR NOT THEY HAVE THE FORMAL AUTHORITY TO DO SO.
  • THIS IS THE TYPICAL PLANNING OR OPERATING ENVIRONMENT. THERE IS LITTLE COLLABORATION OR EVEN RECOGNITION OF THE NEED TO WORK TOGETHER. IF THE STATUS QUO WORKS, WHY CHANGE IT?
  • INFORMAL MEETINGS AT STAFF LEVEL CONVENE MEETING OF PLANNERS FROM SCHOOL DISTRICT, COUNTY AND MUNICIPALITIES COULD START WITH ONE COUNTY, SCHOOL DISTRICT AND CITY OR TOWN AND EXPAND FROM THERE. IDENTIFY COMMON INTERESTS DECIDE IF YOU WANT TO TRY TO GET TO SECOND BASE
  • MORE FORMALIZED: JOINT WORK SESSIONS ONCE OR TWICE A YEAR
  • MAINTAIN NETWORKS, BUILD PARTNERSHIPS
  • A WALK-OFF HOME RUN: SCOTT HAIRSTON, SAN DIEGO PADRES, 2007
  • SENATE BILL 1906. S.163.3177 THE INTERLOCAL AGREEMENTS ARE REQUIRED TO ADDRESS NINE BROAD AREAS. IN ADDITION TO THE ONES SHOWN ABOVE, THE AGREEMENTS MUST ALSO ADDRESS: Local government input in school facility planning documents (district facilities work plan and educational plant survey) Co-location and joint use of school and civic facilities Resolution of disputes An oversight process GOAL OF THE LEGISLATION: ENSURE THAT SCHOOL CAPACITY MATCHES GROWTH. INTERLOCAL AGREEMENTS HAVE BEEN SIGNED IN EVERY COUNTY THAT WAS NOT EXEMPT. THE INTERLOCAL AGREEMENTS WERE A PRECURSOR TO SCHOOL CONCURRENCY . NOTE: FLORIDA REQUIRES THAT THE LOCATION OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS BE CONSISTENT WITH THE COUNTY’S AND CITY’S COMPREHENSIVE PLAN AND IMPLEMENTING LAND DEVELOPMENT REGULATIONS.
  • THE COUNTY, SCHOOL DISTRICT , AND CITY OF STUART FORMED A JOINT TASK FORCE TO TRY TO RESOLVE THEIR DIFFERENCES AND FIND COMMON GROUND OVER SCHOOL SITING ISSUES. WITH THE HELP OF A PROFESSIONAL FACILITATOR, THEY COMPILED A POLICY MATRIX TO SCORE AND RANK, OBJECTIVELY, POTENTIAL SCHOOL SITES. TECHNICAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE – MADE UP OF SCHOOL DISTRICT AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT APPOINTEES: TWO REPRESENTATIVES FROM THE SCHOOL BOARD, TWO FROM THE COUNTY AND ONE FROM THE TOWN OF STUART. THE TAC EVALUATES SITES, ACCORDING TO THE MATRIX, THEN SUBMITS ITS TOP 3-5 TO THE DISTRICT LONG RANGE PLANNING COMMITTEE , WHICH RANKS THE SITES. THE DLRPC CAN CONSIDER FACTORS, INCLUDING LAND COSTS, IN ADDITION TO THOSE IN THE MATRIX. THE DLRPC IS COMPRISED OF COMMUNITY LEADERS APPOINTED BY THE SCHOOL DISTRICT TO ADVISE THEM ON SCHOOL SITING AND RELATED ISSUES.
  • HERE’S THE CATCH: IF THE SCHOOL DISTRICT SELECTS A SITE THAT IS ONE OF THE RANKED SITES, THEN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SCHOOL SITE SHALL BE DEEMED CONSISTENT WITH THE CITY’S AND COUNTY’S GROWTH MANAGEMENT PLANS (COMP PLANS) AND SHALL BE EXEMPT FROM THE CITY AND COUNTY’S LAND DEVELOPMENT REGULATIONS TO THE EXTENT ALLOWED BY THE COMPREHENSIVE PLANS
  • NOTE: THE MATRIX VARIES SLIGHTLY FOR ELEMENTARY, MIDDLE AND HIGH SCHOOLS AND WEIGHS CERTAIN FACTORS, SUCH AS % OF STUDENTS WITHIN 2 MILES, MAINTAINING STUDENT DIVERSITY, AND (LACK OF) WETLAND COMPLICATIONS HIGHER THAN OTHERS WALKABILITY – FOCUS ON PROXIMITY, PRESENCE OF SIDEWALKS, AND AVERAGE DRIVING SPEEDS, BUT NOT CONNECTIVITY TO THE SCHOOL COMPLEMENTARY USES – EXISTING AND PLANNED FACILITIES SUCH AS PARKS, LIBRARIES, COMMUNITY CENTER. INCLUDES CONSIDERATION OF NOXIOUS USES WITHIN ONE MILE OF THE PROPOSED SITE COMMUNITY DESIGN – PROXIMITY TO POPULATION CENTERS, ABILITY TO MAINTAIN DIVERSE STUDENT POPULATION, SIZE OF SITE ENVIRONMENTAL AND HYDROLOGIC – WETLANDS OR WILDLIFE HABITAT INFRASTRUCTURE AND EFFICIENCY – WATER AND SEWER, TRANSPORTATION COSTS, UGB, ACQUISITION COMPLICATIONS
  • THE COUNTY, SCHOOL DISTRICT , AND CITY OF STUART AGREE TO BASE THEIR PLANS ON CONSISTENT PROJECTIONS OF THE AMOUNT, TYPE, AND DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION, GROWTH, AND STUDENT ENROLLMENT. COUNTY AND CITY PROVIDE SCHOOL DISTRICT WITH A REPORT ON THE TYPE, LOCATION AND NUMBER OF RESIDENTIAL UNITS THAT HAVE BEEN APPROVED FUTURE LAND USE MAP AMENDMENTS BUILDING PERMITS ISSUED ANY DEVELOPMENTS IN WHICH A SCHOOL SITE WAS REQUIRED AS CONDITION OF APPROVAL OTHER : COUNTY AND CITY WILL INCLUDE A SCHOOL BOARD REP. AS NONVOTING MEMBER OF THEIR PLANNING AGENCIES CITY AND COUNTY WIL INVITE SCHOOL BOARD REP TO ATTEND MEETINGS RE: DEVELOPMENT REVIEW THAT WILL AFFECT SCHOOL ENROLLMENT CITY AND COUNTY WILL REQUIRE A PUBLIC SCHOOL IMPACT STATEMENT AS PART OF THE DEVELOPMENT APPLICATION PROCESS FOR PROJECTS OF OVER 50 UNITS.
  • JOHN A. JOHNSON SCHOOL IN ST. PAUL, MN
  • WHEN LOOKING FOR SITES FOR NEW SCHOOLS, HOW DO WE INCORPORATE THE FOLLOWING OBJECTIVES INTO THE PROCESS GETTING MORE KIDS TO WALK OR BIKE TO SCHOOL PRESERVING HISTORIC SCHOOLS INCORPORATING SCHOOLS INTO THE NEIGHBORHOOD MAKING SCHOOLS THE CENTER OF A COMMUNITY
  • Transcript

    • 1. CENTER FOR SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITY DESIGN David Salvesen, PhD Facilitating Intergovernmental Collaboration in School Facility Planning January 19, 2010
    • 2. Outline
      • Recent trends
      • Impacts of trends
      • Intergovernmental framework for school facility planning
      • Benefits of collaboration
      • Obstacles to collaboration
      • Examples
    • 3. Recent Trends
      • Larger schools on bigger, more distant sites
      • Push for smaller, neighborhood schools
      • Growing interest in school facility planning among:
        • Historic preservationists
        • Smart growth advocates
        • Public health officials
        • Land use and transportation planners
        • Community developers
    • 4. Larger Schools, Bigger Sites
    • 5. Minimum Acreage Standards
    • 6. School Size
      • "How much of our academic talent can we afford to waste? If the answer is ‘none,' then . . . the elimination of the small high school through district reorganization and consolidation should have top priority."
      • James Conant, president of Harvard University, 1959
    • 7. School Consolidation
      • 1930 2006
      • # Schools 238,000 97,382
      • # Students 28 million 55 million
      • National Center for Educational Statistics, 2008
    • 8. Impacts of large schools/sites
      • Fewer kids walking or biking to school
      • Schools have become major traffic generators
      • School sprawl?
      • Increased cost for busing
    • 9. Fewer Kids Walking/Biking
      • Nationally, among children aged 5 to 15, nearly half are driven to school in cars, another third take a bus, about 13% bike to school, and only 10% walk to school ( CDC ).
    • 10. Schools as Traffic Generators
    • 11. Schools and Sprawl? “ The public school system … is the most influential planning entity, public or private, promoting the prototypical sprawl pattern of American cities.” W. Cecil Steward, Dean of the College of Architecture, University of Nebraska
    • 12. Interest in Smaller Schools
      • "One of the key issues that affects safety and the whole educational enterprise is the size of our schools. This is an area where we have made terrible mistakes. . . . Too many schools are just too big."
      • James Hunt, former governor of NC, 2001
    • 13. SC Policies “ Our current policies encourage the construction of massive, isolated schools that are inaccessible to the communities they serve. One of the keys to improving education is a sense of community where teacher, student and parent all feel a sense of ownership in their school.” Governor Mark Sanford, South Carolina 2003 State of the State Address
    • 14. Neighborhood Schools
    • 15. Neighborhood School
    • 16. Southern Village, Chapel Hill, NC
    • 17. Mary Scroggs Elementary
    • 18. Intergovernmental Framework Enrollment projections, school facility plan, school construction Population projections, comp. plan, infrastructure, public facilities, subdivision approval Population projections, infrastructure, public facilities, capital costs for schools (NC) School District Municipalities County
    • 19. Intergovernmental Framework School District Municipalities County
    • 20. Nashville Area MPO
      • Do municipalities or counties consult with the school district when reviewing applications for new subdivisions?
      • % #
      • Most of the time 18 4
      • Sometimes 30 8
      • Never 14 3
      • Don’t know 32 7
    • 21. Nashville Area MPO
      • Does the school district consult with municipal or county governments when selecting sites for a new school?
      • % #
      • Most of the time 18 4
      • Sometimes 18 4
      • Never 5 1
      • Don’t know 59 13
    • 22. Questions to Ask
      • Is there a compelling reason to collaborate?
        • Can you achieve more by working together than by acting alone?
      • What informal or formal mechanisms exist?
        • Networks, partnerships…
      • Is there sufficient interest (a constituency) ?
      • Who should lead the effort?
    • 23. Benefits of Collaboration
      • Better alignment between local comprehensive plans and school facility plans
      • Closer link between development and school capacity
      • Better connectivity between schools and adjacent neighborhoods
      • Co-location and joint use of schools with other facilities (e.g., ball fields, libraries)
      • Improved student access and safety by coordinating construction of new schools with road and sidewalk improvement programs
    • 24. Obstacles to Collaboration
      • Autonomy
      • Conflicting goals
      • Time
      • Trust
      • Incentives
      • Tradition – no history of working together
      • Lack of mechanism to collaborate
    • 25. Obstacles in Nashville Area MPO
      • Poor communication
      • No tradition of collaboration
      • Cost
      • Lack of leadership
      • 5. Turf battles
    • 26. Continuum of Collaboration Networks Partnerships Regional Institutions Informal Formal Build Coordinate Create intermediary relationships institutions organizations Exchange info Negotiate Identify compacts Create regulatory common interests agencies
    • 27. Status Quo
      • Each entity carries out its mission independently:
        • Local governments approve new subdivisions
        • School district selects sites for new schools
        • County provides infrastructure, (and funding in some states), for new schools
    • 28. First Base
      • Organize joint staff meeting
      • Identify common interests
      • Agree to share information, e.g.,
        • Enrollment figures
        • Subdivision proposals
        • Plans for future schools
    • 29. Second Base
      • Hold joint meetings periodically
      • Mandatory referral (for joint use)
      • Seek each other’s input, e.g., for rezoning, subdivision approval or plans to build a new school.
    • 30. Third Base
      • Formalize working relationship
        • e.g., intergovernmental agreements
      • Integrate land use and school facility planning
      • Coordinate new school
        • construction with capital
        • improvements,
        • e.g., sidewalks
    • 31. Home Run
      • School concurrency:
        • Link subdivision approval to school capacity
      • Representative on each other’s board
      • Impact assessments
      • Joint use institutionalized
      • School siting guidelines
      • or ordinance
    • 32. Examples
      • Cabarrus County Summit
      • Charlotte-Mecklenburg PLC & JUTF
      • Lincoln, NE Super Commons
      • Martin County, Florida – ILA and concurrency
      • PG County, MD – county identifies and reserves sites for schools
      • Fulton County, GA – School district comments on proposed rezoning.
    • 33. Integrating Land Use & School Planning
      • Durham Comprehensive Plan
        • Goal 11.2: Integration of Land Use and School Facility Planning
        • Ensure that school facilities are incorporated into the long-range comprehensive planning process so that schools may serve as focal points for communities and neighborhoods.
        • Chapter 11, Schools Element, Durham Comprehensive Plan, February 2005
    • 34. Florida: Mandatory Coordination
      • Mandatory inter-local agreement that address:
        • Student enrollment and population projections
        • Information-sharing on growth and planned school facilities
        • School site selection
        • School facility infrastructure
        • Availability of school capacity for growth
    • 35. Martin County, FL
      • School District, County and City of Stuart formed Joint Task Force, which developed an inter-local agreement (ILA)
      • Task Force creates policy matrix to evaluate and rank potential sites
      • Technical Advisory Committee uses matrix to rank potential sites
      • TAC submits top 3-5 sites to School District’s Long Range Planning Committee, which advised the School Board
    • 36. Martin County, Florida
      • In FL, the location of schools must be consistent with county and city comprehensive plans
      • If the School Board selects a site from among those recommended by the LRPC, then the school shall be deemed consistent with the city & county comprehensive plans and will be exempt from local land development regulations
    • 37. Martin County, FL
      • School siting criteria :
      • Walkability – % of students living within 2 miles; sidewalks, speed limit, …
      • Complimentary uses – libraries, parks, community center, joint use potential…
      • Community design – consistent with master plan, proximity to population centers, size of site
      • Environmental impacts – e.g., wetlands
      • Infrastructure – water & sewer, busing costs
    • 38. School Siting Criteria, Martin County
    • 39. Martin County ILA
      • County, school district and City of Stuart meet twice a year
      • Sharing of enrollment figures
      • School board submits educational facilities plan to county and city for comment
      • School district reviews development applications
      • City and county provide school board with info on residential development approved, rezonings, building permits issued, …
      • Public impact statement required for residential projects over 50 units
    • 40. Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC
      • Joint Use Task Force
      • Public libraries
      • County parks and recreation dept.
      • Charlotte fire department
      • Huntersville parks and recreation dept.
      • County stormwater services
      • Charlotte area transit system
      • YMCA
      • Several nonprofit athletic associations
    • 41. Joint Use
    • 42. Conclusion
      • Collaboration makes sense if you are more likely to can achieve your interests by working together than by acting alone
      • Collaboration can lead to better integration of schools and neighborhoods
      • Collaboration can lead to more efficient use of resources (infrastructure, joint use)
      • Collaboration isn’t easy: many obstacles must be overcome
    • 43. CENTER FOR SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITY DESIGN David Salvesen [email_address] Thank You
    • 44. Site Selection Criteria Size - is parcel large enough? Cost - is the parcel affordable? Access – do roads have sufficient capacity? Utilities - is water and sewer available? Topography - is extensive grading necessary? Location - is the site near future growth area? Safety – is site free of chemical contamination? State Policy – is the site consistent with state policy

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