Introduction to XP and Scrum


                                         Pradyumn Sharma
                            pradyu...
Agile Software Development Methodologies

 • Useful compromise between no process and too much
   process.
 • Suitable for...
Introduction to Extreme Programming (XP)

 • Pioneered by Kent Beck, along with Ward Cunningham and
   Ron Jeffries.
 • A ...
Five Core Values of XP

 •     Communication
 •     Simplicity
 •     Feedback
 •     Courage
 •     Respect




     Prag...
Overview of XP: Practices

 Primary practices (13)                                                Secondary practices (11)...
Stories

 • Story = customer-visible functionality provided by a system.
 • Build a list of stories based on discussions w...
Pair Programming

 • Two programmers working together for some programming
   task.
 • Benefits:
          Knowledge shar...
Planning: Release Cycles and Weekly Iterations

 • Small releases: providing quick value to customers and
   feedback to d...
Slack

 • Important to establish and maintain the credibility of the
   release plans.
 • It is better to undercommit and ...
Test-First Programming

 • Write tests for all code before you code.
 • Automate the tests. Open-source testing tools, suc...
Incremental Design

 • Avoid “complete design before implementation”.
 • According to a Standish Group report:
       7% ...
Ten-Minute Build

 • Automate the build and run cycle, to be completed within ten
   minutes.




  Pragati Software Pvt. ...
Continuous Integration

 • Integrate and test code every few hours.
 • Dedicate one machine for integration.
 • If any tes...
Shared Code

 • Nobody owns any code and everybody owns all the code.
 • Anybody can change any line of code anywhere, to ...
Real Customer Involvement

 • Customer writes user stories, acceptance tests, and answers
   queries of developers.
 • Neg...
Energized Work

 • Projects requiring overtime to finish in time will finish late,
   no matter what.
 • Overtime is a sym...
Quarterly Cycle

 • At the macro level, plan work a quarter at a time.
       Identify bottlenecks
       Identify and i...
Root-Cause Analysis

 • Whenever a defect is found after development, eliminate the
   defect and its cause. Follow the st...
Single Code Base

 • Maintain a single code stream.
 • Having multiple versions of code results in maintenance
   nightmar...
Code and Tests

 • Maintain only code and tests as permanent artifacts.
 • Generate documents from the code and tests.



...
Other Practices

 • Sit Together:
       Develop in an open space big enough for the whole team.
 • Whole Team:
       C...
Other Practices (contd…)

 • Incremental Deployment:
       When taking over a legacy system, gradually take over its wor...
Other Practices (contd…)

 • Negotiated Scope Contract
       Write contracts for software development that fix time, cos...
Introduction to Scrum

 • Another prominent agile methodology.
 • Co-developed by Jeff Sutherland and Ken Schwaber in the
...
Overview of Scrum
The core of Scrum is an interative, incremental process skeleton.
At the start of each iteration, the te...
Overview of Scrum

 •     Three roles:
          Product Owner
          Team
          ScrumMaster
 •     Three artifa...
Scrum Process




  Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059...
Product Owner

 • Represents the interests of all the stakeholders
 • Achieves initial and ongoing funding for the project...
Team

 • Responsible for developing functionality.
 • Teams are self-managing, self-organizing, cross-functional.
 • Respo...
ScrumMaster

 • Responsible for
       the Scrum process
       teaching Scrum to everyone involved in the project
     ...
Scrum Flow

 • Project Vision
 • Product Backlog
 • Sprint
          Sprint planning meeting
          Daily Scrum meeti...
Project Vision

 • A project starts with a vision of the system to be developed.
       May be vague initially, but will ...
Product Backlog

 • Product owner formulates a plan for delivering the vision that
   includes a Product Backlog.
 • List ...
Sprint

 • All work is done in Sprints.
 • An iteration of 30 consecutive calendar days.
 • The Team can seek outside help...
Sprint Planning Meeting

 • At the start of a Sprint, there is a Sprint planning meeting. In
   this meeting, Product Owne...
Daily Scrum Meeting

 • 15-minute team meeting at the start of each day.
 • Each team members answers three questions:
   ...
Sprint Review Meeting

 • Held at the end of a Sprint.
 • Timeboxed to four hours.
 • Team presents what was developed dur...
Sprint Retrospective Meeting

 • Conducted by the ScrumMaster. Attended only by the Team,
   the ScrumMaster, and the Prod...
References

 •     Books on XP
          Extreme Programming Explained, Second Edition. by Kent Beck, Cynthia
           ...
Thank You!

                                            Pradyumn Sharma
                                pradyumn.sharma@pr...
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Introduction To Xp And Scrum Practices

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Introduction To Xp And Scrum Practices presentation by Pradyumn Sharma for Agile Chennai 2007 Conference http://agileindia.org/agilechennai07/index.htm

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  • Very good agile sw dev (XP) and agile PM (SCRUM) overview as simple and straight froward
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Introduction To Xp And Scrum Practices

  1. 1. Introduction to XP and Scrum Pradyumn Sharma pradyumn.sharma@pragatisoftware.com Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd. www.pragatisoftware.com Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  2. 2. Agile Software Development Methodologies • Useful compromise between no process and too much process. • Suitable for responding to changing customer requirements. Adaptive rather than being predictive. • Work well even for predictable requirements. • People-oriented as against being process-oriented. Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  3. 3. Introduction to Extreme Programming (XP) • Pioneered by Kent Beck, along with Ward Cunningham and Ron Jeffries. • A set of useful guidelines or best practices for handling software development projects. • Strong emphasis on small iterations, simple design, and test- driven development. Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  4. 4. Five Core Values of XP • Communication • Simplicity • Feedback • Courage • Respect Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  5. 5. Overview of XP: Practices Primary practices (13) Secondary practices (11) • User stories •Customer involvement • Weekly cycle (iteration planning) •Shared code • Test-first programming •Root-cause analysis • Incremental design •Code and tests • Continuous integration •Single code base • Ten minute build •Incremental deployment • Pair programming •Team continuity • Energized work •Shrinking teams • Quarterly cycle •Daily deployment • Sit together •Negotiated scope contract • Whole team •Pay-per-use • Informative workplace • Slack Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  6. 6. Stories • Story = customer-visible functionality provided by a system. • Build a list of stories based on discussions with customers. Just note down the names initially. • Role of stories:  Estimation  Scope definition for a release cycle  Units of planning and monitoring a system  Prioritization by customers.  Risk assessment and estimation by developers. Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  7. 7. Pair Programming • Two programmers working together for some programming task. • Benefits:  Knowledge sharing  Better quality  Coding standards  On-going code reviews  Ease of inducting new team members (mentoring)  Mutual learning  Improved productivity Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  8. 8. Planning: Release Cycles and Weekly Iterations • Small releases: providing quick value to customers and feedback to developers. • Release planning involves both customers and developers. • Customers prioritize the stories based on their value to them, developers estimate the time required. • Divide a release cycle further into weekly iterations for all work planning and monitoring. Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  9. 9. Slack • Important to establish and maintain the credibility of the release plans. • It is better to undercommit and deliver what is committed, rather than overcommit and underdeliver. • Introduce slack in your release plan, but not slyly. • Slack = including low value, non-critical stories in the release plan that can be dropped if the schedule starts slipping Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  10. 10. Test-First Programming • Write tests for all code before you code. • Automate the tests. Open-source testing tools, such as JUnit, There are tools such as JUnit, NUnit, HttpTest, Fit, etc. available for this purpose. • A code is completed only when it passes all tests. • Maintain the tests along with your code. • Write code at various levels: unit tests, acceptance tests, etc. Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  11. 11. Incremental Design • Avoid “complete design before implementation”. • According to a Standish Group report:  7% of features and functions are always used, 12% are often used, 16% are sometimes used, 19% are rarely used, 45% are never used. • Design what is needed now. Keep investing in the design every day. • Create spike solutions to tackle tough technical or design problems. • Design done close to when it is needed is more efficient. • Refactor your design as you go ahead. Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  12. 12. Ten-Minute Build • Automate the build and run cycle, to be completed within ten minutes. Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  13. 13. Continuous Integration • Integrate and test code every few hours. • Dedicate one machine for integration. • If any tests fail, we know we broke it, and must therefore fix it, or throw away what we did. • Cost of packaging a release is minimal. • Open-source tool: CruiseControl Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  14. 14. Shared Code • Nobody owns any code and everybody owns all the code. • Anybody can change any line of code anywhere, to add functionality, fix bugs, or refactor. • Works well because of refactoring and unit tests. • Eliminates the need for separate code reviews. Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  15. 15. Real Customer Involvement • Customer writes user stories, acceptance tests, and answers queries of developers. • Negotiates a set of stories to be included in each scheduled release. • Benefits:  Priorities can be set / adjusted in real-time  No need to have water-tight requirements  Customer is available to help make course corrections as clarity emerges gradually about the requirements, effort estimates and consequences  Customer participates in discussions and planning meetings; has greater understanding of technical issues and status of the progress. Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  16. 16. Energized Work • Projects requiring overtime to finish in time will finish late, no matter what. • Overtime is a symptom of a serious problem with the project. Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  17. 17. Quarterly Cycle • At the macro level, plan work a quarter at a time.  Identify bottlenecks  Identify and initiate corrective steps  Focus on the big picture, where the project fits within the organization. • Take stock of the project, the team, and its progress. Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  18. 18. Root-Cause Analysis • Whenever a defect is found after development, eliminate the defect and its cause. Follow the steps given below:  Write an automated system-level test to demonstrate the defect.  Write a unit test to reproduce the defect.  Fix the system so that the unit test works. The system test should also pass. Run the entire test suite of the application.  Analyze why the defect was created and was not caught. Initiate the necessary changes to prevent such a defect in future. [Taiichi Ohno’s Five Whys is a good technique for this.] Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  19. 19. Single Code Base • Maintain a single code stream. • Having multiple versions of code results in maintenance nightmares. • Temporary branches should be for very short durations only. Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  20. 20. Code and Tests • Maintain only code and tests as permanent artifacts. • Generate documents from the code and tests. Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  21. 21. Other Practices • Sit Together:  Develop in an open space big enough for the whole team. • Whole Team:  Create a cross-functional team, with all the skills and perspectives needed for the project to succeed. • Informative Workspace:  Display information about the project status all over in the workspace.  Place user story cards or big charts for issues that require steady progress. Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  22. 22. Other Practices (contd…) • Incremental Deployment:  When taking over a legacy system, gradually take over its workload beginning very early in the project. No “cut over” during a weekend. • Team Continuity:  Keep effective teams together. At the end of a project, don’t send the programmers to the “pool”. • Shrinking Teams:  As the team grows in capability, keep its workload constant but gradually reduce its size. Free people to form more teams.  If a team is too small, merge it with another very small team. • Daily Deployment:  Put new software into production every night. Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  23. 23. Other Practices (contd…) • Negotiated Scope Contract  Write contracts for software development that fix time, cost, and quality, but call for an ongoing negotiation of the precise scope of the system.  Reduce risk by signing a sequence of short contracts instead of one long one.  Split big, long contracts in smaller ones. • Pay-Per-Use Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  24. 24. Introduction to Scrum • Another prominent agile methodology. • Co-developed by Jeff Sutherland and Ken Schwaber in the early 1990s. • While XP practices are more programmer-centric, Scrum practices are geared towards the project managers. • XP and Scrum complement each other very well. Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  25. 25. Overview of Scrum The core of Scrum is an interative, incremental process skeleton. At the start of each iteration, the team selects what it can implement by the end of the iteration, by looking at the requirements, technology available, its skills and capabilities. The team is then left alone to implement the chosen functionality. Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  26. 26. Overview of Scrum • Three roles:  Product Owner  Team  ScrumMaster • Three artifacts:  Product Backlog  Sprint Backlog  Increment of potentially shippable product functionality • Scrum Flow  Project Vision  Product Backlog  Sprint • Sprint planning meeting • Daily Scrum meeting • Sprint review meeting • Sprint restrospective meeting Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  27. 27. Scrum Process Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  28. 28. Product Owner • Represents the interests of all the stakeholders • Achieves initial and ongoing funding for the project by creating  the project's initial overall requirements  ROI objectives  release plans • Frequently prioritizes the Product Backlog to ensure that the most valuable functionality is produced first and built upon Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  29. 29. Team • Responsible for developing functionality. • Teams are self-managing, self-organizing, cross-functional. • Responsible for  figuring out how to turn Product Backlog into an increment of functionality  managing their own work to do so  success of each iteration and of the project as a whole Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  30. 30. ScrumMaster • Responsible for  the Scrum process  teaching Scrum to everyone involved in the project  implementing Scrum so that it fits within an organization's culture and still delivers the expected benefits  ensuring that everyone follows Scrum rules and practices Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  31. 31. Scrum Flow • Project Vision • Product Backlog • Sprint  Sprint planning meeting  Daily Scrum meeting  Sprint review meeting  Sprint restrospective meeting Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  32. 32. Project Vision • A project starts with a vision of the system to be developed.  May be vague initially, but will become clearer as the project moves forward  Product Owner is responsible (to those funding the project) for delivering the vision in a manner that maximizes their ROI. Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  33. 33. Product Backlog • Product owner formulates a plan for delivering the vision that includes a Product Backlog. • List of functional and nonfunctional requirements. • Prioritized so that the items most likely to generate value are top priority and divided into proposed releases. • Prioritized Product Backlog is the starting point. • Contents, priorities, groupings into releases may change the moment the project starts. • Changes in the Product Backlog reflect changing business requirements and the speed with which the Team can transform the Product Backlog into functionality. Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  34. 34. Sprint • All work is done in Sprints. • An iteration of 30 consecutive calendar days. • The Team can seek outside help, information, support. • No one can provide advice, instructions, etc. to the Team during the Sprint. The Team is self-managing. • The Team is committed to the Product Backlog selected during the Spring Planning meeting. The Product Backlog is frozen, and no one is allowed to change this Product Backlog during the Sprint. • If the Sprint proves to be unviable, the ScrumMaster can terminate the Sprint and initiate a new Sprint planning meeting. Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  35. 35. Sprint Planning Meeting • At the start of a Sprint, there is a Sprint planning meeting. In this meeting, Product Owner and Team get together to collaborate about what will be done for the next Sprint. • Product Owner tells the team what is desired. The Team tells the Product Owner how much it believes it can turn into functionality over the next Sprint. • Time-boxed to a maximum of eight hours. Divided into two parts. The first part is for selecting Product Backlog, the second part is for preparing a Sprint Backlog. Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  36. 36. Daily Scrum Meeting • 15-minute team meeting at the start of each day. • Each team members answers three questions:  what have you done on the project since the last Daily Scrum meeting  what do you plan on doing on this project between now and the next Daily Scrum meeting  what are the obstacles • Purpose of the meeting:  synchronize the work of all Team members  schedule any meetings that the Team needs to forward its progress Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  37. 37. Sprint Review Meeting • Held at the end of a Sprint. • Timeboxed to four hours. • Team presents what was developed during the Sprint to the Product Owner and any other stakeholders who want to attend. • Functionality that isn't quot;donequot; cannot be presented. • Majority of the Sprint review is spent in presenting functionality, answering stakeholder questions, noting desired changes. • At the end, the stakeholders are polled to get their impressions, any desired changes, the priority of these changes. • Brings people together and helps them collaboratively determine what the Team should do next. Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  38. 38. Sprint Retrospective Meeting • Conducted by the ScrumMaster. Attended only by the Team, the ScrumMaster, and the Product Owner (optional). • Timeboxed to three hours. • Team is encouraged to revise its development process to make it more effective and enjoyable for the next Sprint. • ScrumMaster starts by asking all the Team members:  what went well during the last Sprint?  what could be improved in the next Sprint? • Role of ScrumMaster is not to provide answers, but to facilitate the Team's search for better ways for the Scrum process to work for it. • Actionable items to be added to the next Sprint are devised as high-priority nonfunctional Product Backlog. Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  39. 39. References • Books on XP  Extreme Programming Explained, Second Edition. by Kent Beck, Cynthia Andres.  Planning Extreme Programming. by Kent Beck, Martin Fowler.  Refactoring. by Martin Fowler.  Extreme Programming Installed. by Ron Jeffries, et al. • Websites on XP www.extremeprogramming.org www.xprogramming.com c2.com/cgi/wiki?ExtremeProgrammingRoadmap www.egroups.com/group/extremeprogramming/ www.agilealliance.org • Books on Scrum  Agile Project Management with Scrum. by Ken Schwaber. • Websites on Scrum www.controlchaos.com www.scrumalliance.org scrumdevelopment@eGroups.com Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com
  40. 40. Thank You! Pradyumn Sharma pradyumn.sharma@pragatisoftware.com Pragati Software Pvt. Ltd., 312, Lok Center, Marol-Maroshi Road, Marol, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400 059. www.pragatisoftware.com

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