Fecal Elimination Problem Submitted by: Jan Paolo Ando Shalemar Taboclaon Julievy Edejeran
Diarrhea Refers to the passage of liquid feces and an increased frequency of defecation. It results from rapid movement of fecal contents through a large intestine.
<ul><li>Some people pass stool with increased frequency but diarrhea is most present unless the stool is relatively unformed and excessively liquid. </li></ul><ul><li>The person with diarrhea finds it difficult or impossible to control the urge to defecate for very long. </li></ul><ul><li>Diarrhea and the threat of incontinence are sources of concern and embarrassment. </li></ul>
Signs and Symptoms <ul><li>Spasmodic cramps </li></ul><ul><li>Bowel sounds are increased </li></ul><ul><li>Irritation of the analregion extendingtothe perineum and buttocks </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue,weakness,malaise,and emaciation </li></ul>
SEVERITY of DEHYDRATION <ul><li>Mild </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate </li></ul><ul><li>Severe </li></ul>
Major causes of Diarrhea PHYSIOLOGIC EFFECT CAUSES Reduced absorption of fluid Inflammation of the mucosa often leading to ulcer formation Disease of the colon Malabsorption syndrome Crohn’s disease Increased intestinal motility and mucus secretion Intolerance of food or fluid Incomplete digestion of food Allergy to food, fluid, drugs Inflammation and infection of mucosa due to overgrowth of pathogenic intestinal microorganism Irritation of intestinal mucosa Irritation of intestinal mucosa Medications Antibiotic Iron Cathartics Increased intestinal motility andmucus secretion Psychologic stress (e.g.Anxiety)
Managing Diarrhea <ul><li>Drink at least 8 glasses of water per day to prevent dehydration </li></ul><ul><li>Ingest food with sodium and potassium. Most foods contain sodium. potassium is found in meats, and many vegetables and fruits, especially tomatoes, potatoes, bananas, peaches, and apricots. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase foods containing soluble fiber, such as oatmeal and skinless fruits and potatoes. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid alcoholic beverages with caffeine, and aggravates the problem. limit foods containing soluble fiber, such as whole wheat and whole grain breads and cereals, and raw fruits and vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>Limit fatty foods </li></ul><ul><li>Thoroughly clean and dry perianal area after passing stool to prevent skin irritation and breakdown. Apply moisture-barrier cream or ointment such as zinc oxide or petrolatum. </li></ul><ul><li>When diarrhea has stopped, reestablish normal bowel flora by taking fermented diary product, such as yogurt or buttermilk. </li></ul>
Healthy Defecation <ul><li>Establish a regular exercise regimen </li></ul><ul><li>Include high fiber foods such as vegetables, fruits,whole grains in the diet </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain fluid intake of 2,000 to 3,000 mL a day. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not ignore the urge to defecate </li></ul><ul><li>Allow time to defecate, preferably at the same time each day </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid over-the-counter medications to treat constipation and diarrhea </li></ul>
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